Gender Budget Analysis Tools


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Gender Budget Analysis Tools

  2. 2. Why Budget Analysis? <ul><li>Budgets are crucial: </li></ul><ul><li>determine how governments mobilize and allocate public resources </li></ul><ul><li>shape policies, set priorities </li></ul><ul><li>an economic process: deals with allocation and mobilization of resources </li></ul><ul><li>articulates the macro economic policies of the state </li></ul><ul><li>political instrument: voted on and mediates competition between people and interests </li></ul><ul><li>instrument for fulfilling obligations of the state in respecting, protecting,promoting </li></ul><ul><li>human rights </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Gap between promise and expectation in post Beijing period: </li></ul><ul><li>Outcome Document adopted by all states at the UNGA in 2000 lists 3 main reasons: </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of resources </li></ul><ul><li>lack of innovative approaches to allocation of existing resources </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of gender perspective in macroeconomic policy framework </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul>
  4. 4. RATIONALE OF GENDER BUDGETING <ul><li>Gender Budgeting is a strategy for ensuring Gender Sensitive Resource Allocation and a tool for engendering macro economic policy. </li></ul><ul><li>Not a separate budget for women. </li></ul><ul><li>Dissects the Government Budget to establish its gender differential impact. </li></ul><ul><li>Enables Tracking and Allocating resources for women empowerment. </li></ul>
  5. 5. What are Gender Budgets? <ul><li>they are not separate budgets for women </li></ul><ul><li>they are general budgets analyzed or constructed from a gender perspective </li></ul><ul><li>they involve analysis of actual government expenditure and revenue on women and </li></ul><ul><li>girls in comparison to that on men and boys and in comparison to the need. </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>help governments to decide how policies need to be adjusted and reprioritized: </li></ul><ul><li>how available money is used to target those most in need. </li></ul><ul><li>tool for effective policy implementation where Governments can check if the </li></ul><ul><li>allocations are in line with the policy commitments made to their citizens; </li></ul><ul><li>tool for contributing to a public debate and to effective use of public funding </li></ul>
  7. 7. The Current Interest in Gender Budgets <ul><li>the political drive for accountability : “putting the money where the mouth is” </li></ul><ul><li>need to measure/monitor accountability :budget allocations vs actual expenditures: </li></ul><ul><li>efficiency : gender inequality leads to major losses in economic efficiency and </li></ul><ul><li>human development : gender budget initiatives can reconcile the objectives of gender </li></ul><ul><li>equality, human development and economic efficiency </li></ul><ul><li>transparency:gender budget initiatives can contribute towards demystification of the </li></ul><ul><li>budget and greater public participation </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>equality :budgets unresponsive to the need of those in poverty and marginalized </li></ul><ul><li>particularly women and children will fail to lead to equality in distribution and </li></ul><ul><li>equity in the output and will fail to address gender-specific discrimination </li></ul><ul><li>important step in deepening democracy </li></ul><ul><li>need for recognizing women’s unpaid work as economic work:to look at not just </li></ul><ul><li>private and public sectors but also domestic sector including the domestic unpaid </li></ul><ul><li>work (the care economy) and the work of the NGOsector, both formal paid and </li></ul><ul><li>unpaid volunteer work and flows between them </li></ul>
  9. 9. The Concept and its Tools <ul><li>Three levels: </li></ul><ul><li>Inputs : financial appropriations vs.. need: appropriations vs. actual </li></ul><ul><li>expenditure: sector wise shares of expenditure and real per capita: </li></ul><ul><li>revenue side </li></ul><ul><li>Activities supported by appropriations: public services, delivery costs, </li></ul><ul><li>income transfers </li></ul><ul><li>Outcomes expected from appropriations vs. actual outcomes including </li></ul><ul><li>unintended ones: whether the money is being used in a manner that </li></ul><ul><li>effectively achieves planned outcomes and where it is failing </li></ul>
