一百日學好英語

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一百日學好英語

  1. 1. 一百日學好英語主要是針對一些重要之文法規則(grammar rules) 去改善讀者之英語水準。由於本書著重文 法(grammar),故書中提及不少文法詞語。 雖然各課文中均有文法詞語之中英文對照,但為了方便讀者起見,以 下是本資料庫所有文法詞語中英對照之一覽表。 adjective 形容詞 adverb 副詞 adverbial clause 副詞子句 article 冠詞 the base form of a verb 動詞原形 (bare infinitive) countable nouns 可數名詞 connectives 連接詞 clause 子句 gerund 動名詞 infinitive 不定詞 intransitive verb 不及物動詞 interrogatives 疑問詞 modal 情態動詞 noun 名詞 noun clause 名詞子句 object 受詞 pronoun 代名詞 preposition 介詞 phrase 片語/短語 phrasal verb 片語動詞 plural 複數 question tags 附加問句 subject 主詞 singular 單數 tense 動詞詞態 transitive verb 及物動詞 uncountable nouns 不可數名詞 verb to be 助動詞 有了這個表,讀者便可以對各文法詞語一目了然。此外,本資料庫之特色為以一百日為學習時間,讀者只 須依照已編好之進度去學習,便能在一百天內改善其英語水準。為求達到事半功倍之效,希敬各讀者按照時間 1
  2. 2. 表之分配學習,不要間斷,持之以恆。 完成此資料庫後,讀者還可參閱本公司出版之其他英語學習叢書,不斷提高其英語水準。 ** DAY 1 ** A. DAILY / EVERYDAY ENGLISH In this chapter, we will learn some useful expressions of greetings, farewells and polite responses for daily life. (日常生活中一些有用的招呼用語,道別用語和有禮貌的回應語。) a. Greetings (招呼用語) Hi/ Hello 任何時間見面時都可用。 Good morning 早晨,上午見面時可用。 Good afternoon 午安,下午見面時可用。 Good evening 晚上好,晚上見面時可用。 How are you? 任何時間見面時問候用。 Fine, thank you. 回應別人問候的致謝語。 I'm fine, thank you. 也是回應別人問候的致謝語。 Very well, thank you. 也是回應別人問候的致謝語。 b. Farewell (道別用語) See you. 任何時間分手時用。 So long. 任何時間分手時用。 Good day./ Have a good day. 白天分手時用。並祝對方有愉快的一天。 Good night. 晚上分手時用。 Good-bye. 任何時間分手時用。 Bye-bye. 任何時間分手時用。 c. Regret or apology (致歉用語) Sorry. 道歉或表示遺憾時用。 I'm sorry. 道歉或表示遺憾時用。 Excuse me. 請求原諒或打擾別人時用。 Pardon me. 請求原諒時用。 d. Polite responses (有禮貌的回應語) No problem. 沒問題。 Don't care it. 對別人致歉後的回應。 That's all right/Nevermind. 對別人致歉後的回應。 You're welcome/It's my pleasure. 對別人道謝後的回應。 Yes, OK. 2
  3. 3. 用於肯定答覆。 Certainly /Sure/Of course. 用於肯定答覆。 Yes, please. 回答別人詢問有關你的選擇時之肯定回答。 No, thank you. 回答別人詢問有關你的選擇時之否定回答。 ** DAY 2 ** e. Common errors (常犯錯誤) 1. " 〤 " "How do you do?" "Fine, thank you." " ˇ " "How are you?" "Fine, thank you." ("你好嗎?" "好,謝謝你"。) "How do you do?" 與 "How are you?" 的用法是不同的。當兩個不相識的人,在第一次見面時,用"How do you do?"而回應語同樣是"How do you do?"如大家已認識,在見面時應用"How are you?",並以"Fine, t hank you." 回應。 2. " 〤 " "Would you like some peanuts?" "No, please." " ˇ " "Would you like some peanuts?" "No, thank you." ("你想吃些花生嗎?" "不用了,謝謝。") 在英語中,當回答別人詢問有關你的選擇時,應以"Yes, please."用於肯定回答,而以"No, thank yo u."用於否定回答,我們不應只說"Yes."或"No.",是不禮貌的。 3. " 〤 " Mr. Wong, "Do you mind if I smoke?" Mr. Li, "Nevermind." " ˇ " Mr. Wong, "Do you mind if I smoke?" Mr. Li, "No, not at all." "Do you mind if I smoke?"意思是"你介意我吸煙嗎?"答案應是,"No, not at all."先答了"不",再 說"不介意"。當別人說"I'm sorry for that.",表示對不起的意思時,我們才回答"Nevermind."可作"沒關 係"之意。 Exercise 1 Fill in the blanks with suitable expressions. 1. Eva: # #. Can you tell me where the post office is? Dick: Certainly. It's at the end of the street. Answer: Excuse me 2. # a #. I spilt the milk on the floor. # b #. Wipe it off with a piece of cloth. (不要緊,用一塊布抹去就沒有問題了!) Answer: a. Sorry/I'm sorry b. Nevermind 3. Father: Sam, can you help me to clean the cups? Sam: # #,(Sam is pleased to help. Sam是樂意幫忙的。) Answer: Certainly/Of course/Sure/No problem 4. I'm sorry. I forgot your name! # #, I'm Smith. Answer: Nevermind 5. "Thank you for your coffee, Tom." Peter said. "# #." Tom said. Answer: You're welcome/It's my pleasure/You are welcome 6. "Hello, Tom! How are you?" "# #, thank you." Answer: Fine 3
