Rethinking Critical Editions of Fragments by Ontologies


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Rethinking Critical Editions of Fragments by Ontologies

  1. 1. Introduction Problem Approach Conclusions Rethinking Critical Editions of Fragmentary Texts by Ontologies Matteo Romanello1 Monica Berti1 Federico Boschetti1 Gregory Crane1 1 The Perseus Project - Tufts University Medford, MA (USA) Electronic Publishing Conference, 2009 Rethinking Fragments by Ontologies
  2. 2. Introduction Problem Approach Conclusions Summary Introduction Representing Fragments Ontology Modeling + Ontology Learning Conclusions Rethinking Fragments by Ontologies
  3. 3. Introduction Problem Approach Conclusions Scope Materials: Classical (Greek and Latin) Literary Texts Critical editions of Fragmentary Texts Importance: 59% authors are preserved only in fragments 29% . . . just by entirely preserved works 12% . . . by both entirely preserved works and fragments Goal: Rethinking the critical edition of fragments -> general model to represent fragmentary texts in a digital environment Rethinking Fragments by Ontologies
  4. 4. Introduction Problem Approach Conclusions Definitions Fragment is a quotation of a text embedded into another text Witness is the text preserving a fragment of a lost work Critical edition of fragmentary texts -> establishing the original text of the lost work passage, preserved through a quotation by another author -> attributing the text to a work, to an author, collocation within the original work Rethinking Fragments by Ontologies
  5. 5. Introduction Problem Approach Conclusions Information in a fragment: Concordances between numbering in different editions Reference to the witness: link to a specific edition of a witness Multiple editions: boundaries of the fragment vary from edition to edition Critical apparatus information Rethinking Fragments by Ontologies
  6. 6. Introduction Problem Approach Conclusions State of the Art Digital Editions of Fragment Witnesses TLG [online] <HTML> Perseus [online] <HTML + TEI-XML> Google Books, [online] <PDF> 1k Years of Greek [ongoing] <TEI-XML> Ongoing Projects on Digital Collections of Fragmentary Texts Fragments of Greek Historians (Perseus Project) iMouseion Presocratics Project Fragments of Demetrios of Scepsi (University of Hamburg) Rethinking Fragments by Ontologies
  7. 7. Introduction Problem Approach Conclusions Rethinking Critical Editions From the printed to the digital edition. . . From duplicating fragment and witness text To linking fragment to the witness’ text -> corpora of texts without duplicated records Assumption: Fragments are metatexts rather than texts: representing fragments means representing scholars’ interpretations about survived texts Solution: Markup of fragments -> Fragments as sets of ontological metadata linked to the text of witnesses Rethinking Fragments by Ontologies
  8. 8. Introduction Problem Approach Conclusions Knowledge Domain Analysis Need for Ontology Learning Building an ontology: can be an arbitrary operation, i.e. subjective description of a knowledge domain The natural language reflects how insiders see domain specific problems Ontology Learning techniques (specifically semantic spaces analysis) -> exploit text corpora in order to found the ontology building Concepts and relations identification: results of the analysis of data (objective and repeatable process). Rethinking Fragments by Ontologies
  9. 9. Introduction Problem Approach Conclusions Knowledge Domain Analysis Corpus of 170 articles in English selected by an expert Preprocessing: lemmatization and POS tagging Extraction of relevant terms Clusterization with k-means algorithm: original semantic space dimensions are reduced to 2 and represented in a bidimensional graph Rethinking Fragments by Ontologies
  10. 10. Introduction Problem Approach Conclusions Ontology Axioms Cluster #1: fragment as interpretation fragment, uncertainty, possibility, supposition, debate, interpretation, certainty, evidence ... Cluster #2: scholars’ interpretations variant, reading, emendation, conjecture, correction, quotation, corruption ... Cluster #3: pointing to the text beginning, end, block, line, space, place, continuation, top, bottom, left, right, margin ... Rethinking Fragments by Ontologies
  11. 11. Introduction Problem Approach Conclusions Ontology Design 1 Fragment as interpretations Fragment -> Interpretation backed by a publication (bibliographic record) Fragment: (instanceOf) TextualInterpretation subclassOf philosurfical:Interpretation FRBR (Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records): multiple editions of a single text (Work/Exemplars,Conceptual Object/Information Object ) Doubt and Uncertainty -> W3C Uncertainty Ontology Built on CIDOC CRM Rethinking Fragments by Ontologies
  12. 12. Introduction Problem Approach Conclusions Ontology Design 2 Scholars’ Interpretations introduction of specific classes to represent concepts of the Philology Domain: TextPassage Conjecture/Variant Reading ... 3 Pointing to Text Resources -> URI Text Passages -> CTS URNs Retrieve text passages -> CTS URNs + CTS protocol Rethinking Fragments by Ontologies
  13. 13. Introduction Problem Approach Conclusions Benefits Solid architecture -> different layers (texts/interpretations) Ontologies help us to formalize correctly the representation of a knowledge domain Data interoperability Ontology inferred from data and then modeled using Design Patterns and well established ontologies Rethinking Fragments by Ontologies