  10. 10. Tool 1: Gender-Aware Policy Appraisal-Linking Budgets to Policies <ul><li>3 steps: </li></ul><ul><li>1. examine position of women and men, boys and girls in each area of economic and social life addressed by the budget, taking into account age, ethnic group,location and class; </li></ul><ul><li>2. examine whether government policy adequately addresses inequalities which have been identified; </li></ul><ul><li>3. examine whether resources are being allocated in ways that are likely to reduce inequalities. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Step 3: Flow Chart Planned outcomes e.g. healthy, educated, well nourished people An efficient economy A well governed country Planned activities Public services Public income transfer Legislation Planned inputs Financial appropriations Planned capacity Staff Equipment etc Unexpected effects Unintended consequences + and - Expected Impacts Human development Empowerment of women
  12. 12. Tools 2: Beneficiary Assessments <ul><li>Techniques include: </li></ul><ul><li>Opinion polls, attitude surveys, focus groups, interviews, role </li></ul><ul><li>play </li></ul>
  13. 13. Tool 3: Public Expenditure Incidence Analysis <ul><li>Gives a sense of how gender-inclusive expenditures actually </li></ul><ul><li>are by comparing the distribution of public spending among </li></ul><ul><li>women and men, girls and boys. </li></ul><ul><li>Three steps: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Estimate unit cost of providing a service. </li></ul><ul><li>e.g., 1 primary school place for 1 year </li></ul><ul><li>2. Estimate use of service by men and women, boys and girls </li></ul><ul><li>e.g., number of primary school places occupied by girls and boys </li></ul><ul><li>3. Calculate amount spent per year on girls and boys. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Tool 4: Revenue Incidence Analysis <ul><li>Shows proportion of income paid in taxes and user charges by different categories of individuals or households. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Tool 7: Gender-aware Budget Statement <ul><li>Any government can issue a gender-aware budget statement utilizing one or more of the above tools to analyze its programmes and budgets. </li></ul><ul><li>Some key indicators for a gender-aware budget statement. </li></ul><ul><li>-share of expenditure targeted to gender equality </li></ul><ul><li>-women’s participation in the public-sector employment </li></ul><ul><li>relative to men. </li></ul><ul><li>-the share of prioritized expenditures towards women </li></ul><ul><li>- </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>share of expenditure devoted to official gender units </li></ul><ul><li>- share of expenditure devoted to women’s priority income transfer </li></ul><ul><li>-gender balance in business support </li></ul><ul><li>-gender balance in public sector contracts </li></ul><ul><li>-gender balance in decision making bodies, forums and committees </li></ul><ul><li>-gender balance in training </li></ul>
  17. 17. Tool 5: Sex-Disaggregated Analysis of the Impact of the Budget on Time Use <ul><li>Similar to tool 1- but focuses in particular on the outcome for </li></ul><ul><li>the amount of unpaid care work done by women and men </li></ul><ul><li>Whenever expenditure cuts are proposed, the question should </li></ul><ul><li>be asked: Is this likely to increase the time that men and </li></ul><ul><li>women spend on unpaid care work? </li></ul>
  18. 18. Tool 6: Gender-Aware Medium-Term Economic Policy Framework <ul><li>Incorporation of gender variables into the models used for medium-term public expenditure planning are based. </li></ul><ul><li>For example, inclusion of: </li></ul><ul><li>sex-disaggregated variables in the labour market component </li></ul><ul><li>new variables to represent the unpaid care economy </li></ul>
