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2006 / 2007 Seminar                     Cooling Systems                   " Idiosyncrasies "                              ...
" Cooling Systems Idiosyncrasies "                        A behavioral characteristic unique to an individual or group    ...
Service Guide to Various        System Idiosyncrasies       above 50°F                    Split Condensers       H ea ding...
above 50°F                                                                                                                ...
For 2006           c:sporlan 2006cooling idiosyncrasies
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Refrigerant Science of Yester Year                                                                  Temp / Press psigName ...
Global Warming … Kyoto                    c:sporlan 2006cooling idiosyncrasies
" Typical Receiver Types "                             c:sporlan 2006cooling idiosyncrasies
Receivers   For receivers having an internal diameter of 6 inches (150 mm) or smaller:   ARI 495, UL listed, steel, brazed...
Typical Receiver TypesFrom condenser                               To evaporator                                          ...
System with Receiver  Receiver may or may not effect the quantity of sub-cooling depending on   refrigerant’s speed, recei...
System with Surge Receiver   A surge receiver will not effect the quantity of sub-cooling. Refrigerant   not required to a...
Receiver Components & AccessoriesLevel indicators / Alarm actuators                                       Typical relief v...
A typical installation with a pressure vessel having                       a maximum working pressure of 400 PSI might be:...
Receiver Components & Accessories                          Synthetic ester oil based grease                               ...
Receiver Heaters         Various Heater Types            Strap-on heater            Insertion heater            Emersion h...
Thought Provoking !!!   For testing purposes ONLY …How can a technician change rotationon a three phase application withou...
Reversing Fuses       Uninstalled Fuses                         Fuse                      Heavy Wire   Blown / Bad Fuse   ...
Reversing Fuses                      Installed Fuses                                         Blown / Bad   Blown / Bad Fus...
" Receivers and their Affects "                                  c:sporlan 2006cooling idiosyncrasies
Air Cooled Condenser                            Typical Split Condenser                                            Summer ...
Typical Split Condenser                     Air Cooled Condenser                                                          ...
Three Way Solenoid                                                             8D, 12D, 16D        Energized              ...
De-energized    c:sporlan 2006cooling idiosyncrasies
Energized            c:sporlan 2006cooling idiosyncrasies
Air Cooled Condenser                                Typical Split Condenser                                               ...
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Why Typical Split Condenser Vertical Drop ?                     Air Cooled Condenser                                      ...
" Multi Receivers and their Affects "                                  c:sporlan 2006cooling idiosyncrasies
Variances in Lift Verses Density .. @ 1 psi      Refrigerants                   Water                Lubricants           ...
Multi ReceiversSeries Receivers          Water cooled condensers          Insufficient existing capacity          Normally...
When Supplemental Receivers                               are NeededAuxiliary receivers may be necessary when refrigerant ...
Supplemental Receivers                                           Catch-All               Solenoid                         ...
Typical Copeland " C " Line Condensing Units     Refrigerants                                      Liquid In              ...
" Effects of Sub-cooling "An Idea Whose Time Has Come                                c:sporlan 2006cooling idiosyncrasies
Sub-coolingDefinition:    The reduction of the liquid refrigerant’s temperature        to a point below its saturation tem...
Understanding Heat in the five Regions                             of a Ph Diagram                                     Gas...
Increasing Sub-cooling Reduces Flash Gas,        Increases Net Refrigeration Effect.Consider the Following:   The compress...
Sub-cooling can:1.   Increase capacity2.   Decrease electrical usage3.   Reduce equipment maintenance4.   Produce better t...
Thought Provoking !!!What do the headlights on a motor carand on a bus have to do with you, the  refrigeration and air con...
MC and B tanks                                 (acetylene)" MC " Motor Car                                                ...
" Accomplishing Sub-cooling "                                c:sporlan 2006cooling idiosyncrasies
Types of Sub-coolerAmbient sub-cooling      Air      Water      RefrigerantMechanical sub-cooling      Integral part of sy...
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Installation & Mounting ...                       ACCEPTABLEPREFERRED                                                    N...
Installation & Mounting ...                    Effect of Inclination on Two Phase, Refrigerant Applications               ...
Installation & Mounting ...                 Effect of Inclination on Two Phase, Refrigerant Applications                  ...
Typical Plate to Plate Heat Exchangers,                                               Sub-coolers     Sub-coolers         ...
Refrigeration Retrofitting R-22 to R-404A                 to                                            Regaining the Lost...
Thermodynamic 411Specific Heat .. the amount of heat needed to raise / lower one                pound of a substance one F...
Sub-cooling Calculation Example  R-22 has a Specific heat (Cp ) of 0.300Example:Liquid refrigerant entering sub-cooler is ...
Plate to Plate Heat Exchanger                                                 Mechanical Sub-cooler                 to    ...
How Sub Cooling Affects System Capacity                                          R-22                                     ...
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Thought Provoking !!!What is the controlling capacity  factor of any refrigeration           system ?      The choke point...
" Economizers when Multi Staging "                               c:sporlan 2006cooling idiosyncrasies
Open Economizer                                                          refrigerant vapour to  indicates vapour          ...
Open Economizer                           2nd stage                   1st stage" Open or Flash " economizer               ...
Closed Economizer                                               liquid refrigerant                                        ...
Closed Economizer                        2nd stage                1st stage" Closed " economizer                          ...
Two Stage A/C Cooling !!    His and Hers ??                           c:sporlan 2006cooling idiosyncrasies
Summary                                                   Possible reselection of TEV                                     ...
