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Reproductive Health And Rights


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Reproductive Health And Rights

  1. 1. Reproductive Health and Reproductive Rights: Gender Issues Therein B R SIWAL
  2. 2. Gender and Sex <ul><li>Sex </li></ul><ul><li>Biologically determined </li></ul><ul><li>Universal </li></ul><ul><li>Permanent </li></ul><ul><li>Determines ‘male’ or ‘female’ sex </li></ul><ul><li>Gender </li></ul><ul><li>Socially constructed, learned </li></ul><ul><li>Differs between cultures </li></ul><ul><li>Dynamic, changes over time </li></ul><ul><li>Determines ‘masculinity’ and ‘femininity’ attributes </li></ul>
  3. 3. Gender <ul><li>Refers to women’s and men’s roles and responsibilities that are socially determined. Gender is related to how we are perceived and expected to think and act as men and women because of the way the society is organized , not because of our biological differences. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Sex <ul><li>Genetic/physiological or biological characteristics of a person which indicate whether one is female or male. </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>A truck meets with an accident and the driver is brought to the Emergency Room. The nurse who attends the patient says, “Oh! But this is my wife.” </li></ul><ul><li>Why did the nurse say that? </li></ul>
  6. 6. Gender Equality and Equity <ul><li>Gender equality is a principle of human rights and a sustainable development goal. </li></ul><ul><li>Equal enjoyment by men and women of socially valued goods, opportunities, resources and rewards, status, Rights and responsibilities </li></ul><ul><li>Equality will not means that men and women will become the same, but their opportunities and life chance will not depend on their sex. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  7. 7. Gender Equality and Equity <ul><li>Gender Equity is a stage in the process of achieving gender equality </li></ul><ul><li>It means fairness and justice in distribution of benefits and responsibilities between men and women. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Gender Sensitivity <ul><li>Being aware of the differences between women’s and men’s needs, roles, responsibilities, and constraints </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to perceive existing gender differences , issues and inequalities and incorporate these into strategies and actions </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  9. 9. Mainstreaming Gender <ul><li>Integration of gender concerns into the analyses , formulation and monitoring of policies, programmes and projects, with the objective of ensuring that these reduce inequalities between women and men. </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Human sexuality and gender are closely interrelated and together affect the ability of men and women to achieve and maintain sexual health and manage their reproductive lives. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Gender and Sexuality <ul><li>Affects perspectives on Sexuality </li></ul><ul><li>Affects access to information </li></ul><ul><li>Affects access to health services </li></ul><ul><li>Affects their ability to protect themselves </li></ul>
  12. 12. Gender Based Approach in Services <ul><li>Position of female health workers or service providers in the institution </li></ul><ul><li>Supportive employment and workplace policies </li></ul><ul><li>Gender sensitivity of service providers </li></ul><ul><li>Ensuring equity in Access to information and services </li></ul><ul><li>Addressing gender imbalance in health status </li></ul><ul><li>Consciously avoiding gender stereotypes </li></ul>
  13. 13. Reproductive health <ul><li>State of complete physical, mental and social wellbeing and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity, in all matters relating to the reproductive system and to its functions and processes </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>RH therefore implies that people will be able to have a safe and satisfying sex life and that they will have the capability to reproduce and freedom to decide if, when and how often to do so. </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Implicit in this last condition are the Rights of men and women to be informed and to have access to safe , effective , affordable and acceptable methods of family planning of their choice , as well as other methods of their choice for regulation of fertility which are not against the law , and the Right to access to appropriate health care services that will enable women to go safely through pregnancy and childbirth and provide the couples to have the best chance of having a healthy infant. </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>In line with this definition, RH care is defined as a constellation of methods , techniques and services that contribute to RH and well being by preventing and solving RH problems. It also includes sexual health , the purpose of which is enhancement of life and personal relations , and not merely counseling and care related to reproduction and STDs. </li></ul>
