Artists of the 50’s:• Elvis Presley• Chuck Berry• Bo Diddley• Fats Domino• Little Richard• Jerry Lee Lewis• Big Joe Turner Top 3 Rock & Roll Songs:• Gene Vincent Johnny B. Goode – Chuck Berry• Ray Charles Jailhouse Rock – Elvis Presley• Penguins Rock around the clock – Billy Haley & His comets• Lloyd Price Top 3 Blues Songs:• Hank Williams Chuck Berry – Rock & Roll music• Sonny Rollins Johnny Cash – I walk the line• Charlie Parker Frankie Lymon – The Teenagers• Carl Perkins
McCarthyism:Is the practice of making accusations ofdisloyalty, subversion, or treason without properregard for evidenceBlacklisting:A list privately exchangedamong employers, containingthe names of persons to bebarred from employmentbecause of untrustworthinessor for holding opinionsconsidered undesirable.Communism:A political theory derived fromKarl Marx, advocating class warand leading to a society inwhich all property is publiclyowned and each person worksand is paid according to theirabilities and needs
Controversial Topics:• Quiz Show Scandals• Hollywood Black listing• McCarthyismOther Topics:• A total of 101 television stations are operating.• Some 4,835,000 television sets are installed.• Colour TV Introduced• Princess Elizabeth Becomes Queen• First Playboy Magazine• Reports Say Cigarettes Cause Cancer• Disneyland Opens• Peace Symbol Created• NASA Founded• The Sound Of Music Opens in Broadway
Controversial issuesThere are many controversial issues in the 1960’s:The Pentagon Papers.Civil Rights Marchers.Kennedy Assassination.The Vietnam War.Johnson v. Goldwater election and their campaign ads.Medi Care bill .The War on Poverty.The KKK Church Bombings in the south that killed 3 little girls.The Gulf of Tonkin Incident.68 Democratic Convention in Chicago, and its riots.The Chicago 7.Woodstock.Peoples Park Demonstrations in Berkley.The Free Speech Demonstrations early 60s Berkley.Height Ashbury scene 66- 67, known as The Summer of Love.Monterrey Pop Festival.Martin Luther King Assassination.Ted Kennedy and Chappaquiddick.Assassination of Bobby Kennedy.Charles Manson.The Tet Offensive in Vietnam, and Walter Cronkites analysis of same, known as the turning point.The secret expansion of the Vietnam War into Cambodia.The murder of Black Panther Party members and cover up of same by Chicago Police.Cuban Missile Crisis.CIA Cuban invasion known as The Bay of Pigs.The Watts Riots.The Altamont Speedway Festival, Known as the death of the 60s - 1969.
1960’s countercultureIn the 1960s, young people questionedAmericas materialism and cultural and politicalnorms, much as theyve always done. Seeking abetter world, some used music, politics, andalternative lifestyles to create what came to beknown as the counterculture. Americans in thatera faced many controversial issues-from civilrights, the Vietnam War, nuclear arms, and theenvironment to drug use, sexual freedom, andnonconformity.
• The counterculture lifestyle integrated many of the ideals and indulgences of the time: peace, love, harmony, music, mysticism, and religions outside the Judeo-Christian tradition. Meditation, yoga, and psychedelic drugs were embraced as routes to expanding ones consciousness.• The movement, greeted with enormous publicity and popular interest, contributed to changes in American culture. A willingness to challenge authority, greater social tolerance, the sense that politics is personal, environmental awareness, and changes in attitudes about gender roles, marriage, and child rearing are legacies of the era.
Many members of the counterculture saw theirown lives as ways to express political and socialbeliefs. Personal appearance, song lyrics, andthe arts were some of the methods used tomake both individual and communalstatements. Though the specifics of the debateswere new, arguments for personal freedom, freespeech, and political reform go back to thefoundations of American society
In North America, Europe and Oceania, thedecade was particularly revolutionary in termsof popular music, as it saw the formation andevolution of rock. At the beginning of the 1960s, pop and rock and roll trends of the 1950s continued; nevertheless, the rock and roll of the decade before started to merge into a more international, eclectic variant known as rock.By the mid-1960s, rock and roll in its purest formwas gradually overtaken by poprock, beat, psychedelic rock, blues rock and folkrock, which had grown in popularity.The country and folk-influenced style associatedwith the latter-half of 1960s rock musicspawned a generation of popular singer-songwriters who wrote and performed theirown work.Towards the decades end, genres such as baroque pop, sunshinepop, bubblegum pop, progressive rock and heavy metal started to growpopular, with the latter two finding greater success in the followingdecade.