Affects of Sub-cooling    on TEV’s CapacityRefrigerant   100°F    60°F      50°F      40°F              (0°SC)   (40°SC)  ...
" Accumulators and their Affects "                                 c:sporlan 2006cooling idiosyncrasies
Accumulator Design    Hold approximately 50% of systems charge in TEV systemsHold approximately 70% of systems charge in f...
Accumulator Screens        Original R-22 Screen                                                  Enhanced HFC Screen      ...
Thought Provoking !!!Odors … BacteriaOdor eaters ..            Charcoal            Baking Soda            FDS     (feminin...
Effects of Hydrostatic Pressures ?        Lets Look at it.                            c:sporlan 2006cooling idiosyncrasies
Typical Effects of Hydrostatic Pressure                                                                                  3...
Troubled System … 6 TEV’s Replaced                              Still High Super Heat ?           System:           R-22, ...
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Blood Storage Room                                            critical application                                        ...
Fouling !!!!!Modern Service Technician                                 c:sporlan 2006cooling idiosyncrasies
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A 0.042" Film of Dirt on a Coil     Equals 21% Loss in   Heat Transfer Efficiency                                  c:sporl...
" Servicing a Winter Charge"                               c:sporlan 2006cooling idiosyncrasies
SporlanBulletin90-30-1           c:sporlan 2006cooling idiosyncrasies
SporlanBulletin90-30-1           c:sporlan 2006cooling idiosyncrasies
Sporlan Bulletin 90-30-1     Refrigerants listedR-12   R-22   R-134a R-401A R-401BR-402A R-402B R-404A R-407C R-408AR-409A...
SporlanBulletin90-30-1           c:sporlan 2006cooling idiosyncrasies
Sporlan Bulletin 90-30-1                           c:sporlan 2006cooling idiosyncrasies
Sporlan Bulletin 90-30-1                           c:sporlan 2006cooling idiosyncrasies
Servicing a Winter Charge !!!                                                   To calculate the correct additional winter...
Fin and Tube Heat                    Exchangers        FINS                Used for both evaporators   Secondary          ...
Coefficient of ExpansionCu is 0.0000104 of an inch / per inch / per F°                     or          1.04E-5 per inch / ...
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2 Lines of Nozzles          c:sporlan 2006cooling idiosyncrasies
Air Cooled Condenser                       c:sporlan 2006cooling idiosyncrasies
Air Cooled Condenser                       c:sporlan 2006cooling idiosyncrasies
Cu vs Al“Aluminum will creep and move approximately 33% more than copper. This large movement will eventually lead to fati...
Other Considerations• Continues running of water .. Added costs              water cost / sewer charge• Roof will not dry ...
And Then There is the                   Other ContractorModern Service Technician                                         ...
Poor Bulb Location = Floodback               Show smashed compressor parts …………….                                        c...
Built-in Redundancy !!!                          c:sporlan 2006cooling idiosyncrasies
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10 Units in 48” wide passage !!!                            c:sporlan 2006cooling idiosyncrasies
First Rule in Real Estate Location .. Location .. Location                                    c:sporlan 2006cooling idiosy...
Residential Split Systems                                     Typical Cool Climate                                        ...
Residential Split Systems                               Secure top of hairpin only .. Allows opening / closing            ...
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Didn’t like the look …Must hide the Condensing unit                           c:sporlan 2006cooling idiosyncrasies
R-410A ? Under the Deck …unit will die of emphysema !!!                    RedRock Clubhouse, prestigious golf course in  ...
Typical Ductless Split Installation                                c:sporlan 2006cooling idiosyncrasies
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Cooling system idiosyncrasies 2006
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Cooling system idiosyncrasies 2006

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Cooling system idiosyncrasies 2006

  1. 1. 2006 / 2007 Seminar Cooling Systems " Idiosyncrasies " by e thos . or in asies Garth Denison is hum yncr e re sT h g Idio Sr. Product Application Engineer Co olin Sporlan Valve Division Parker Hannifin Canada c:sporlan 2006cooling idiosyncrasies