  19. 19. Global Approaches <ul><li>Two main approaches : </li></ul><ul><li>Sectoral analysis say of the education, agricultural, health sectors </li></ul><ul><li>etc. and within each sector examining the implications of the expenditure </li></ul><ul><li>(and sometimes revenue) on women and men. Within each sector this </li></ul><ul><li>involves looking at inputs, activities and outcomes within each of the four categories </li></ul><ul><li>explained above, viz., gender targeted, employment equity and mainstream </li></ul><ul><li>expenditures and revenue: Australia, Sri Lanka </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>Analysis of the overall allocation of resources among sectors, drawing on the </li></ul><ul><li>macroeconomic framework as a whole; South Africa </li></ul><ul><li>Location of analysis : </li></ul><ul><li>Government: Women’s Machinery or Finance Ministry led </li></ul><ul><li>Non Government: civil society led </li></ul>
  21. 21. Gender Budget in India: Current Scenario <ul><li>Government led process at national level: </li></ul><ul><li>Analyzing the entire budget resulting in: </li></ul><ul><li>Gender aware budget statement by FM: Economic Survey(2001) </li></ul><ul><li>Section on Gender Inequality: based on gender budget analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis of annual budgets: dissemination amongst parliamentarians </li></ul><ul><li>during debates on demand for grants </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>Supplementary state level work by feminists/NGOs </li></ul><ul><li>analyzing state budgets, specific sectors and specific large </li></ul><ul><li>programmes </li></ul><ul><li>impact of specific expenditure increase/compression measures </li></ul><ul><li>on households (gender disaggregated) </li></ul><ul><li>impact of labour market changes on women and how budgets are/are </li></ul><ul><li>not dealing with them </li></ul><ul><li>Building budgets from below involving the panchayats </li></ul>
  23. 23. CLUSTERS <ul><li>Protective & Welfare Services which are aimed at directly benefiting the women mitigating the consequences of women’s social and economic subordination. </li></ul><ul><li>Social Services which contribute significantly to women’s empowerment, either directly by building their capacities and ensuring their material well being or indirectly through reducing domestic drudgery. </li></ul><ul><li>Economic Services which are critical to women’s economic independence and autonomy. </li></ul><ul><li>Regulatory Services & Awareness Generation which provide institutional spaces and opportunities for women’s empowerment. </li></ul>
  24. 24. CONSTRAINTS <ul><li>Non availability of authentic documents. </li></ul><ul><li>Data sets not available as per format </li></ul><ul><li>Figures related to Actual Expenditure not available (even for previous financial years) </li></ul>
  25. 25. Cont. Constraints <ul><li>Attempts to analyse and collate the data were constrained: </li></ul><ul><li>- Wide discrepancies in terms of units such as thousands or lakhs </li></ul><ul><li>- Inconsistencies in figures/data (totals) </li></ul><ul><li>- Allocations to Pro and targeted categories of schemes were mixed up due to lack of understanding </li></ul><ul><li>- Clusterwise distribution of schemes done by names was misleading. </li></ul>
  26. 26. SOLUTIONS <ul><li>Need to coordinate field efforts of data collection-Training & Workshops </li></ul><ul><li>Ensuring validated & reliable information </li></ul><ul><li>Diverse nomenclature of schemes and programmes across states. </li></ul><ul><li>Revision of formats </li></ul>
  27. 27. ISSUES IN GENDER BUDGETING <ul><li>Non-availability of gender disaggregated data </li></ul><ul><li>Isolating women component in local level resource allocation </li></ul><ul><li>Reliability and validity of data </li></ul><ul><li>Need for uniformity in concept & definitions </li></ul>
  28. 28. TASKS AHEAD <ul><li>Promoting </li></ul><ul><li>- A nalysis of public expenditure from a gender perspective </li></ul><ul><li>- S tandardize techniques, sectoral definitions, nomenclature of various schemes, etc. so that future research is facilitated. </li></ul><ul><li>- Monitoring of regular collection of physical and financial targets and achievements. Streamlining of this process by use of MIS </li></ul>
  29. 29. Cont. Task Ahead <ul><li>Organise workshops and studies on refining methodology for gender analysis of budgets. </li></ul><ul><li>Formulate and disseminate uniform guidelines on gender budgeting and develop appropriate software </li></ul><ul><li>Formulation and adoption of schedules and formats for working out women’s share in all public expenditure. </li></ul><ul><li>Promote capacity building of research organisations. </li></ul>
