Status Of Women


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Status Of Women

  2. 2. Status of Women <ul><li>Women have not achieved equality with men in any country. </li></ul><ul><li>Of the world's 1.3 billion poor people, it is estimated that nearly 70 per cent are women. </li></ul><ul><li>Between 75 and 80 per cent of the world's 27 million refugees are women and children. </li></ul><ul><li>Women's life expectancy, educational attainment and income are highest in Sweden, Canada, Norway, USA and Finland. </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Their place is considered at home and public life is controlled by man </li></ul><ul><li>They play secondary role in decision making </li></ul><ul><li>Their self-worth is undermined </li></ul><ul><li>Their self concept is based on men’s perception </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Social institution socialise them into subordinate role </li></ul><ul><li>Parenting is primarily a women’s concern </li></ul><ul><li>Women have less opportunities than men </li></ul><ul><li>They are treated as sex object: - prostitution, trafficking and pornography </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>- There are unequal power relations between men and women in the family and society </li></ul><ul><li>- Designation of male as “head of household” for all social economic and political purposes </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>- Social institutional framework religion, patriarchy deny women decision making public life and sanction women’s subjugation to men </li></ul><ul><li>- Development programme often neglect the gender issues and there is wide gender differential in achievements </li></ul>
  7. 7. Political Participation <ul><li>There is a under representation of women in power politics and governance </li></ul><ul><li>The first country to grant women the right to vote was New Zealand in 1893. </li></ul><ul><li>Only 28 women have been elected heads of state or government in this century. </li></ul><ul><li>Women hold 11.7 per cent of the seats in the world's parliaments. </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>In early 1995, Sweden formed the world's first cabinet to have equal numbers of men and women. </li></ul><ul><li>Of the 185 highest-ranking diplomats to the United Nations, seven are women. </li></ul><ul><li>The percentage of female cabinet ministers worldwide has risen from 3.4 in 1987 to 6.8 per cent in 1996. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Women and Education <ul><li>Of the world's nearly one billion illiterate adults, two-thirds are women. </li></ul><ul><li>Two-thirds of the 130 million children worldwide who are not in school are girls. </li></ul><ul><li>During the past two decades the combined primary and secondary enrollment ratio for girls in developing countries increased from 38 per cent to 78 per cent. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Women and Labour <ul><li>The majority of women earn on average about three-fourths of the pay of males for the same work, outside of the agricultural sector, in both developed and developing countries. </li></ul><ul><li>In most countries, women work approximately twice the unpaid time the men do. </li></ul><ul><li>Women make up 31 per cent of the official labour force in developing countries and 46.7 per cent worldwide. </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Rural women produce more than 55 per cent of all food grown in developing countries. </li></ul><ul><li>The value of women's unpaid housework and community work is estimated at between 10-35 per cent of GDP worldwide, amounting to $11 trillion in 1993. </li></ul><ul><li>By the year 2000, there will be as many women employees as men in many industrialized nations. </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>They are last to be hired and first to be fired </li></ul><ul><li>Their work is invisible and economic contribution is not recognised </li></ul><ul><li>They suffer triple burden of work and drudgery </li></ul><ul><li>No sharing of household work </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>They are not acknowledge as breadwinner </li></ul><ul><li>Most of women work in unorganised sector without any protection </li></ul><ul><li>They contribute 2/3 total hour receive 1/3 wage and own 1/100 property </li></ul><ul><li>They have less access to means of production </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>They have limited support service </li></ul><ul><li>They have fewer legal and customary rights on property and assets </li></ul><ul><li>They are stereotyped into subordinate roles-cultural and religious institutions sanction it </li></ul><ul><li>Their intelligence and capabilities are undervalues </li></ul>
  15. 15. Women and Population <ul><li>They are target for population control </li></ul><ul><li>Women outlive men in almost every country. </li></ul><ul><li>There are slightly fewer women than men in the world -- 98.6 women for every 100 men. </li></ul><ul><li>Out-of-marriage births have increased more than 50 per cent in the last 20 years in developed countries. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Women and Health <ul><li>Women are becoming increasingly affected by HIV. Today about 42 per cent of estimated cases are women, and the number of infected women is expected to reach 15 million by the year 2000. </li></ul><ul><li>An estimated 20 million unsafe abortions are performed worldwide every year, resulting in the deaths of 70,000 women. </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>- Many women die due to unsafe and illegal abortion </li></ul><ul><li>- Women are vulnerable to RTI &HIV/AIDS infection from men </li></ul><ul><li>- Safe pregnancy care, rest, reduced workload beyond the reach </li></ul><ul><li>- Girls and women face nutritional discrimination eating last and least </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Approximately 585,000 women die every year. Over 1,600 die every day from causes related to pregnancy and childbirth. </li></ul><ul><li>Globally, 43 per cent of all women and 51 per cent of pregnant women suffer from iron-deficiency anemia. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Women and Violence <ul><li>Each year an estimated two million girls suffer the practice of female genital mutilation. </li></ul><ul><li>Worldwide, 20 to 50 per cent of women experience some degree of domestic violence during married life. </li></ul><ul><li>The primary victims of today's wars are civilian women and their children, not soldiers. </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>The use of rape as a weapon of war has become more evident. </li></ul><ul><li>About 70,000 women die every year from unsafe abortions, and many more suffer infections and other consequences. </li></ul><ul><li>Women are more likely than men to contract HIV through sexual encounters and about 42 per cent of all persons infected with HIV are women. </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>In many countries of one-third to one-half of women are mothers before the age of 20. </li></ul><ul><li>Cancer of the cervix, the most common form of cancer in developing countries, is often linked to the sexually transmitted disease. </li></ul>
  22. 22. WOMEN IN DIFFICULT CIRCUMSTANCES <ul><li>- Women in extreme poverty </li></ul><ul><li>- Widow/deserted/separated </li></ul><ul><li>- Forced prostitution & trafficking </li></ul><ul><li>- Victim of rape & sexual harassment </li></ul><ul><li>- Victim of domestic violence </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>- Victim of marital disputes/conflicts </li></ul><ul><li>- Women of alcoholic/drug addicts husband </li></ul><ul><li>- Women with physical disabilities unwed mothers </li></ul><ul><li>- Women in conflict with law and women prisoners </li></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>- Women worker in bondage </li></ul><ul><li>- Women used as drug peddlers Women used in pornography </li></ul><ul><li>- Victim of socially sanctioned practices-witch, prostitution, sati, genital mutilation </li></ul><ul><li>- Victim of caste, class & gender </li></ul>
  25. 26. Child Sex Ratio 906 934 927 2001 Decline in child sex ratio from 945 in 1991 to 927 in 2001 has some what activated the political, legal and administrative set up of the country . However the Census findings should now be converted into a tangible action plan to help the cause of the girl child. 935 948 945 1991 931 963 962 1981 Urban Rural Total Census
  26. 28. Male-Female literacy rate in India:1951-2001 Note: ‘*’ – For age group 5 years and above ‘#’ – For age group 7 years and above Change in percentage points - - 8.9 27.2 1951* 6.6 5.6 22.0 46.0 1971* 14.4 11.2 53.7 75.3 2001 # 9.5 7.7 39.3 64.1 1991 # 7.8 10.4 29.8 56.4 1981 # 6.5 13.2 15.4 40.4 1961* Females Males Females Males Census Yr
  27. 29. Male-Female difference in literacy rate : 1951-2001 21.6 2001 24.8 1991 26.6 1981 24.0 1971 25.0 1961 18.3 1951 2 1 Male-Female difference in literacy Rates (in Percentage Points) Census year