  2. 2. " Cooling Systems Idiosyncrasies " A behavioral characteristic unique to an individual or group The Sporlan Valve Division, Parker Hannifin assumes no obligations or liability for any advice furnished or for any results, property damage or personal injury including death that may result with respect to the use of this information. All such advice is given and accepted at users risk. This disclosure of information herein is not a license to operate under, or a recommendation to infringe any patent of Sporlan Division of Parker Hannifin or others.® Registered trademark of Sporlan Valve Division, Parker Hannifin Corporation, Cleveland Ohio USA© Copyright 2005 by Sporlan Valve Division, Parker Hannifin Inc c:sporlan 2006cooling idiosyncrasies
  3. 3. Service Guide to Various System Idiosyncrasies above 50°F Split Condensers H ea dingBull below 5 0°F c:sporlan 2006cooling idiosyncrasies
  4. 4. above 50°F 0.15 0.20 0.25 SENSIBLE HEAT RATIO = Qs / Qt 0.30 0.35 Split Condensers 55 60 R-410A 90 1.35 Note importance of 50 1.3 ding MO .028 0.40 sub-cooling 15. 1.25 H ea 0 85 60 85 CT 162 °F, CP 715 psia 1.2Bull .026 45 1.15 85 WE .024 0.45 TB 1.1 UL BT EM 80 PE 1.05 RA T UR 80 55 40 E- .022 °F 0.50 1 80 .95 .020 POE .9 VAPOuR PRESSURE - INCHES OF MERCURY 75 0.55 ENTHALPY - BTU PER POUND OF DRY AIR 35 75 R .85 AI 14. .018 DEW POINT TEMPERATURE - °F Y 50 DR 5 0.60 .8 F 75 F O -° D UN E R 70 .016 .75 PO TU 30 70 0.65 RA R PE PE .7 HUMIDITY RATIO - POUNDS MOISTURE PER POUND DRY AIR TU M TE 0.70 -B 70 N .014 PY .65 O TI 65 AL RA 65 45 0.75 TH TU 25 .6 EN SA 0.80 .012 65 .55 14. 60 % 0.85 90 60 0V 0.90 .5 OL % .010 UM 20 55 80 60 0.95 .45 E- 55 1.00 % CU 40 70 .4 .F 50 .008 T. P 55 SENSIBLE HEAT RATIO = Qs / Qt % 50 60 .35 RLE 13. 15 45 50 B. D % 5 50 45 .3 .006 RY 40 45 40 .25 40% AIR 35 40 35 35 .2 .004 30% 13. 35 30 0 .15 25 20% be .002 20 .1 HUMIDITY 12. lo w TIVE 10% RELA 10 5 .05 0 50 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 105 110 115 120 30 AB °F DRY BULB TEMPERATURE - °F 10 15 20 25 ENTHALPY - BTU PER POUND OF DRY AIR c:sporlan 2006cooling idiosyncrasies
  5. 5. For 2006 c:sporlan 2006cooling idiosyncrasies
  6. 6. c:sporlan 2006cooling idiosyncrasies
  7. 7. Refrigerant Science of Yester Year Temp / Press psigName Formula Flammable 0°F and 85°FF-12 CCl2F2 No 9.2 91.7Sulphur Dioxide SO2 No 8.9” 50.6Ammonia NH3 Yes (16 to 25) 15.7 151.7Butane C4H10 Yes (1.6 to 6.5) 15.0” 26.2Iso Butane C4H10 Yes (1.8 to 8.5) 6.3” 43.9Carbon Dioxide CO2 No 293.9 1012.3Methyl Chloride CH3Cl Yes (8.1 to 17.2) 4.1 79.4Ethyl Chloride C2H5Cl Yes (3.7 to 12) 21.6” 11.9Methylene Chloride CH2Cl2 Yes (8.1 to 17.2) 27.9” 9.9”Dichlorotetrafluoroethane C2Cl2F4 No 17.8” 21.0 Source: Frigidaire engineering manual Nov. 15, 1938 c:sporlan 2006cooling idiosyncrasies
  8. 8. Global Warming … Kyoto c:sporlan 2006cooling idiosyncrasies
  9. 9. " Typical Receiver Types " c:sporlan 2006cooling idiosyncrasies
  10. 10. Receivers For receivers having an internal diameter of 6 inches (150 mm) or smaller: ARI 495, UL listed, steel, brazed, 400 psig (2760 kPa) pressure rating, with pipe threaded female access fittings for inlet, outlet, and pressure relief valve. Receivers larger than 6 inches (150 mm) diameter: ARI 495, welded steel, tested and stamped according to ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code: Section VIII; 400 psig (2760 kPa) pressure rating, with pipe threaded female access fittings for inlet, outlet, pressure relief valves, and a liquid level indicator.Typical receiver accessories .. Relief device (valve or fusible plug) Dual relief valve saddle assembly Liquid level indicator / alarm Sight glass Receiver heater Insulated receiver Access / Isolation valves c:sporlan 2006cooling idiosyncrasies
  11. 11. Typical Receiver TypesFrom condenser To evaporator Receiver styles: vertical horizontal Receiver Minimum refrigerant charge is 15% of receivers Vent line capacity to ensure a liquid seal at the dip tube. Surge Receiver Liquid Lineindicates vapourindicates liquid No minimum receiver refrigerant charge needed c:sporlan 2006cooling idiosyncrasies
  12. 12. System with Receiver Receiver may or may not effect the quantity of sub-cooling depending on refrigerant’s speed, receivers ambient and system’s refrigerative effect.The circled area represents a typical receiver installed in the liquid condensate line. c:sporlan 2006cooling idiosyncrasies
  13. 13. System with Surge Receiver A surge receiver will not effect the quantity of sub-cooling. Refrigerant not required to accommodate the load will back into the surge receiver.The circled area represents a typical surge receiver installed in the liquid line. c:sporlan 2006cooling idiosyncrasies
  14. 14. Receiver Components & AccessoriesLevel indicators / Alarm actuators Typical relief valve & Fusible plugs Poly Tetra Fluoro Ethylene (Teflon) Straight-thru relief valve Pressure transducer, gauge and relief valve Dual relief valve assembly c:sporlan 2006cooling idiosyncrasies