  30. 30. ACTIONS FOR THE FUTURE <ul><li>Coverage of the approach has to be expanded to all States/UTs & percolate down to District levels </li></ul><ul><li>The methodology to be refined. </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis to go beyond allocations & expenditure to benefit incidence & outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>Institutionalized gender disaggregated data sets. </li></ul>
  31. 31. <ul><li>Formulation & dissemination of uniform guidelines for gender accounting, auditing & for physical and formal targets/documents </li></ul><ul><li>Extend the nature & scope of gender analysis of budgets to include benefit incidence analysis in specific geographical & sectoral areas and over a larger time frame. </li></ul>
  32. 32. <ul><li>Institutionalize the process of gender budgeting. </li></ul><ul><li>Capacity building within the Government & amongst research organisations . </li></ul><ul><li>Impact analysis of public expenditure, to get comprehensive picture of household expenditure only on children and women </li></ul><ul><li>Analyse investment and expenditure ratios. </li></ul><ul><li>Taking stock of expenditure on other related infrastructure including rail/road access, electrification, water resources etc. to get clear picture of expenditure for well being of women and children. </li></ul>Cont. Actions for Future
  33. 33. Global context of gender budgeting <ul><li>Global consensus to “Sustainable Human Development [SHD] Approach” - a fundamental rethinking in macroeconomic policies. </li></ul><ul><li>Tool for enhancing the SHD paradigm: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ People-mattered budget initiative” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pro-poor, gender and green budgets” </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. Gender budgeting: country experiences <ul><li>AUSTRALIA was the pioneer in developing a gender-sensitive budget in 1984. </li></ul><ul><li>COMMONWEALTH’S GENDER BUDGET INITIATIVE in 1996, piloted in five countries; South Africa, Sri Lanka, Barbados,St.Kitts and Nevis and Fiji. </li></ul>
  35. 35. Indian Context for Gender Budgeting <ul><li> Special Reference in Budget Speech, 2000 </li></ul><ul><li>pertaining to the “access of women to national resources”. </li></ul><ul><li> National Development Council adopted “Empowerment of Women” as specific objective of 9th FYP on February 19,1999. </li></ul><ul><li> ” Women’s Component Plan” to ensure that not less than 30 % of funds and benefits flow to women from developmental sectors. </li></ul><ul><li> Gender equality recognized in Indian Constitution . </li></ul>
  36. 36. Gender Budgeting in Indian Context <ul><li>Economic Survey, 2000-01 </li></ul><ul><li>An entire section on gender equality. </li></ul><ul><li>Highlights of Union Budget 2001-02 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strengthening of microfinance facility for women. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Integrated Scheme for Women Empowerment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>with a new scheme for women in difficult circumstances. </li></ul></ul>
  37. 37. Gender sensitive budget <ul><li>Budgetary resource allocation through gender lens. </li></ul><ul><li>Are not separate budgets for women. </li></ul><ul><li>Dissection of budget to establish its gender-specific impacts. </li></ul><ul><li>Gendered incidence of budgetary policies for the effective targeting of public spending </li></ul><ul><li>Stress r epriotisation rather an overall increase in public spending. </li></ul><ul><li>Thrust to ensure a greater visibility to care economy . </li></ul>
  38. 38. Gender Diagnosis : Access to Resources <ul><li>POSITIVES </li></ul><ul><li>Female life expectancy doubled from 31.7 years in 1951 to 60.9 years in 1994. </li></ul><ul><li>Female life expectancy at birth surpassed that of man (59.7 years). </li></ul><ul><li>Declining trends in IMR and CMR. </li></ul><ul><li>Increase in female literacy rate </li></ul><ul><li>Increase in female gross enrolment ratio. </li></ul><ul><li>NEGATIVES </li></ul><ul><li>Adverse sex ratio </li></ul><ul><li>female IMR > male IMR </li></ul><ul><li>female CMR > male CMR </li></ul><ul><li>MMR as high as 540 per one lakh live births (NFHS-2) </li></ul><ul><li>Around half of Indian women are illiterate (54.28 % in Census 2001). </li></ul><ul><li>Female enrolment less than half, lagging much from 100 % target. </li></ul>