Furthermore, the 1960s saw funk and soul music rising in popularity; rhythm and blues in general remained popular, and this style was commonly associated to girl groups of the time, whose fusion of R&B and gospel with rock and roll enjoyed success until the mid-part of the decade.Aside from the popularity of rock and R&B music in the 1960s, Latin American aswell as Jamaican and Cuban music achieved a degree of popularity throughoutthe decade, with genres such as bossa nova, the cha-cha-cha, ska, and calypso being popular.From a classical point of view, the 1960swere also an important decade as theysaw the developmentof experimental, jazz and contemporaryclassical music, notably minimalism andfree improvisation
The Billboard Top Ten songs of the year 1960 were: 1.) "You Talk Too Much" by Joe Jones 2.) "Cathys Clown" by The Everly Brothers 3.) "The Twist" by Chubby Checker 4.) "Save the Last Dance for Me" by The Drifters 5.) "Running Bear" by Johnny Preston 6.) "Sweet Nothins" by Brenda Lee 7.) "Handy Man" by Jimmy Jones 8.) "Walk, Dont Run" by The Ventures 9.) "Alley-Oop" by The Hollywood Argyles 10.) "Stay" by Maurice Williams & The ZodiacsThe song that won "Song of the Year" at The Grammys was "Theme From Exodus". RayCharles took two honors home "Best Pop Single Artist" and "Best Pop Male Vocal" for hishit "Georgia on My Mind". Ella Fitzgerald won the "Best Pop Female Artist" with "Mack theKnife". The "Best Pop Duo or Group" went to "We Got Us" by Eydie Gormé and SteveLawrence
The Beatles were an English rock band formed in Liverpool in 1960. They became perhaps the most commercially successful and criticallyacclaimed act in the history of popular music. The bands best-known lineup consisted of John Lennon, Paul McCartney. GeorgeHarrison, and Ringo Starr. Rooted in skiffle and 1950s rock and roll, the group later utilised several genres, rangingfrom pop ballads to psychedelic rock, often incorporating classical and other elements in innovative ways. In the early 1960s, their enormouspopularity first emerged as "Beatlemania", but as their songwriting grew in sophistication, they came to be perceived by many fans and culturalobservers as an embodiment of the ideals shared by theeras sociocultural revolutionsThe Beatles are the best-selling band in history, with EMI Records estimating sales of over one billion units.[They have had more number-onealbums on the British charts and sold more singles in the UK than any other act. According to the RIAA, as of 2012 they have sold 177 millionunits in the US, more than any other artist. In 2008, they topped Billboard magazines list of the all-time most successful Hot 100 artists. As of2012, they hold the record for most number-one hits on the Hot 100 chart with 20. They have received 7 Grammy Awards from theAmerican National Academy of Recording Arts and Sciences, an Academy Award for Best Original Song Score and 15 Ivor Novello Awards fromthe British Academy of Songwriters, Composers and Authors. They were collectively included in Time magazines compilation of the 20thcenturys 100 most influential people Who were ‘The Beatles’?
The rise of soft/rock and pop/rock and further rise in popularity for R&B withartists such as Stevie wonder & Jackson 5.The mid-1970s also saw the rise of disco music, which dominated during the lasthalf of the decade with bands like the Bee Gees, ABBA.
Towards the end of the decade, JamaicanReggae music, already popular in theCaribbean and Africa since the early1970s, became very popular in the U.S. andin Europe, mostly because of reggaesuperstar and legend Bob Marley. His musictouched on topics such as slavery and wasvery inspirational.
People were starting to incorporate social issues and motivating messages withintheir music as controversial issues were mounting:Cher – Gypsy’s , tramps and thievesJackson 5 – I’ll be thereBill Withers – Lean on meBob Marley – Buffalo soldier
BEEGEES Dolly Parton Diana RossElton John Cher Barbra Streisand
• The Me decade ( individualism)• Ken state shootings ( protest about Vietnam war, National Guard goes on shooting spree)• Economic recession• Cold war still remained• Major conflict between capitalist and communist forces in multiple countries• Soweto Uprising when more than 700 black school children were killed by South Africas Security Police.• Distrust between the revolutionaries and Western powers (Iran hostage crisis)• Rise in the use of terrorism by militant organizations across the world• Richard Nixon resigns as President in 1974 while facing charges for impeachment (Watergate scandal)• significant number of women as heads of state outside of monarchies
Increasing political awareness and political and economic liberty ofwomen, continued to grow. The hippie culture, which started in the laterhalf of the 1960s, weakened by the early 1970s and faded towards themiddle part of the decade, which involved:• opposition to the Vietnam War,• opposition to nuclear weapons,• the advocacy of world peace,• and hostility to the authority of government and big business.• The environmentalist movement began to increase dramatically in this period.