  4. 4. 7. "Could you pass the book, please?" "# #. " Answer: Yes, certainly/Of course/Sure/No problem 8. "Good morning, Charles." "# #, Rose." Answer: Good morning 9. It's too late. I have to go back now. # a #. # b #. See you tomorrow. Answer: a. Bye b. Bye/Take care 10. "Thank you very much for the help, Mary!" Sam said. "# #." Mary said. Answer: You're welcome/It's my pleasure/You are welcome Exercise 2 Select the following expressions to fill in the blanks. % a. Sorry, I'm late. % b. You're welcome. % c. Fine, thank you. % d. Nevermind. % e. I'm sorry. % f. No, not at all. 1. Paul: "I'm very sorry." June: "# #." Answer: d 2. John: "Mr. Smith, # #." Mr. Smith: "Go to your seat at once." Answer: a 3. David: "Good afternoon, Mr. Jackson. How are you?" Mr. Jackson: "# #." Answer: c 4. Ann: "Thank you for your help." Tim: "# #." Answer: b 5. Lisa: "Do you mind lending me the ruler?" Janet: "# #." Answer: f ** DAY 3 ** B. PUNCTUATION 標點符號分為: a. Full-stop (.)(句號) b. Comma (,)(逗號) c. Question mark (?) (問號) d. Exclamation mark (!)(感歎號) e. Apostrophe (')(省略號) f. Colon (:)(冒號) g. Brackets (Parentheses) (括號) h. Semicolon (;)(分號) i. Quotation marks ('')(引號) j. Dash (-)(破折號) a. Full-stop (.) 一般在下列情況下使用句號(.): 1. 在一個句子末尾: e.g. I have a pen. 2. 在縮寫的單詞後面: e.g. Oct., Govt., Rd.(road) 路, St. (street) 街 3. 用於字母縮寫(abbreviations of single letters) i.e.(即是)e.g.(例如) N. Korea (North Korea) b. Comma (,) 逗號一般用於下列情況中: 1. 把附加信息(additional information)分隔開。 4
  5. 5. Mr. Li, our English teacher, left for America yesterday. "our English teacher" 是用來給與我們多些關於 Mr. Li 的資料,我們通常會以逗號分隔此訊息。 2. 將列舉的事物名詞分開: Nick needs to buy some tapes, cassette recorders , records, concert tickets and a television se t. 3. 用於直述句(direct speech) "You are now old enough," my mother said to me, "and try to be independent." 4. 用於地址: Flat k, Fairview Court, Robinson Rd. c. Question mark(?) 問號(?)用於疑問句句末。 How old are you? d. Exclamation mark (!) 1. 用於表示強烈情感或驚奇: What a clever boy! 2. 用於禁止或命令: Don't do that! Follow me! e. Apostrophe (') 省字號(')一般用於兩種情況: 1. 表示所屬的(Possession) That is John's book. 2. 縮短動詞拼寫: I'm a student. (=I am a student.) I'd like to stay at home.(= I would like to stay at home.) f. Colon (:) 冒號停頓較長,一般在下列情況下用: 1. 在兩個子句(Clause)中,第二個子句是對第一個子句的擴展或解釋,就用冒號(:)將這兩個子句隔開。 Tom was unlucky today : he missed the bus and so he was late for school. 2. 介紹一系列的東西: She bought many things : five dresses, two hats, six rings, ...... g. Brackets ( ) 括號( )可用於: 1. 取代逗號,將附加信息(additional information)隔開。 Peter (my best friend) is a policeman. 2. 