Empowerment Of Women And Gender Issues


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Empowerment Of Women And Gender Issues

  1. 1. Empowerment of Women and Gender Issues <ul><li>B R SIWAL </li></ul><ul><li>NIPCCD </li></ul><ul><li>NEW DELHI </li></ul>
  2. 2. HUMAN RIGHTS – SEVEN FREEDOM <ul><ul><li>Freedom from discrimination- e.g. Gender, race, ethnicity, national origin and religion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Freedom from fear of threats to personal security, from torture, arbitrary arrest and other violent acts. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Freedom of thoughts and speech and to participate in decision making and forming associations. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Freedom from wants – to enjoy decent standard of living </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><ul><li>Freedom to realize one’s human potential </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Freedom from injustice and violation of the rule of laws </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Freedom for decent work – without exploitation </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. United Nations, Women and Human Rights <ul><li>1945 UN charter </li></ul><ul><li>1946 CSW established </li></ul><ul><li>1948 UN declaration of human rights </li></ul><ul><li>1975 International women’s year </li></ul><ul><li>1975 First World Conference on Women, </li></ul><ul><li>Mexico city </li></ul><ul><li>1976-1985 UN decade for women </li></ul><ul><li>1976 </li></ul><ul><li>--INSTRAW established </li></ul><ul><li>--UNIFEM established </li></ul><ul><li>1979 CEDAW adopted </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>1980 2 nd world conference, Copenhagen </li></ul><ul><li>1985 3 rd world conference, Nairobi </li></ul><ul><li>1995 4 th world conference, Beijing China </li></ul><ul><li>2000 23 rd special session of the GA on women, equality, development and peace (Beijing+5) </li></ul><ul><li>2000 UN millennium development summit </li></ul><ul><li>October 2000 Security council resolution 1325 women, peace and security </li></ul>
  6. 6. THE UNITED NATIONS DECADE FOR WOMEN(1976-1985) <ul><li>Gender equality firmly placed on the global agenda </li></ul><ul><li>Critical role of women in the development process acknowledged </li></ul><ul><li>Adoption of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women by the United Nations General Assembly in 1979 </li></ul><ul><li>Nairobi Forward-Looking Strategies adopted by 157 countries </li></ul><ul><li>International women’s movement expanded its network </li></ul><ul><li>Creation of two United Nations bodies devoted </li></ul><ul><li>exclusively to women: </li></ul>
  7. 7. NAIROBI FORWARD-LOOKING STRATEGIES <ul><li>Enforcement of laws guaranteeing the </li></ul><ul><li>implementation of women’s equality </li></ul><ul><li>Increase in the life expectancy of women to at </li></ul><ul><li>least 65 years in all countries </li></ul><ul><li>Reduction of maternal mortality </li></ul><ul><li>Elimination of women’s illiteracy </li></ul><ul><li>Expansion of employment opportunities </li></ul>
  8. 8. Beijing Platform for Action 12 critical Area of Concern <ul><li>Women and Poverty </li></ul><ul><li>Education and training of women </li></ul><ul><li>Women and Health </li></ul><ul><li>Violence against women </li></ul><ul><li>Women and Armed Conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Women and the Economy </li></ul><ul><li>Women in Power and Decision-Making </li></ul><ul><li>Institutional mechanisms for the Advancement of Women </li></ul><ul><li>Human Rights of Women </li></ul><ul><li>Women and the Media </li></ul><ul><li>Women and the Environment </li></ul><ul><li>The Girl Child </li></ul>
  9. 9. The United Nations Conference On Environment and Development, Rio de Janeiro, 1995 <ul><li>The Rio Declaration on Environment and Development states that: </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Women have a vital role in environmental management and development. Their full participation is therefore essential to achieve </li></ul><ul><li>sustainable development.’ </li></ul>
  10. 10. The World Summit for Social Development, Denmark, March 1995 <ul><li>This major United Nations event addressed gender dimensions in : </li></ul><ul><li>the enhancement of social integration, </li></ul><ul><li>particularly for disadvantaged and marginalized </li></ul><ul><li>groups </li></ul><ul><li>the alleviation and reduction of poverty </li></ul><ul><li>the expansion of productive employment </li></ul>
  11. 11. The Fourth World Conference on Women, Beijing, September 1995 <ul><li>to draw up a Platform for Action to ensure the completion of the unfinished work in implementing the 1985 Nairobi Forward Looking Strategies </li></ul><ul><li>to address the question of how women can be empowered by effective participation in decision making on all issues which affect society </li></ul>