Family size dropped due to uncertain economy and unemployment.Woman in the workplace gave woman a different priority other thanparenthood.There was new freedom for women, homosexuals, the elderly, thehandicapped, and other minorities.With the new wave of social equality, social events became extremelypopular, people were now going to Disco’s and ‘ doing it big ‘.Everything was big from shirt collars, to belt buckles, clown shoes to Afrosand the ‘Farrah Mane’.Sex, Drugs and rock & roll (influenced by the hippie movement)
By 1973, the music business had become a $2 billion/year industry(approximately the size of the film and sports industries combined).Virgin records (Richard Branson) was established in the early 70’s as anindependent label.Labels such as Motown (1960) became increasingly popular because of itsstyle of soul music with a distinct pop influence.(Marvin Gaye, Stevie wonder, Boyz II Men, Smokey Robinson)CTI records – Jazz label now owned by Sony music entertainment.Atlantic records- missed out on signing Elvis but later became well knownfor signing artists such as Cher, The rolling stones, Bee Gees whose musicrocked the 1970’s.
In the 1980s there was the emergence of pop, dance musicand New Wave.As the term disco fell out of fashion in the decades earlyyears.Genres such as post-disco, Italo disco, Euro disco and dance-pop became more popular.Rock music continued to enjoy a wide audience; sub-genressuch as New Wave, Soft rock and Glam Metal emerged anddeveloped a significant following.Adult contemporary, quiet storm and smooth jazz gainedpopularity. Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1980s_in_music
Throughout the decade, R&B, hip hop and urban music ingeneral were becoming commonplace, particularly in theinner-city areas of large, metropolitan cities; rap wasespecially successful in the latter part of the decade, withthe advert of the golden age of hip hop.These urban genres, rap and hip hop particularly wouldcontinue their rise in popularity through the 1990s and2000s. Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1980s_in_music
- In 1980s computers were beginning to be invented andpeople were beginning to consume music through this.- Then also the internet was invented in 1983 which meantmost could surf the internet and browse through the musicthey wanted to listen to.- It was mainly based on vinyl records and cassette tapes.Records were by far the better quality and although theyused a very delicate surface to store the audio content, theyprovided years of good quality and still do nowadays.- Cassettes were more convenient and were becoming themore popular medium for buyers.- Unlike records, cassettes could be used in portable playersuch as cars and Sony then introduced the Walkman, thefirst personal music player. Source: http://wiki.answers.com/Q/What_was_the_1980s_music_technology_like
- In the studio, recordings were made on to analogue tape. Larger studios used 2” wide tape which would hold 24 tracks.- And then by the end of the decade, CDs had made an appearance in the consumer market. The CD claimed o have far better quality than records or cassettes and the claim is generally accepted as correct.- The development of digital music in the 80s paved the way for small and low cost studios. Most home based and project studios today are based loosely on the methods developed by the larger studios of the late 80s. Source: http://wiki.answers.com/Q/What_was_the_1980s_music_technology_like
These are some of the artists whom topped the charts…- Whitney Houston- Janet Jackson- Guns N Roses- The Police- Bon Jovi- Michael Jackson- Duran Duran- Dire StraitsAA- Van Halen- Wang Chung
“New Order – Blue Monday” – is a single released in 7th March 1983. New Order is aBritish band, the song has been widely remixed and covered since its release. It is apopular anthem in the dance club scene.It has 2 record labels, ‘Factory’ and ‘FAC 73’.This song is currently #1 in the best songs of 1980s. Source: http://www.nme.com/list/100-best-songs-of-the-1980s/266358/page/10
Some of the record labels from the 1980s were…- 99 Records- Audiogram- Boardwalk Records- Demon Music Group- Caltex Records- Clay Records- Crammed Discs- DEP International- Dischord Records- Epitaph Records- Frontier Records- Funoon Al Jazeera Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:Record_labels_established_in_1980
One of the record labels were Boardwalk Records.- It was founded by Neil Bogart in 1980 after PolyGram acquired his Casablanca Records.- The label ad a huge hit act with Joan Jett before Neil Bogart died of cancer in 1982.- Other artists on the boardwalk label included Curtis Mayfield, Ohio Players and the soundtrack to the 1982 film Megaforce.- Chris Christian was the first artist signed to Boardwalk.- In late 1981, “I Want You I Need You” became a #37 Top 40 Billboard pop hit and Top 10 A/C hit for Christian, Robert Kardashian who is Kim Kardashian’ father.- A year after Bogart’s death, the label eventually closed down. Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boardwalk_Records