表示時間 e.g. In Dynasty (221-206BC) was ..... ** DAY 4 ** h. Semicolon (;) 分號(;) 停頓的時間較逗號長,一般用於: 1. 把意思連繫很緊的句子分開當作連接詞(conjunction)的作用。 Don't touch the door; the paint on it is wet. 2. 把列舉的一系列事物名詞分開,當作逗號(,)的作用: The average marks of the English test are: 5A, 73; 5B, 77; 5C, 80; 5D, 68... i. Quotation marks (") 在下列情況下使用引號(") 1. 直接引述說話人所說的話: "Correct me, "she said, "if I'm wrong." 或:She said, "Correct me, if I'm wrong." 2. 標出書名,歌曲名,電視節目等。 The book "Gone with the wind" is very famous. 3. 標明具有特別意義的詞,如反意、諷刺等: You are a "Kind" man. j. Dash (-) 破折號(-)用於下列兩種情況中: 1. 將附加信息(additional information)分隔開,取代逗號: Mrs. Wang - a very unhappy woman - died last night. 2. 用於冒號(colon)之後,介紹一系列名稱: For his birthday, Tom asked for: - a new schoolbag, a new bicycle,...... k. Common errors 常犯錯誤 5
  6. 6. 1. Full-stop (.) 句號,Question marks (?)問號及 Exclamation mark (!)感歎號是斷句符號,只能置於 句末,用了斷句符號的句子就不能同別的句子相連。 " 〤 " "How old are you? and how long have you been here?" he asked. " ˇ " "How old are you and how long have you been here?" he asked. 2. 誤將逗號用作句號: " 〤 " "I'll go to your house." he said, "if I am free." " ˇ " "I'll go to your house," he said, "if I am free." 3. 在使用引號(")時,誤將句號(.)置於引號之外。 " 〤 " He said, "You are too lazy". " ˇ " He said, "You are too lazy." Exercise 給下列所列出的句子注上標點符號: Example: Isn't that Janet Jackson Nancy asked. "Isn't that Janet Jackson?" Nancy asked. 1. we will sing we are the world page 56 in tonights concert Answer: We will sing "We are the world" (page 56) in tonight's concert. 2. my brothers girl-friend went to America last week Answer: My brother's girl-friend went to America last week. 3. stop talking and listen carefully the teacher shouted Answer: "Stop talking and listen carefully!" the teacher shouted. 4. after class the students all rushed out of the classroom Answer: After class, the students all rushed out of the classroom. 5. mr wong our form teacher is well respected by our classmates Answer: Mr. Wong, our form teacher, is well respected by our classmates. 6. our school is divided into different houses yellow red blue and green Answer: Our school is divided into different houses: yellow, red, blue and green. 7. John lives in flat 4 3rd floor ming fai mansion wan chai Answer: John lives in Flat 4, 3rd floor, Ming Fai Mansion, Wan Chai. 8. did you watch the movie last night Answer: Did you watch the movie last night? 9. well go to the usa with mr chan our literature lecturer next month Answer: We'll go to the U.S.A. with Mr. Chan, our literature lecturer, next month. 10. stop talking the babies sleeping mother said Answer: "Stop talking! The baby's sleeping." mother said. ** DAY 5 ** C. TIME & DATE Time 時間 Hour(小時), minute(分鐘)and second(秒)are the three main units of time. There are 24 hours(時)i n a day. There are 60 minutes(分鐘)in an hour. a. 時間的寫法: 1. "o'clock" 當分針指著12的時候,我們用"o'clock". 3:00 three o'clock. 9:00 nine o'clock. 4:00 four o'clock. 2. "Past" 當分針是在一分至廿九分的時候,我們則先說了分鐘數目,然後寫"Past",最後再寫上小時的數目。 3:05 five past three. 6:10 ten past six. 7:25 twenty-five past seven. 若分針指著15分鐘,我們可寫作: 9:15 a quarter past nine. 6