  12. 12. Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women <ul><li>Equal rights for women in all fields including political, social, economic, cultural and civil, regardless of their marital status; </li></ul><ul><li>• National legislation to ban discrimination; </li></ul><ul><li>• Temporary special measures to enhance the participation of women in political and public life; </li></ul><ul><li>• Equal access to education and the same choice of curricula; </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Non-discrimination in employment and pay; </li></ul><ul><li>• The guarantee of job security in the event of marriage and maternity; </li></ul><ul><li>• Equal responsibilities of men and women in the context of family life; </li></ul><ul><li>• Special services to enable women to combine family obligations with work responsibilities and participation in public life. </li></ul>
  14. 14. THE MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS <ul><li>Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger </li></ul><ul><li>Achieve universal primary education </li></ul><ul><li>Promote gender equality and empower women </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce child mortality </li></ul><ul><li>Improve maternal health </li></ul><ul><li>Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseases </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure environmental sustainability </li></ul><ul><li>Develop a global partnership for development </li></ul>
  15. 15. Empowerment <ul><li>The term „empowerment“ was first used in the context of political mobilisation in the1960s by activists of the Black Panther Movement in the US. Since then it has entered many fields of theory and practice </li></ul>
  16. 17. Feminist notions of Empowerment <ul><li>power over : controlling power over some one and something. Response to it can be compliance, resistance or manipulation </li></ul><ul><li>power to : generative or productive power that creates new possibilities and actions without domination </li></ul>
  17. 18. <ul><li>· power with : power generating a feeling that the whole is greater than the sum of individuals and action as a group is more effective </li></ul><ul><li>· power from within : a sense that there is strength that is in each and every individual. The recognition of one's own self-acceptance and self-respect enables the acceptance of others as equals </li></ul>
  18. 19. <ul><li>Empowerment is a process whereby women become able to organize themselves to increase their own self- reliance, to assert their independent right to make choices and to control resources which will assist in challenging their own subordination.” </li></ul>
  19. 20. <ul><li>Similarly, “women’s empowerment,” “gender equality” and “gender equity” are separate but closely related concepts </li></ul><ul><li>. The expansion in people's ability to make strategic life choices in a context where this ability was previously denied to them.“ </li></ul>
  20. 21. <ul><li>Empowerment . Development must be by people, not only for them. People must participate fully in the decisions and processes that shape their lives. Investing in women's capabilities and empowering them to exercise their choices is not only valuable in itself but is also the surest way to contribute to economic growth and overall development </li></ul>
  21. 22. <ul><li>Empowerment involves challenging the forms of oppression which compel millions of people to play a part in their society on terms which are inequitable, or in ways which deny their human rights (Oxfam, 1995). </li></ul>
  22. 23. <ul><li>Feminist activists stress that women.s empowerment is not about replacing one form of empowerment with another Women's empowerment should lead to the liberation of men from false value systems and ideologies of oppression. </li></ul><ul><li>It should lead to a situation where each one can become a whole being regardless of gender, and use their fullest potential to construct a more humane society for all </li></ul>
  23. 24. EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN GOVERNMENT POLICY <ul><li>Creating an environment through positive economic and social policies for full development of women to enable them to realize their full potential </li></ul><ul><li>Enjoyment of all human rights and fundamental freedom by women on equal basis with men in all spheres – political, economic, social, cultural and civil </li></ul><ul><li>Equal access to participation and decision making of women in social, political and economic life of the nation </li></ul>Contd .