Background informationThe internet became very popular and easilyaccessible so this meant making it possible forpeople to interact with other people, expressideas, introduce others to different cultures andbackgrounds, use goods and services, sell andbuy online, research and learn aboutanything, along with experiencing the wholeworld without having to leave home
Digital revolution“emergence of peer-to-peer (P2P) networks that allowed the free exchange of music files(such as Kazaa and Napster).”“The iPod and iTunes system for music storage and playback became immenselypopular, and many consumers began to transfer their physical recording media (such asCDs) onto computer hard drives.”This is the time also where many music copies were downloaded off the internet illegallycausing great loss within the music industry.Not only that but the radio stations allowed music to be played online however thismeant there more ‘number 1’ hits which meant more money people buying the artist’smusic album.But there was more , now the audience were able to record their own music on their owncomputer and produce the instrumental music. This created opportunities to so manyconsumers to be recognised. (prosumer) This is the artists hope in the 2000’s this was because this was the Napster used to be a illegal only company who put music distributor and it is on a price tag on the through napster where illegal music and because I distribution became popular. pods could only get The impact of this was billions music from I tunes the of money gone artists and iTunes always had money coming in.
Genre & Sub culturesIn the 2000 the most popular genre was pop and R&B, this was because shows like pop idolstarted, and people started to sing rap and pop songs this became a trend where people like Beyoncébecame popular and it was a new twist to the rock and jazz trend. this genre showed a true potentialof how a person can sing because it included so many different pitches at a short span. Not only thatbuilt the beats and the lyrics meant a lot of things to the audience. It also was very to reproduce apop, r and b video Eminem is the biggest Emo rock was one of the sub hip-hop act of the cultures of the 2000 era this decade as well as the was because the music wasn’t Beyoncé Knowles was best-selling overall ‘good to ear’ because the emo one of the best selling music artist. rock consists of shouting and female performers of lot of bass and no real singing. 2000s Boy bands didn’t come as popular as popular because of better performances by Country music wasn’t as individual singers. popular but was on of the best listens in the 2000’s
Young Popular artist‘At the start of 2000, Britney Spears was making a name for herself in the music industry. Atthe start of 2000, Spears was prepping to release her 2nd album Oops..I Did It Again. Thesecond album featured hit tracks "Oops.. I Did It Again" and "Stronger". After the secondalbum, Spears released 2 more albums before taking an extended break to focus on familyand personal affairs. In 2007, Spears released her first electro pop-inspired album Blackoutwhich proved to be a major success for this pop star. "Gimme More" became a top 5 hit in12 countries around the globe. Spears released 2 more albums at the close of thedecade, leaving fans wanting more from the pop sensation’. Yahoo voicesBut as her audience grew this meant that her songs were more mature. So were hervideos an example is when she was in ‘baby one more time’ she had a pony tail and herschool uniform, this shoes she was innocent and not rebellious. However then shereleased another song called ‘toxic’ this showed her more matured, she is wearing a airhostess dress (servile) then she does some sexual dance scenes, in a transparentclothing showing that she is more sexually empowered and feels confident in hersexuality. However it disempowers males.
InstitutionHow artist were marketed is by being able to broadcast talent shows in manycountries and they were able to fund, through the audience by them callingand voting for their favourite singer and therefore making masses amount ofmoney, and the more contenders they introduced the more money theymade. This meant other singing competitions e.g. top of the pops were ableto start their show and develop unknown artists to get a record label. It alsomade unknown artists to be found easier. Will young was found through pop idol (a reality pop show) this were many new artists are found. Underground The punk music were becoming more popular but it did not affect the mainstream because it was mostly downloaded off piracy sites.