  7. 7. 7:15 a quarter past seven. 3. "half past" 當分針指著三十分鐘,即6字,我們寫作half past(半),再寫上小時數目。 3:30 half past three. 7:30 half past seven. 4. "to" 當分針指著31分至59分,我們則要計算還有多少分鐘會到60分鐘,然後寫"to",最後寫分針到達12的時候會 是幾點,如: 6:50 ten to seven. (尚有十分鐘到七點) 2:35 twenty-five to three. (尚有廿五分鐘到三點) 7:42 eighteen to eight. (尚有十八分鐘到八點) 6:48 twelve to seven. (尚有十二分鐘到七點) 5. "a quarter" 當分針指著45分,我們也可以用 "a quarter"(一刻鐘)來表達。 7:45 a quarter to eight. (尚有一刻鐘到八點) 8:45 a quarter to nine. (尚有一刻鐘到九點) 6. 此外,講述時間還有另一個方法,是先說小時,再說分鐘。 3:05 three five. (三時五分) 6:13 six thirteen. (六時十三分) 3:30 three thirty. (三時三十分) 8:45 eight forty-five. (八時四十五分) 7:08 seven eight. (七時八分) 6:32 six thirty-two. (六時三十二分) 7. 其他 at 9:15 a.m. (在上午九點十五分) at 2:00 p.m. (在下午兩點) at 3:27 p.m. (在下午三點二十七分) just after 10:00a.m. (剛在上午十點以後) from 1 to 6. (自一點到六點) from 5 to 9. (自五點到九點) ** DAY 6 ** b. Date 日期 1. 一星期中的七天: Sunday (Sun.) (星期日) Monday (Mon.) (星期一) Tuesday (Tues.) (星期二) Wednesday (Wed.) (星期三) Thursday (Thurs.) (星期四) Friday (Fri.) (星期五) Saturday (Sat.) (星期六) 一星期中的七天以大寫字母開始。 2. 一年中的月份。 January (Jan.) (一月) February (Feb.) (二月) March (Mar.) (三月) April (Apr.) (四月) May (May) (五月) June (Jun.) (六月) July (Jul.) (七月) August (Aug.) (八月) September (Sept.) (九月) October (Oct.) (十月) November (Nov.) (十一月) December (Dec.) (十二月) 一年中的月份以大寫字母開始。日期是以序數表示,因此,在讀時,我們說:May the fourth (五月四日)Aug ust the nineteenth (八月十九日)等或the nineteenth of August等。 然而,這些日期可有不同的書寫方式; 例如May the fourth 可寫成:May 4, May 4th, 4 May, 4th May, 4th of May, May the 4th. 3. 年份 1994 讀作 nineteen ninety - four 1765 讀作 seventeen sixty - five 7
  8. 8. 另外,表達公元前,則在年份後加上B.C.(Before Jesus Christ was born.)如:公元前70年,寫作70 B.C. 相反,公元後是A.D.(Annon, Domini, 主降後)所以,1994年也可寫作:1994 A.D. Exercise 1 把下列各時間用英語寫出: 1. 6:00 Answer: 6 o'clock/six o'clock 2. 7:00 Answer: 7 o'clock/seven o'clock 3. 5:00 Answer: 5 o'clock/five o'clock Exercise 2 用英語寫出下列各時間: 1. 7:20 Answer: twenty past seven/seven twenty 2. 8:15 Answer: a quarter past eight/eight fifteen 3. 7:00 Answer: seven o'clock 4. 6:25 Answer: twenty-five past six 5. 11:15 Answer: a quarter past eleven/eleven fifteen 6. 9:12 Answer: twelve past nine/nine twelve Exercise 3 用英語寫出下列各時間: 1. 12:30 Answer: half past twelve/twelve thirty 2. 5:30 Answer: half past five/five thirty 3. 9:15 Answer: fifteen past nine/a quarter past nine/nine fifteen 4. 7:00 Answer: seven o'clock 5. 8:05 Answer: five past eight/eight five 6. 8:15 Answer: fifteen past eight/a quarter past eight/eight fifteen 7. 6:30 Answer: half past six/six thirty 8. 1:20 Answer: twenty past one/one twenty 9. 4:10 Answer: ten past four/four ten 10. 6:00 Answer: six o'clock Exercise 4 用"Past", "to" or "o'clock"把下列時間用英語寫出來。 1. 8:43 Answer: seventeen to nine 2. 9:37 Answer: twenty-three to ten 3. 6:00 Answer: six o'clock 4. 7:15 Answer: a quarter past seven 5. 8:53 8
