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  1. 1. McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2008 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  2. 2. Chapter 14 Reference Groups and FamilyMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2008 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  3. 3. Reference Groups• A group consists of two or more people who interact with each other to accomplish some goal• A reference group involves one or more people used as a basis for comparison or point of reference in forming affective and cognitive responses and performing behaviors 14-3
  4. 4. Reference Groups cont. 14-4
  5. 5. Analyzing Reference Groups• Reference groups are cultural groups in that members share certain common cultural meanings – Marketers try to determine the content of the shared meanings of various reference groups – Reference groups can have both positive and negative effects on consumers • Associative reference groups • Dissociative reference groups 14-5
  6. 6. Types of Reference Group Influence • Most people are members of several primary informal groups and a few formal, membership groups – People identify and affiliate with particular reference groups for three reasons • To gain useful knowledge • To obtain rewards or avoid punishments • To acquire meanings for constructing, modifying, or maintaining their self-concepts 14-6
  7. 7. Reference Groups cont.– Three types of reference group influence • Informational • Utilitarian • Value-expressive– All three types of reference group influence can be accomplished by a single reference group. 14-7
  8. 8. Reference Group Influence on Products and Brands • Reference groups do not influence all product and brand purchases to the same degree – Influences vary on at least two dimensions • Degree to which the product or brand is – A necessity – A luxury • Degree to which the object in question is conspicuous or know by other people – Public good – Private good 14-8
  9. 9. Reference Group Influence on Products and Brands cont. – Reference group influence will vary depending on whether the products and brands are • Public necessities • Private necessities • Public luxuries • Private luxuries 14-9
  10. 10. Reference Groups and Marketing Strategy• Developing marketing strategies through an analysis of primary informal group influences• Peer group influence as a major asset of firms that sell in-home to groups• Describing similarities between previous consumers and potential consumers• Using salespersons as reference groups• Soliciting experts to aid in the direct sale of products 14-10
  11. 11. Reference Group Influence on Products and Brands cont. 14-11
  12. 12. Family• Marketers are interested in both families and households – Household is the housing unit having people living in it – Nonfamily households include unrelated people living together – A family has at least two people, the householder and someone who is related to the householder by blood, marriage, or adoption • Nuclear family • Extended family 14-12
  13. 13. Family Decision Making• How family members interact and influence one another when making purchase choices for the household – Identification of roles of family members in family decision making is important 14-13
  14. 14. Family Decision Making cont.– Types of family decision-making roles include: • Influencers • Gatekeepers • Users • Deciders • Buyers • Disposers 14-14
  15. 15. Influences on Family Decision Making• Areas explored in research on family decision making are – Differences in product class and their relationship to family decision making – The structure of husband/wife roles – The determinants of joint decision making• Children and family decision making 14-15
  16. 16. Conflict in Family Decision Making• Decision conflict arises when family members disagree about some aspect of the purchase decision – Means-end chain model is a useful framework for analyzing decision conflict 14-16
  17. 17. Six Common Types of Family Influence Strategies
  18. 18. Patterns or Styles of Influence Behaviors
  19. 19. Consumer Socialization• Refers to how children acquire knowledge about products and services and various consumption-related skills – Can occur directly through intentional instruction or indirectly through observation and modeling – The consumer knowledge formed in childhood can influence people in later years 14-19
  20. 20. Consumer Socialization cont.– Developing early brand awareness and loyalty is an important marketing strategy for many companies– The flow of socialization is not restricted to parents influencing their young children 14-20
  21. 21. Factors Influencing American Families• Three important changes: – Changes in female employment – Changes in marriage and divorce – Changes in childbirth and child rearing practices 14-21
  22. 22. Demographic Changes in Household Composition• American families are highly diverse – Various types of families constitute distinctive markets for many products • Married-couple family • Traditional family • Nontraditional family • Nonfamily households family – Cohabiting couples 14-22
  23. 23. A Modern Family Life Cycle 14-23
  24. 24. Family Life Cycle• The modern family life cycle captures most types of families in American society, including: – Single parents – Young singles – Older singles – Married couples with children 14-24
  25. 25. Family- Marketing Analysis• Considerations for using the family life cycle for marketing analysis – Modern family life cycle does not include nonfamily households – Modern family life cycle does not capture every possible change in family status that can occur • Does not include the boomerang age 14-25
  26. 26. Family- Marketing Analysis cont. – Marketers use the family life cycle to: • Segment the market • Analyze market potential • Identify target markets • Develop more effective marketing strategies – Developing marketing strategies for the bachelor segment is a challenge – Some stages in the family life cycle are more important markets than others – Stages of the family life cycle that contain children are quite important to many marketers 14-26
  27. 27. Family- Marketing Implications• Ideas for marketing strategies to help reduce shopping time and stress – Provide information – Assist in planning – Develop out-of-store selling – Automate processes – Improve delivery 14-27
  28. 28. Summary• Described two aspects of the micro social environment• Discussed three types of reference group influence• Described how reference groups could influence choice decisions about products and brands, and offered ideas for using reference groups in marketing strategies 14-28
  29. 29. Summary cont.• Distinguished between families and households• Discussed decision making by families• Looked at conflict in family choices and described several ways family members might try to resolve the decision conflict and influence each other 14-29
  30. 30. Summary cont.• Explored consumer socialization• Described several demographic trends that have changed family households• Discussed a model of the family life cycle and showed how marketers could use it to analyze markets and develop marketing strategies 14-30