  24. 25. <ul><li>Equal access to women to health care, quality education at all levels, career and vocational guidance, employment, equal remuneration, occupational health and safety, social security and public office etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Strengthening legal systems aimed at elimination of all forms of discrimination against women </li></ul><ul><li>Changing societal attitudes and community practices by active participation and involvement of both men and women </li></ul>Contd .
  25. 26. <ul><li>Mainstreaming a gender perspective in the development process </li></ul><ul><li>Elimination of discrimination and all forms of violence against women and the girl child; and </li></ul><ul><li>Building and strengthening partnerships with civil society, particularly women’s organizations. </li></ul>
  26. 27. <ul><li>Economic empowerment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Poverty eradication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Micro-credit-easy access to credit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Women’s perspective in macro-economic policies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Empower women to meet negative impact of lpg </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enhance productivity and skills in agriculture- </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Women & industry-entrepreneurship development, labour legislations support </li></ul></ul>
  27. 28. <ul><li>Social Empowerment - to create an enabling environment through various affirmative developmental policies and programmes for development of women besides providing them easy and equal access to all the basic minimum services so as to enable them to realize their full potentials. </li></ul>
  28. 29. <ul><ul><li>Education- equal access, universalisation of education, reduce gender gaps, gender sensitive educational system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Health- holistic approach to women’s health reduction in IMR & MMR </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nutrition – meeting nutritional needs of women at all stages of life cycle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Housing and shelter – adequate and safe housing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Science and technology – appropriate technology to reduce drudgery </li></ul></ul>
  29. 30. <ul><ul><li>Women in difficult circumstances – capacity building of women in difficult circumstances </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Violence against women- eliminate all forms of violence against women </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Right of the girl child – elimination of gender discrimination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mass media – remove gender stereotypes and promote positive image of women </li></ul></ul>
  30. 31. APPROACH TO THE TENTH PLAN <ul><li>the measurable goals to be achieved along with the time targets, preferably in consonance with the time-frames set by the other women-related national policies; </li></ul><ul><li>commitment of resources; </li></ul><ul><li>earmarking of the benefits under WCP; </li></ul><ul><li>fixing of responsibilities for implementation of the Action Points; and </li></ul><ul><li>identification of structures and mechanisms to ensure effective review, monitoring, and impact assessment of all the related policies </li></ul>
  31. 32. <ul><li>Economic Empowerment - to ensure provision of training, employment and income-generation activities with both ‘forward’ and ‘backward’ linkages with the ultimate objective of making all potential women economically independent and self-reliant; </li></ul>
  32. 33. <ul><li>Gender Justice - to eliminate all forms of gender discrimination and thus, allow women to enjoy not only the de-jure but also the de-facto rights and fundamental freedom on par with men in all spheres, viz. political, economic, social, civil, cultural etc </li></ul>
  33. 34. <ul><li>Complete eradication of female foeticide and female infanticide through effective enforcement of both the Indian Penal Code, 1860 and the Pre-Natal Diagnostic Technique </li></ul><ul><li>Adopting measures that take into account the reproductive rights of women to enable them to exercise their reproductive choices </li></ul>
  34. 35. <ul><li>Initiating/accelerating the process of societal reorientation towards creating a Gender-Just Society children 0-6 years from 945 in 1991 to 927 in 2001 illustrate the most disturbing survival scene of women and the girl child in India. </li></ul>