  9. 9. Answer: seven to nine 6. 4:18 Answer: eighteen past four 7. 5:30 Answer: half past five 8. 6:48 Answer: twelve to seven 9. 9:12 Answer: twelve past nine 10. 12:15 Answer: a quarter past twelve Exercise 5 用英語把下列時間寫出: 1. 6:45 Answer: a quarter to seven/six forty-five 2. 11:45 Answer: a quarter to twelve/eleven forty-five 3. 5:45 Answer: a quarter to six/five forty-five 4. 2:45 Answer: a quarter to three/two forty-five Exercise 6 寫出下列各時間。 1. 7:10 Answer: seven ten/ten past seven 2. 8:45 Answer: eight forty-five/a quarter to nine 3. 9:40 Answer: nine forty/twenty to ten 4. 10:33 Answer: ten thirty-three/twenty-seven to eleven 5. 8:15 Answer: eight fifteen/a quarter past eight 6. 6:30 Answer: six thirty/half past six Exercise 7 Now, study the example and then finish the exercises. e.g. 8:15 a quarter past eight or eight fifteen. 1. 7:30 Answer: half past seven/seven thirty 2. 6:20 Answer: twenty past six/six twenty 3. 9:45 Answer: a quarter to ten/nine forty-five 4. 8:15 Answer: a quarter past eight/eight fifteen 5. 10:48 Answer: twelve to eleven/ten forty-eight 6. 2:45 Answer: a quarter to three/two forty-five 7. 11:52 Answer: eight to twelve/eleven fifty-two 8. 10:50 Answer: ten to eleven/ten fifty 9. 8:15 Answer: a quarter past eight/eight fifteen 10. 6:30 Answer: half past six/six thirty 9
  10. 10. Exercise 8 用英文寫出下面的時間: 1. 十點鐘 Answer: ten o'clock 2. 七點鐘 Answer: seven o'clock 3. 九點半 Answer: half past nine/nine thirty 4. 二點半 Answer: half past two/two thirty 5. 上午八點 Answer: 8:00 a.m. 6. 上午十一點半 Answer: 11:30 a.m. 7. 下午一點十分 Answer: 1:10 p.m. 8. 下午三點十五分 Answer: 3:15 p.m. 9. 自一點到四點 Answer: from one o'clock to four o'clock 10. 自六點到十二點 Answer: from six o'clock to twelve o'clock Exercise 9 用英文把下面的時間表示出來: 1. 1:30 Answer: half past one/one thirty 2. 5:20 Answer: twenty past five/five twenty 3. 2:05 Answer: five past two/two five 4. 3:18 Answer: eighteen past three/three eighteen 5. 7:40 Answer: seven forty/twenty to eight 6. 9:23 Answer: nine twenty-three/twenty-three past nine 7. 10:11 Answer: ten eleven/eleven past ten 8. 8:37 Answer: eight thirty-seven/twenty-three to nine 9. 12:10 Answer: ten past twelve/twelve ten 10. 6:04 Answer: six four/four past six 11. 11:50 Answer: ten to twelve/eleven fifty 12. 4:25 Answer: four twenty-five/twenty-five past four Exercise 10 用英語把括號內的時間表達出來: 1. We usually get up at # # (6:30). Answer: half past six/six thirty 2. Tom came back at # # (7:20). Answer: twenty past seven/seven twenty 3. My brother came back at # # (9:00) last night. Answer: nine o'clock/nine 4. Mary went to bed at # # (11:50)last night. Answer: eleven fifty/ten to twelve 10