  15. 15. A typical installation with a pressure vessel having a maximum working pressure of 400 PSI might be: Relief valvesRelief Valves 400 PSI: Set at the design working pressure of the vessel OR 25 % higher than the maximum working pressure of the system.High / Low: Set at approximately 80 – 85% of relief valve setting. 330 PSIRelief Valve: Table below for code parameters for a High / Low 400 PSI relief valve. Bypass valve IN High Pressure Receiver Relief Valve Parameters PSI Suction header + 10 % R.V. Full Open 440 Added protection is a High / Low By- R.V. pass valve if system pressure nears the Setting potential relief valve “Seep” Point. Relief Valve (R.V.) Setting 400 Tolerance OUT - 10 % Potential R.V. “Seep” Point 360 Maximum system operating pressure 320 Relief valve parameters as a percent of R.V. set pressure. Source: Henry Technologies c:sporlan 2006cooling idiosyncrasies
  16. 16. Receiver Components & Accessories Synthetic ester oil based grease using a lithium soap. SKF system grease LGLT-2 Operating temperature range -55ºC to 110ºC -65ºF to 230ºFIndoors Outdoors c:sporlan 2006cooling idiosyncrasies
  17. 17. Receiver Heaters Various Heater Types Strap-on heater Insertion heater Emersion heater Peel & Stick foil backed Magnetic heater strips Blanket heater c:sporlan 2006cooling idiosyncrasies
  18. 18. Thought Provoking !!! For testing purposes ONLY …How can a technician change rotationon a three phase application without moving a wire ? " Reversing Fuses " c:sporlan 2006cooling idiosyncrasies
  19. 19. Reversing Fuses Uninstalled Fuses Fuse Heavy Wire Blown / Bad Fuse Blown / Bad Fuse Fuse Heavy WireEXTREME CAUTION c:sporlan 2006cooling idiosyncrasies
  20. 20. Reversing Fuses Installed Fuses Blown / Bad Blown / Bad Fuse Fu se se Fu Fuse Heavy WireEXTREME CAUTION c:sporlan 2006cooling idiosyncrasies
  21. 21. " Receivers and their Affects " c:sporlan 2006cooling idiosyncrasies
  22. 22. Air Cooled Condenser Typical Split Condenser Summer c/w Standard Receiver R-22 condenser converted to R-404A, Liquid lines approximately a 10% gain in capacity.Restrictor tube tolow side may beused to control To evaporatorpump out rate ofinactive condenser ORI / OROA Receiver Minimum refrigerant charge is 15% of receivers capacity to ensure a liquid seal at the dip tube. c:sporlan 2006cooling idiosyncrasies
  23. 23. Typical Split Condenser Air Cooled Condenser c/w By-pass Receiver Summer R-22 condenser converted to R-404A, Liquid lines approximately a 10% gain in capacity. Shown de-energizedRestrictor tube tolow side may be To evaporatorused to controlpump out rate ofinactive condenser ORI / OROA 8, 12 or 16D Receiver c:sporlan 2006cooling idiosyncrasies
  24. 24. Three Way Solenoid 8D, 12D, 16D Energized To receiver From condenser1. High pressure refrigerant2. Piston vent line3. Open to low pressure To liquid line De-energized c:sporlan 2006cooling idiosyncrasies
  25. 25. De-energized c:sporlan 2006cooling idiosyncrasies
  26. 26. Energized c:sporlan 2006cooling idiosyncrasies
  27. 27. Air Cooled Condenser Typical Split Condenser Summer c/w Surge Receiver R-22 condenser converted to R-404A, Liquid lines approximately a 10% gain in capacity.Restrictor tube tolow side may beused to control Vent to condenser inlet,pump out rate of check valve installedinactive condenser in this line. ORI / OROA Surge Receiver “weir” Liquid Line receiver inlet / outlet No minimum receiver refrigerant charge needed c:sporlan 2006cooling idiosyncrasies
  28. 28. c:sporlan 2006cooling idiosyncrasies
  29. 29. Why Typical Split Condenser Vertical Drop ? Air Cooled Condenser Density Specific. 1 psi Lift in Ref. lb/ft3 Gravity Lift in ft. inches R-22 74.5 1.20 1.93 23.2 R-134a 75.1 1.21 1.91 22.9 Liquid lines R-404A 65.5 1.05 2.20 26.4 ** R-407C 70.8 1.14 2.03 24.4 Typical 6 ft. R-507A 65.5 1.05 2.20 26.4 R-410A 67.7 1.09 2.12 25.5Restrictor tube to R-12 81.8 1.31 1.76 21.1low side may be R-502 76.0 1.22 1.89 22.1used to controlpump out rate of R-718 62.3 1.00 2.31 27.7inactive condenser Densities are at 25ºC or 77ºF ORIT / OROA Specific Gravity = Density / 62.31 Split Condenser Circuits 1 psi Lift in ft. = 2.31 / SG ** Note: ARI check valve acceptable leak rate is 750 ml/minute one US gal = 3.8 liters (1 liter = 1000 ml) c:sporlan 2006cooling idiosyncrasies
  30. 30. " Multi Receivers and their Affects " c:sporlan 2006cooling idiosyncrasies
  31. 31. Variances in Lift Verses Density .. @ 1 psi Refrigerants Water Lubricants Ammonia one psi one psi one psi one psi Typical refrigerant Water H2O Typical lubricant Refrigerant R-7171.8 feet or 21.6 inches 2.31 feet or 27.7 inches 2.5 feet or 30 inches 3.9 feet or 47 inches c:sporlan 2006cooling idiosyncrasies
  32. 32. Multi ReceiversSeries Receivers Water cooled condensers Insufficient existing capacity Normally 2 or 3 in seriesParallel Receivers Difficult in controlling liquid levels Possible liquid in one and vapour in other c:sporlan 2006cooling idiosyncrasies
