Past Tenses


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This is a presentation of past simple, past continuous, past perfect, uses and examples.

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Past Tenses

  2. 2. WE USE DIFFERENT PAST TENSES TO FOCUS ON DIFFERENT MOMENTS AND PERIODS OF TIME IN THE PAST. THE TENSE WE USE DEPENDS ON WETHER THE ACTION OR EVENT IS A PAST HABIT OR STATE,WETHER IT IS COMPLETED, THE DURATION OF THE ACTION OR EVENT, AND THE ORDER WE USE TO RECALL THE ACTIONS OR EVENTS. LOOK AT THIS DIAGRAM When Andrea arrived home last night, 5:00 6:00 7:00 8:00 9:00 ------------------ --------------- ---------------- --------------- Mary cooked dinner --------------- Mary was cooking dinner --------------- Mary had cooked dinner
  3. 3. PAST SIMPLE Form The form of the past simple is the same for all persons. AFFIRMATIVE I He/She/it We You They Finished Left arrived Yesterday At 3:00 p.m Three weeks ago
  4. 4. NEGATIVE NEGATIVE I You he She we They Didn´t Finish leave Yesterday at 3:00. When Did You He She they Finish the report? Get married?
  5. 5. SHORT ANSWERS <ul><li>USE </li></ul><ul><li>The Past simple is used to express: </li></ul><ul><li>A finished action in the past. </li></ul><ul><li>We met in 2000 </li></ul><ul><li>I went to Seattle last year. </li></ul><ul><li>Martha left two minutes ago </li></ul><ul><li>2. Actions that follow each other in a story. </li></ul><ul><li>John walked in the park and stopped . He listened carefully. </li></ul><ul><li>He heard a noise coming from behind the curtain. He threw </li></ul><ul><li>the curtain open, and then he saw a….. </li></ul>Did you enjoy dinner? Yes, we did No, we didn´t
  6. 6. 3. A past situation or habit When I was a child, we lived in a small town in Cordoba. Everyday I traveled for miles to arrive to Monteria. <ul><li>This use is often expressed with used to </li></ul><ul><li>I used to live in a small town….. I used to travel for miles. </li></ul><ul><li>Spelling of verb + ed </li></ul><ul><li>Most verbs add –ed to the base form of the verb. </li></ul>2. When the verb ends in –e, add -d Worked wanted helped washed Liked used Hated cared
  7. 7. 3. If the verb has only one syllable, with one vowel + one consonant Double the consonant before adding -ed. But we write cooked, seated, and moaned because there are two vowels. 4. The consonant is not doubled if it is -y or –w 5. In most two-syllable verbs, the end consonant is doubled if the estress is on the second syllable. Pre´ferred ad´mitted But we write éntered and ´visited because the stress is on the first syllable. Stopped planned robbed Played showed
  8. 8. 6.Verbs that end in a consonant + -y change the -y to ied. But we write enjoyed,because it ends in a vowel + -y. PAST SIMPLE AND PAST EXPRESSIONS Carried hurried buried I Met her Last night Two days ago Yesterday morning In 2007 In the summer When I was young
  9. 9. PAST CONTINUOUS AFFIRMATIVE AND NEGATIVE I He She It Was Wasn´t working We You They Were Weren´t working
  10. 10. SHORT ANSWERS USE We often use the past continuous in sentences with the past simple. The past continuous refers to longer, “background” activities,while the past simple refers to shorter actions that interrupted the longer ones. Ex: When I walked up this morning, the birds were singing and the sun was shining . Were you looking for me? Were they sitting outside? Yes, I was/ no, I wasn´t Yes, they were/No, they weren´t
  11. 11. <ul><li>An activity in progress before, and probably after, a particular time in the past. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: At 6:00 a.m I was having breakfast this morning. </li></ul><ul><li>2. A situation or activity during a period in the past. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: Vitian looked beautiful. She was wearing a beige blouse, blue jeans and black shoes. Her eyes were shining in the light of the lamp. </li></ul><ul><li>3. An interrupted past activity. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: When the phone rang , I was having lunch. </li></ul><ul><li>We were playing soccer when it started to rain. </li></ul><ul><li>4. An incomplete activity in the past in order to contrast with the Past Simple that expresses a completed activity. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: I was reading a novel during the trip.( I didn´t finish it) </li></ul><ul><li>I watched a movie during the trip.( the whole movie). </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>PAST SIMPLE OR PAST CONTINUOUS </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes we can use the past simple or the past continuous. The Past Simple focuses on past actions as simple facts,while the Past continuous focuses on the duration of past situations and activities. </li></ul><ul><li>Compare: </li></ul>2. Questions in the Past simple and Past Continuous refer to different time periods: the past continuous asks about activities before; the past simple asks about what happened after. A I didn´t see you at the party last night. B. No, I stayed at home and watched football. <ul><li>I didn´t see you at the part last night. </li></ul><ul><li>No, I was watching football at home </li></ul>
  13. 13. Ex: When the war broke out, Peter was studying medicine at medical school.He decided that it was safer to go home to his parents and postpone his studies. What was Peter doing when the war brokeout? He was studying What did Peter do when the war broke out? He went home to his parents.
  14. 14. PAST PERFECT Perfect means “before”, so Past Perfect refers to an action in the past that was completed before another action in the past. FORM The form of the Past Perfect is the same in all persons. AFFIRMATIVE AND NEGATIVE I You He We They ´d had Seen him before Finished work at 6:00 p.m
  15. 15. INTERROGATIVE SHORT ANSWERS Where had You She He We they Been before? Had he already left? Yes, he had No, he hadn´t
  16. 16. <ul><li>USE </li></ul><ul><li>The Past perfect is used when an action in the past happened before another action in the past. </li></ul><ul><li>EX: When I got home, I found that someone had broken into my aparment and had stolen my t.v set, so I called the police. </li></ul><ul><li>Action 1: Someone broke into my apartment and stole my t.v set. </li></ul><ul><li>Action 2: I got home and called the police. </li></ul><ul><li>EX: I didn´t want to go to the theater with my friends because I´d seen the movie before. </li></ul><ul><li>Action 1: I saw the movie </li></ul><ul><li>Action 2: My friends went to the theater to see the movie. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Notice the difference between the following sentences: </li></ul>
  17. 17. Ex : When I got to the party, Peter went home (= First I arrived, then peter left) When I got to the party, Peter had gone home (= First Peter left, then I arrived).