  39. 39. Preparing gender-sensitive budget <ul><ul><li>Category i. Specifically targeted expenditure to women </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Category ii . Public Expenditure with pro-women allocation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Category iii : Mainstream expenditure that make gender-differential impacts . </li></ul></ul>
  40. 40. Categorization of Specifically targeted expenditure <ul><li>> Protective and Welfare Services </li></ul><ul><li>to prevent atrocities viz. domestic violence, kidnapping, rape, dowry deaths </li></ul><ul><li>> Social Services </li></ul><ul><li>education, health, nutrition </li></ul><ul><li>> Economic Services </li></ul><ul><li>self employment & training programs </li></ul><ul><li>> Regulatory Services & Awareness Generation Programs </li></ul><ul><li>Maternal benefit schemes </li></ul>
  41. 41. Category I: Specifically targeted expenditure. contd <ul><ul><li>Direct allocations specially targeted to women and girls under various Ministries in Union Budget 2001-02 amounted to Rs. 3260 crores </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>0.87 per cent of total expenditure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Significant deviation of revised estimates from the budget estimates [ Rs 2970 crores in BE 2000-01 and Rs 2543 in RE 2000-01] </li></ul></ul>
  42. 42. BE-RE: Significant Deviation <ul><li>Non-approval of Schemes/ Revised Norms. </li></ul><ul><li>Late approval of additional corpus of funds. </li></ul><ul><li>Failure to take into account the unspent balances of previous years. </li></ul><ul><li>Slack on the part of implementing agency to implement the scheme. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>[Report No.1 of CAG of India, 1999, page No. 165-172] </li></ul></ul>
  43. 43. Specifically Targeted Programs for Women: share in various Ministries
  44. 44. Public Expenditure with Pro-women allocations <ul><li>Certain public expenditure have pro-women allocations; though they are not exclusively targeted for women. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eg., poverty alleviation & employment generation schemes; provision for drinking water, fuel, housing, improved energy resources etc. </li></ul></ul>
  45. 45. Public Expenditure with Pro-women allocations: Selected Ministries/Departments <ul><li>Agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>Education </li></ul><ul><li>Health & Family Welfare </li></ul><ul><li>Youth Affairs & Sports </li></ul><ul><li>Labour </li></ul><ul><li>Non-conventional Energy Resources </li></ul><ul><li>Small Scale Industries & Agro-Rural Industries </li></ul><ul><li>Rural Development </li></ul><ul><li>Urban Employment & Poverty Alleviation </li></ul><ul><li>Social Justice & Empowerment &Tribal Affairs </li></ul>
  46. 46. Public Expenditure with Pro-women allocations: <ul><li>In gender-intensive Ministries: </li></ul><ul><li>Pro-women Allocation = [TE-WSP]*WC </li></ul><ul><ul><li>other Ministries with few gender-intensive schemes: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pro-women allocation=  [SCS * WC] </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Share declined from 3.89 percent in 1995-96 to 2.82 per cent in 2001-02 in total expenditure. </li></ul></ul>
  47. 47. Gender Disaggregated Benefit Incidence <ul><li>Aims to analyze the extent to which men and women benefit from expenditure on publicly provided services. </li></ul><ul><li>Assessing the distribution of public spending by gender. </li></ul><ul><li>how gender-inclusive the mainstream expenditure can be sensed. </li></ul><ul><li>BENEFIT INCIDENCE = [UNIT COSTS] * [No. of UNITS UTILISED] </li></ul>
  48. 48. Central Elementary Education Budget:Benefit Incidence
  49. 49. Priority Actions <ul><li>Collate the gender disaggregated data from relevant Departments to obtain gender-wise relevant statistical database. </li></ul><ul><li>Segregate the provisions for women in the composite schemes. </li></ul><ul><li>Protect the provisions by placing restrictions on their reappropriation for other purposes. </li></ul>
  50. 50. THANK YOU