  33. 33. When Supplemental Receivers are NeededAuxiliary receivers may be necessary when refrigerant pumpdown capacity is less than theproper operational charge of refrigerant in the system. This condition sometimes occurs inwater cooled systems where the condenser-receivers have limited capacity and it can alsooccur in any system where large evaporators or long liquid lines are used or where thepumpdown liquid solenoid valves cannot be located close to the TEV’s. To correct thiscondition, an additional receiver with the necessary holding capacity should be installed inseries with and close to the outlet of the main receiver on the compression unit.The auxiliary receiver should be installed on the same level or below the main receiver on thecompression unit. Both the main and auxiliary receiver must have their own service valves,fusible plug or relief valve. The liquid line sightglass, drier and the liquid line to the evaporatorshould then be connected in the normal manner to the service valve which is installed on theoutlet fitting of the auxiliary receiver. c:sporlan 2006cooling idiosyncrasies
  34. 34. Supplemental Receivers Catch-All Solenoid See-All Receiver Catch-All Solenoid See-AllMain Auxiliary " Series " Receivers c:sporlan 2006cooling idiosyncrasies
  35. 35. Typical Copeland " C " Line Condensing Units Refrigerants Liquid In Outlet Valveone psi Typical refrigerant2.0 feet or 24 inches Cross sectional view of two refrigerant receivers in series c:sporlan 2006cooling idiosyncrasies
  36. 36. " Effects of Sub-cooling "An Idea Whose Time Has Come c:sporlan 2006cooling idiosyncrasies
  37. 37. Sub-coolingDefinition: The reduction of the liquid refrigerant’s temperature to a point below its saturation temperature. Sub-cooling is always the removal of sensible heat only from a liquid phase fluid.Obtainable: Up to 20% increase in Btu loading Decrease in electrical usage as much as 25% Reducing pull-down time up to 50% Provide more uniform refrigerating temperatures Reduces first cost, by permitting down sizing of compressors in new system. c:sporlan 2006cooling idiosyncrasies
  38. 38. Understanding Heat in the five Regions of a Ph Diagram Gaseous region Critical PointSensible heat regions Subcooled " Quality " Liquid region (% vapour)Latent heat t oin oint region eP Dew P bl b Bu … e … Superheated e lin Liquid / Vapour Vapour region our lin d mixture region ui liq te d ap ra ated v tu Sa Satur 0.8 0.6 0.9 0.7 0.5 0.3 0.2 0.4 0.1 Solid region Triple point c:sporlan 2006cooling idiosyncrasies
  39. 39. Increasing Sub-cooling Reduces Flash Gas, Increases Net Refrigeration Effect.Consider the Following: The compressor is a fixed displacement pump. It is pumping a certain number of CFM (pounds) of refrigerant through the cycle, and really doesn’t care how many Btu’s are in each one of those pounds. So by increasing the number of Btu’s per pound, we can increase the capacity of the system while not increasing the mass flow of refrigerant. c:sporlan 2006cooling idiosyncrasies
  40. 40. Sub-cooling can:1. Increase capacity2. Decrease electrical usage3. Reduce equipment maintenance4. Produce better temperature control5. Reduce pull-down time after defrost6. Reduce first costs c:sporlan 2006cooling idiosyncrasies
  41. 41. Thought Provoking !!!What do the headlights on a motor carand on a bus have to do with you, the refrigeration and air conditioning technician ? c:sporlan 2006cooling idiosyncrasies
  42. 42. MC and B tanks (acetylene)" MC " Motor Car " B " Bus 10 cu ft 40 cu ft B MC Acetylene Headlights Henry Ford Museum, Dearborn Michigan c:sporlan 2006cooling idiosyncrasies
  43. 43. " Accomplishing Sub-cooling " c:sporlan 2006cooling idiosyncrasies
  44. 44. Types of Sub-coolerAmbient sub-cooling Air Water RefrigerantMechanical sub-cooling Integral part of system Self contained refrigeration system Usually brazed plate heat exchangers Both styles actually refrigerate the refrigerant. c:sporlan 2006cooling idiosyncrasies
  45. 45. c:sporlan 2006cooling idiosyncrasies
  46. 46. Installation & Mounting ... ACCEPTABLEPREFERRED NEVER For Single Phase, Liquid-to-Liquid Applications c:sporlan 2006cooling idiosyncrasies
  47. 47. Installation & Mounting ... Effect of Inclination on Two Phase, Refrigerant Applications 0 Evaporator - 5 5 No measurable difference 30 within ± 5º of vertical. 30 45 -2% -3% -10% 60 45 -9% -16% 60 -15% -38% 90 -37% 90Based on testing conducted by NIST. R-22 evaporator. c:sporlan 2006cooling idiosyncrasies
  48. 48. Installation & Mounting ... Effect of Inclination on Two Phase, Refrigerant Applications 0 Condenser - 5 5 No measurable difference. 30 Short term limited test. 30 45 45 60 60 90 90Based on testing conducted by NIST. R-22 evaporator. c:sporlan 2006cooling idiosyncrasies
  49. 49. Typical Plate to Plate Heat Exchangers, Sub-coolers Sub-coolers Mechanical sub-coolers leaving liquid refrigerant temperature is usually controlled by a temperatureThe brazed plate heat sensor on the condensers liquidexchanger is substantially condensate drop leg.small than other technologiesthat could be used. The EPR valve should normally be set to maintain desired liquid temperature. This is normally 50°F but may be as low as 40°F for some systems. c:sporlan 2006cooling idiosyncrasies