  35. 36. <ul><li>Working out strategies, in close collaboration with the Ministry of Labour, to ensure extension of employment opportunities and thus, remove inequalities in employment – both in work and accessibility </li></ul><ul><li>Initiating interventions at the macro-economic level to amend existing legislations to improve women’s access to productive assets and resources </li></ul>
  36. 37. <ul><li>Ensuring that the value added by women in the Informal Sector as workers and producers is recognised through redefinition/ re-interpretation of conventional concepts of work and preparation of National Accounts </li></ul>
  37. 38. <ul><li>Defining the Women’s Component Plan (WCP) clearly and identifying the schemes/programmes/projects under each Ministry/Department which should be covered under WCP and ensuring the adoption of women-related mechanisms through which funds/benefits flow to women from these sectors </li></ul>
  38. 39. <ul><li>Initiating action for enacting new women-specific legislations; amending the existing women-related legislation, if necessary, based on the review made and recommendations already available to ensure gender justice, besides, reviewing all the subordinate legislations to eliminate all gender discriminatory references </li></ul>
  39. 40. <ul><li>Expediting action to legislate reservation of not less than 1/3 seats for women in the Parliament and in the State Legislative Assemblies and thus ensure women in proportion to their numbers reach decision-making bodies so that their voices are heard </li></ul>
  40. 41. <ul><li>Arresting the ever-increasing violence against women and the Girl Child including the Adolescent girls on top priority with the strength and support of a well-planned Programme of Action prepared in consultation with all the concerned, especially the enforcement authorities </li></ul>
  41. 42. <ul><li>Expediting standardisation of a Gender Development Index based on which the gender segregated data will be collected at national, state and district levels; compiled/collated and analysed to assess the progress made in improving the status of women at regular intervals with an ultimate objective of achieving equality on par with men </li></ul>
  42. 43. PROGRAMMES AND SCHEMES <ul><li>Employment and Income – generation: </li></ul><ul><li>- Support for Training cum Employment </li></ul><ul><li> Programmes (STEP) </li></ul><ul><li>- Setting up of Training cum Production Centres </li></ul><ul><li> for Women (NORAD) </li></ul><ul><li>- Swarna Jayanti Shahari Rozgar Yojana (SJSRY) </li></ul><ul><li>- Swarnajanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana (SGSY) </li></ul><ul><li>- Swa – shakti </li></ul><ul><li>- Swayamsidha </li></ul><ul><li>- Swadhar </li></ul><ul><li>- Swalamban </li></ul>
  43. 44. <ul><li>Short- stay homes for women and girls </li></ul><ul><li>Working women hostel </li></ul><ul><li>Awareness generation and gender sensitisation </li></ul><ul><li>Socio economic programmes </li></ul>
  44. 45. ADMINISTRATITIVE MACHNERY <ul><ul><li>National Commission for Women </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>National Institute of Public Cooperation and Child Development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Department of Women and Child Development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rashtriya Mahila Kosh </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Central Social Welfare Board </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Women Development Corporations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>National Vocational Training Institute </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Crimes Against Women Cell/ Women police station </li></ul></ul>
  45. 46. CRITICAL AREA OF CONCERNS AND CHALLENGES <ul><li>Declining sex-ratio </li></ul><ul><li>Education and training of women </li></ul><ul><li>Women and Health </li></ul><ul><li>Violence against women </li></ul><ul><li>Women headed households </li></ul><ul><li>Women in unorganised sector </li></ul><ul><li>Women in Power and Decision-Making </li></ul><ul><li>Women in difficult circumstances </li></ul><ul><li>Human Rights of Women </li></ul><ul><li>Women and the Media </li></ul><ul><li>Women and the Environment </li></ul><ul><li>The Girl Child </li></ul>
  48. 49. <ul><li>- WOMEN WORKER IN BONDAGE </li></ul><ul><li>- WOMEN USED AS DRUG PEDDLERS, PRONO </li></ul><ul><li>- VICTIM OF SOCIALLY SANTIONED PRACTICES </li></ul><ul><li>- VICTIM OF CASTE, CLASS & GENDER </li></ul>
  49. 50. THANK YOU
  50. 51. THANK YOU