  17. 17. What are rights? <ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Those freedoms and entitlements that every person is entitled to which are universal and inalienable . </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  18. 18.   What are rights? <ul><li>“ Human rights are the expression of those traditions of tolerance in all religions and cultures that are the basis of peace and progress. Human rights are foreign to no culture and native to all nations.” </li></ul><ul><li>Kofi Annan </li></ul>
  19. 19. What are Rights? <ul><li>Human Rights: The rights people are entitled to simply because they are human beings, irrespective of their citizenship, nationality, race, ethnicity, language, sex, sexuality, or abilities; human rights become enforceable when they are codified as conventions, covenants, or treaties, or as they become recognized as customary international law. </li></ul><ul><li>Civil Rights: Civil rights are those legal rights granted to citizens by the government. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Adopting the Rights Based Approach Reduced Vulnerability of Young People to HIV/AIDS Convention on the Rights of the Child Right to Seek, Receive & Impart Education Right to Health Services Right to Highest Attainable Standard of Health Right to to be protected Convention on Elimination of all forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) Equal Access to Health Services Right to to be protected from all forms of Physical and Mental Abuse, and sexual exploitation Non Discrimination in Seeking, Receiving and Imparting Information ICPD Cairo on Sexual and Reproductive Rights Right to Liberty and Security of a Person Right to Life Right to Information & Education Right to Healthcare & Health Protection Right to Benefits of Scientific Progress Right to Freedom from Torture & Ill Treatment
  21. 21. Guiding Principles for Rights Based Approaches <ul><li>Equity and non-discrimination with emphasis on diversity and the needs of marginalized and vulnerable groups </li></ul><ul><li>Accountability : duty holders as providers are accountable to service users </li></ul><ul><li>Empower rights holders to participate actively to shape policy and programs and their own well-being by giving them the capacity, skills or capabilities to exercise and or claim these rights </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>It has defined 12 rights as part of Sexual & Reproductive Rights of a Human Being, significant amongst them being: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Right to Life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maternal mortality and morbidity from high risk pregnancies ,pregnancies 'too early,too close,too many’,safe motherhood practices,Infanticide, </li></ul></ul>Sexual and Reproductive Rights
  23. 23. <ul><ul><li>Right to Equality, and freedom from all forms of discrimination </li></ul></ul><ul><li>SRH services where women require spousal consent, services made available only to married women, discrimination on grounds of pregnancy and motherhood </li></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><ul><li>Right to Health Care and Health Protection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Whether to require a male sexual partner including a spouse, to use a condom </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Whether to seek medical attention for ailments and infections (in addition to Opportunistic Infections) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Whether to engage in sexual activity and with whom </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><ul><li>Right to Information & Education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Access to SRH information and education,full ,free and informed consent </li></ul></ul>Sexual and Reproductive Rights
  26. 26. <ul><ul><li>Right to be Free from Torture and Ill Treatment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protection from sexual exploitation,abuse,rape,coercion ,prostitution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Right to Privacy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sexual and reproductive health services,including information and counseling should provide clients with privacy,personal information given by them should remain confidential </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. <ul><li>Right to choose whether to marry or not and to found and plan a family </li></ul><ul><li>Access services including those who are infertile or fertility has been jeopardized by STIs </li></ul><ul><li>Right to decide whether and when to have children </li></ul><ul><li>Information, education,and services necessary for safe motherhood and safe abortion are accessible,affordable and acceptable </li></ul>
  28. 28. <ul><li>Right to Liberty and Security of a Person </li></ul><ul><li>Protection against sexual abuse/harassment ,Forced pregnancy, abortion or sterilization </li></ul>
  29. 29. <ul><li>Right to Freedom of thought </li></ul><ul><li>Protect against restrictions on access to information and education on SRH on grounds of thought, religion </li></ul><ul><li>Right to freedom of assembly and political participation </li></ul><ul><li>As an association canvass or advocate for Sexual and reproductive health and rights </li></ul>
  30. 30. <ul><li>Thank you </li></ul>