  50. 50. Refrigeration Retrofitting R-22 to R-404A to Regaining the Lost Capacity liquid manifold TEV’s solenoidsPlate to PlateHeat exchanger Plate to Plate Heat Exchanger EPR from receiver to suction manifold c:sporlan 2006cooling idiosyncrasies
  51. 51. Thermodynamic 411Specific Heat .. the amount of heat needed to raise / lower one pound of a substance one F°. (Btu/lb. F° sensible heat)Refrigerant Liquids Btu/lb F° Btu/lb F° R-22 Cp 0.300 R-407C Cp 0.368 R-404A Cp 0.367 R-410A Cp 0.440 Source DuPont AG3 and AG2 c:sporlan 2006cooling idiosyncrasies
  52. 52. Sub-cooling Calculation Example R-22 has a Specific heat (Cp ) of 0.300Example:Liquid refrigerant entering sub-cooler is 100ºFDesired refrigerant temperature leaving sub-cooler 50ºFFormula used is Mass x Specific heat (Cp) x Delta temperatureRefrigeration effected needed per pound of mass flow is 1 x 0.300 x 50 = 15 btu’sA system having a mass flow rate of 13 pounds per minute needs 13 x 15 = 195 btu’s or 1 tonUsing the same conditions: 360,000 btu’s (30 ton LT) rack would need approximately 105 lbs/minSub-cooling capacity 105 x 0.300 x 50 = 1575 btu’s or 1575 / 200 = 7.9 tonsTEV’s for Sub-cooler .... One three tons and one five ton c:sporlan 2006cooling idiosyncrasies
  53. 53. Plate to Plate Heat Exchanger Mechanical Sub-cooler to liquid manifold The brazed plate heat exchanger is substantially smaller than other technologies that could be used as a liquid sub-cooler. Typically the rack controller has a temperature sensor that will sense the refrigerant drop leg (condenser return) TEV’s line to the receiver. Depending on the refrigerant type and system design it is quite normal to supply 40 to 50 °F sub-cooled liquid refrigerant throughout the network. solenoids An example of a typical Sub-coolers operation is as follows: no solenoids energized = no additional sub-coolingPlate to PlateHeat exchanger # 1 solenoid energized = 3 additional tons # 2 solenoid energized = 5 additional tons # 1 and # 2 solenoids energized = 8 additional tons The EPR is normally set to maintain the minimum desired liquid refrigerant supply temperature. This is normally EPR 50°F but may be as low as 40°F for some systems. A sub- cooler EPR settings of 68 psig will have a SST of 40°F for R-22 and 29°F for R-404A. The liquid line solenoids in front of the sub-cooler expansion from receiver to valves close when the condensers drop leg temperature gets suction manifold below the set point thereby shutting off the sub-cooler. c:sporlan 2006cooling idiosyncrasies
  54. 54. How Sub Cooling Affects System Capacity R-22 R-404A / R-507 For every 10F° of sub cooling For every 10F° of sub cooling of R-22 will equal a 6% of R-404A / R-507 will equal reduction in refrigerant mass a 10% reduction in refrigerant flow requirements. mass flow requirements. Example: SCT 100 F SCT 100 F Example: SCT 100 F SCT 100 F SST – 25 F SST – 25 F SST – 25 F SST – 25 F SC 0F SC 50F SC 0F SC 50F SH 25 F SH 25 F SH 25 F SH 25 F LOAD 5T LOAD 5T LOAD 5T LOAD 5T BTU/LB 62.6 BTU/LB 77.6 BTU/LB 38.6 BTU/LB 58.4 Summary: Summary: 77.6 / 62.6 = 1.24 58.4 / 38.6 = 1.51 Therefore 2F° SC = 1 % capacity increase Therefore 1F° SC = 1 % capacity increase Refrigerant circulated 15.9 to 12.9 lb/min Refrigerant circulated 25.9 to 17.2 lb/min Compressor displacement from 44.1 to 35.5 cfm Compressor displacement from 49.7 to 32.9 cfmNOTE: the above outlined calculation were determined by the use of DuPrex computer program c:sporlan 2006cooling idiosyncrasies
  55. 55. c:sporlan 2006cooling idiosyncrasies
  56. 56. c:sporlan 2006cooling idiosyncrasies
  57. 57. c:sporlan 2006cooling idiosyncrasies
  58. 58. c:sporlan 2006cooling idiosyncrasies
  59. 59. Thought Provoking !!!What is the controlling capacity factor of any refrigeration system ? The choke point …. " Evaporator " c:sporlan 2006cooling idiosyncrasies
  60. 60. " Economizers when Multi Staging " c:sporlan 2006cooling idiosyncrasies
  61. 61. Open Economizer refrigerant vapour to indicates vapour compressor’s inter-stage indicates liquid spray nozzles liquid refrigerant to liquid refrigerant Evaporator (s) from condenser open economizer saturated refrigerant at inter-stage pressureThe " Open or Flash " economizer is simply a tank, which is vented to the compressors inter-stage.The refrigerant flashes, evaporating some of the refrigerant, cooling the remaining liquid tothe saturation temperature corresponding to the inlet pressure of the compressor inter-stage.The open or flash economizer is an economical, efficient method of cooling liquid refrigeranten-route to the evaporator (s). Open economizers are generally used when high efficiency is requiredas they also reduce the BHP requirements. c:sporlan 2006cooling idiosyncrasies
  62. 62. Open Economizer 2nd stage 1st stage" Open or Flash " economizer c:sporlan 2006cooling idiosyncrasies
  63. 63. Closed Economizer liquid refrigerant from condenser Sub-cooled liquid refrigerant to evaporator (s) indicates vapour level indicates liquid controller liquid refrigerant vapour to refrigerant compressors inter-stage closed economizerThe " Closed " economizer takes the liquid from the condenser and splits the flow into two streams.Most of the refrigerant flow goes through the tubes of a shell and tube heat exchanger; the remainingrefrigerant goes to the shell side through a control valve to be boiled off to cool the refrigerant in thetubes. The vapour generated is vented to the inlet of the compressors inter-stage. c:sporlan 2006cooling idiosyncrasies
  64. 64. Closed Economizer 2nd stage 1st stage" Closed " economizer c:sporlan 2006cooling idiosyncrasies
  65. 65. Two Stage A/C Cooling !! His and Hers ?? c:sporlan 2006cooling idiosyncrasies
  66. 66. Summary Possible reselection of TEV and distributor orifice disc neededUp to 20% increase in Btu loadingDecrease in electrical usage as much as 25%Reducing pull-down time up to 50%Provide more uniform refrigerating temperaturesReduces first cost, by permitting down sizing ofcompressors in new system. Catch-All Solenoid See-All c:sporlan 2006cooling idiosyncrasies
  67. 67. Affects of Sub-cooling on TEV’s CapacityRefrigerant 100°F 60°F 50°F 40°F (0°SC) (40°SC) (50°SC) (60°SC)R-134a 100% 1.29 1.36 1.42R-401A 100% 1.25 1.31 1.36R-409A 100% 1.23 1.28 1.34R-404A 100% 1.43 1.54 1.64R-408A 100% 1.27 1.34 1.40R-507 100% 1.40 1.50 1.59R-22 100% 1.23 1.29 1.34R-407C 100% 1.28 1.35 1.42 c:sporlan 2006cooling idiosyncrasies
  68. 68. " Accumulators and their Affects " c:sporlan 2006cooling idiosyncrasies
  69. 69. Accumulator Design Hold approximately 50% of systems charge in TEV systemsHold approximately 70% of systems charge in fixed orifice systems Standard screen in 3 inch Standard screen in 3 through 6 inch diameter accumulators diameter accumulators Metering orifice for oil return to the compressor located behind screen 0.055” diameter for 3 through 5 inch diameter accumulators 0.080” diameter for 6 inch diameter accumulators c:sporlan 2006cooling idiosyncrasies
  70. 70. Accumulator Screens Original R-22 Screen Enhanced HFC Screen Mesh 0.001’s Microns 10 = 0.0580 = 1500 30 = 0.0194 = 500 60 = 0.0097 = 250 100 = 0.0058 = 150 140 = 0.0041 = 105 200 = 0.0029 = 74 350 = 0.0017 = 44 60 x 60 mesh of surface area Increased surface area retains more Smaller mesh can trap POE oils and contaminants without plugging. additives. 30 x 30 mesh screen prevents POE oils & additives from becoming trapped due to surface tension .Mesh .. Number of openings per linear inch, measured from the centre of one wire to a point one inch distant. c:sporlan 2006cooling idiosyncrasies
  71. 71. Thought Provoking !!!Odors … BacteriaOdor eaters .. Charcoal Baking Soda FDS (feminine deodorant spray) foam core insulation, not fiberglassPersonal level .. Vicks Vapor Rub … your upper lip Basil … nasal snort c:sporlan 2006cooling idiosyncrasies
  72. 72. Effects of Hydrostatic Pressures ? Lets Look at it. c:sporlan 2006cooling idiosyncrasies
  73. 73. Typical Effects of Hydrostatic Pressure 3200 2600 Hydrostatic Pressure Increase 2200 R-12/R-134a is 40 psi / each F° R-22 is 60 psi / each F° R-410A is 45 psi / each Fº 1800Pressure psig 4BA / 4BW 1400 Burst Pressure 1040 thru 1600 1000 Relief R-410A Devices 600 R-22 390 psi thru 800 psi R-12 & R-134a 200 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 R-410A R-22 R-12/R-134a Temperature °F 40°F is 120 psi 40°F is 70 psi 40°F is 37 psi 155°F is 645 psi 180°F is 540 psi 180°F is 330 psi Receiver to Solenoid ? c:sporlan 2006cooling idiosyncrasies
  74. 74. Troubled System … 6 TEV’s Replaced Still High Super Heat ? System: R-22, with MO Freezer at - 25ºF SST - 17ºF Electric defrost Pump out system LP control cutout 1 psig (- 40ºF) Freezer at - 17ºF Found a 30Fº ∆ across Tee Freezer atLiquid line solenoid 100 feet away. - 17ºF “Tee” c:sporlan 2006cooling idiosyncrasies
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  78. 78. Blood Storage Room critical application - 30ºC or - 22ºFBlood Storage RoomProblem: loss of critical temperaturecontrol, in a continuous operation.Picture is of Hot Gas stabilizer line atevaporator inlet, solenoid 8 ft aboveoutside box in a 74ºF ambient. c:sporlan 2006cooling idiosyncrasies
  79. 79. Fouling !!!!!Modern Service Technician c:sporlan 2006cooling idiosyncrasies
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  81. 81. A 0.042" Film of Dirt on a Coil Equals 21% Loss in Heat Transfer Efficiency c:sporlan 2006cooling idiosyncrasies
  82. 82. " Servicing a Winter Charge" c:sporlan 2006cooling idiosyncrasies
  83. 83. SporlanBulletin90-30-1 c:sporlan 2006cooling idiosyncrasies
  84. 84. SporlanBulletin90-30-1 c:sporlan 2006cooling idiosyncrasies
  85. 85. Sporlan Bulletin 90-30-1 Refrigerants listedR-12 R-22 R-134a R-401A R-401BR-402A R-402B R-404A R-407C R-408AR-409A R-502 R-507 c:sporlan 2006cooling idiosyncrasies
  86. 86. SporlanBulletin90-30-1 c:sporlan 2006cooling idiosyncrasies
  87. 87. Sporlan Bulletin 90-30-1 c:sporlan 2006cooling idiosyncrasies
  88. 88. Sporlan Bulletin 90-30-1 c:sporlan 2006cooling idiosyncrasies
  89. 89. Servicing a Winter Charge !!! To calculate the correct additional winter operational refrigerant charge needed at winter design follow the procedure as outlined in Sporlan bulletin 90-30-1 dated July 1998. How to calculate the needed additional refrigerant if only a partial charge exists.1. Calculate the correct added winter refrigerant charge for the winter design conditions. eg: 128 lbs @ - 20ºF. (follow procedure as outlined in Sporlan bulletin 90-30-1 dated July 1998)2. Take and record the current outdoor ambient air temperature. eg: + 20ºF3. Add refrigerant until the sight glass just clears and record the quantity of refrigerant added. eg: 17 lbs4. Recalculate the added winter charge for the current existing ambient temperature. eg: 98 lbs @ + 20ºF. (this unit now contains the correct operational winter charge for its current ambient air temperature)5. Additional refrigerant needed to operate at – 20ºF is 128 – 98 = 30 lbs.6. In this example the billable refrigerant charge would be 17 + 30 or 47 lbs. c:sporlan 2006cooling idiosyncrasies
  90. 90. Fin and Tube Heat Exchangers FINS Used for both evaporators Secondary and condensers. Surface,usually made of Aluminum (Al) TUBES Primary Surface, usually made of copper (Cu). c:sporlan 2006cooling idiosyncrasies
  91. 91. Coefficient of ExpansionCu is 0.0000104 of an inch / per inch / per F° or 1.04E-5 per inch / per F° Coefficient of Expansion Al is 0.0000130 of an inch / per inch / per F° or 1.30E-5 per inch / per F° Source: American Machinists Handbook, p 33 - 29 c:sporlan 2006cooling idiosyncrasies
  92. 92. c:sporlan 2006cooling idiosyncrasies
  93. 93. 2 Lines of Nozzles c:sporlan 2006cooling idiosyncrasies
  94. 94. Air Cooled Condenser c:sporlan 2006cooling idiosyncrasies
  95. 95. Air Cooled Condenser c:sporlan 2006cooling idiosyncrasies
  96. 96. Cu vs Al“Aluminum will creep and move approximately 33% more than copper. This large movement will eventually lead to fatigue failure.”“Through repetitive thermal cycling, aluminum laminations (fins) can become loose, resulting in early failure.” Source: elettra technology inc.H2O (hard or soft) will evaporate AND cause residue (residual) deposits ofeither or both mineral and / or oxides to be left behind. This residuewill be deposited on or between the Cu and Al thereby increasing theheat exchanger’s fouling factor. This increase interferes with the heattransfer process causing a loss of efficiency and capacity. c:sporlan 2006cooling idiosyncrasies
  97. 97. Other Considerations• Continues running of water .. Added costs water cost / sewer charge• Roof will not dry off … permanent roof damage• Loss of head pressure control as temperature changes• Environmental aspects• Outdoor installation, freezing prospects• Repeated calls to start / stop adjust etc:• Equipment life shortened, rust, motors, belts, drives c:sporlan 2006cooling idiosyncrasies
  98. 98. And Then There is the Other ContractorModern Service Technician c:sporlan 2006cooling idiosyncrasies
  99. 99. Poor Bulb Location = Floodback Show smashed compressor parts ……………. c:sporlan 2006cooling idiosyncrasies
  100. 100. Built-in Redundancy !!! c:sporlan 2006cooling idiosyncrasies
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  102. 102. 10 Units in 48” wide passage !!! c:sporlan 2006cooling idiosyncrasies
  103. 103. First Rule in Real Estate Location .. Location .. Location c:sporlan 2006cooling idiosyncrasies
  104. 104. Residential Split Systems Typical Cool Climate Installation ?Traditional / Standard Method c:sporlan 2006cooling idiosyncrasies
  105. 105. Residential Split Systems Secure top of hairpin only .. Allows opening / closing Second Alternative, Knee Braces on outside wall.Preferred Installation Pro’s: Not effected by ground thermo shear. Method Landscaping not completed .. RNC market. Con’s: Sound transmission, harmonics through wall. Isolation pads may be needed ? c:sporlan 2006cooling idiosyncrasies
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  112. 112. Didn’t like the look …Must hide the Condensing unit c:sporlan 2006cooling idiosyncrasies
  113. 113. R-410A ? Under the Deck …unit will die of emphysema !!! RedRock Clubhouse, prestigious golf course in South Carolina. Removed 4” of pine needles to get units in and then only 1” top clearance on second unit. c:sporlan 2006cooling idiosyncrasies
  114. 114. Typical Ductless Split Installation c:sporlan 2006cooling idiosyncrasies
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