  11. 11. 5. We'll begin our class at # # (8:30). Answer: half past eight/eight thirty Exercise 11 寫出下面星期的縮寫及星期數目。 1.Monday: # a # ( b ) Answer: a. Mon. b. 1 2.Tuesday: # a # ( b ) Answer: a. Tues. b. 2 3.Wednesday:# a # ( b ) Answer: a. Wed. b. 3 4.Thursday: # a # ( b ) Answer: a. Thurs. b. 4 5.Friday: # a # ( b ) Answer: a. Fri. b. 5 6.Saturday: # a # ( b ) Answer: a. Sat. b. 6 Exercise 12 寫出下面月份的縮寫及月份數目。 1.January: # a # ( b ) Answer: a. Jan. b. 1 2.February: # a # ( b ) Answer: a. Feb. b. 2 3.March: # a # ( b ) Answer: a. Mar. b. 3 4.April: # a # ( b ) Answer: a. Apr. b. 4 5.May: # a # ( b ) Answer: a. May. b. 5 6.June: # a # ( b ) Answer: a. Jun. b. 6 7.July: # a # ( b ) Answer: a. Jul. b. 7 8.August: # a # ( b ) Answer: a. Aug. b. 8 9.September:# a # ( b ) Answer: a. Sept. b. 9 10.October: # a # ( b ) Answer: a. Oct. b. 10 11.November:# a # ( b ) Answer: a. Nov. b. 11 12.December:# a # ( b ) Answer: a. Dec. b. 12 Exercise 13 用英語把下面的年份表示出來: e.g. 1842 - eighteen forty-two 1700B.C.- seventeen hundred B.C. 1. 1769 Answer: seventeen sixty-nine 2. 1523 Answer: fifteen twenty-three 3. 1768 Answer: seventeen sixty-eight 4. 1986 Answer: nineteen eighty-six 5. 1865 Answer: eighteen sixty-five 6. 240 B.C. 11
  12. 12. Answer: two hundred and forty B.C. 7. 420 A.D. Answer: four hundred and twenty A.D. 8. 1200 A.D. Answer: twelve hundred A.D. 9. 350 B.C. Answer: three hundred and fifty B.C. 10. 1840 A.D. Answer: eighteen forty A.D. Exercise 14 用英語把下面括號中的日期表示出來。 1. Columbus discovered America in # #(1492). Answer: fourteen ninety-two 2. On # # (1869年4月29日), a contest was held. Answer: April 29, 1869/29 April, 1869 3. From # a # (公元前300年)to # b #(公元後500年)is eight hundred years. Answer: a. 300 B.C. b. 500 A.D. 4. We will leave for Germany on # #(9月17日). Answer: September 17/17 September 5.Susan will marry on # # ( 星期日). Answer: Sunday ** DAY 7 ** D. NOUNS 名詞 a. 名詞之種類 noun 就是名詞,英語中,名詞可分為四類。 1) proper noun(專有名詞): (in grammar) A noun is the name of a person, a country or a street, and is spelt with a capital beginning.通常是人名、國家名或街道名。而且第一個英文字母是大寫。 如:Tom, China, Paris, Mr. Brown. 2) abstract noun (抽象名詞): Existing as a quality or concept rather than as something real or solid.指一些抽象的概念。 如:hunger 飢餓;fear 恐懼;courage 勇氣;democracy 民主,這些都不是一些實質的物件。 3) collective noun (集合名詞): (in grammar) That is the name of a group of people or things considered as a unit. Collective n ouns never end with "s". 泛指一組東西或人物之總稱,該些統稱在英文中永遠不加"s" 。 如:food 食物;furniture 家具;or equipment 儀器。 4) common noun (普通名詞): Nouns that refer to a particular thing or person other than proper noun, abstract noun and coll ective noun.除專有名詞,抽象名詞和集合名詞以外的一切名詞。 如:chair, table, man, book. b. 名詞之性別 1) 大部分名詞陽性與陰性的形式不變: teacher 老師 cook 廚師 painter 畫家 cousin 堂兄弟姊妹 child 兒童 artist 藝術家 driver 司機 singer 歌星 2) 有部分名詞之陽性與陰性的形式不同: drake 公鴨 duck 母鴨 cock 公雞 hen 母雞 bull/ox 公牛 cow 母牛 nephew 姪兒 12
  13. 13. niece 姪女 brother 兄弟 sister 姊妹 uncle 舅父 aunt 舅母 prince 皇子 princess 公主 3) 有些名詞是在陽性形式之後加上"ess": actor 男演員 actress 女演員 conductor 男指揮家 conductress 女指揮家 manager 男經理 manageress 女經理 有些又將"man" 轉為"woman": salesman 男售貨員 saleswoman 女售貨員 spokesman 男發言員 spokeswoman 女發言員 chairman 男主席 chairwoman 女主席 c. 名詞的複數形式: 名詞的複數形式通常是單數名詞後加 "s" 而成: cat - cats 貓 hour - hours 小時 cup - cups 杯 Exception(例外): 1) 字尾是o或ss, sh, ch或x的名詞,其複數加"es": tomato - tomatoes 番茄 kiss - kisses 吻 brush - brushes 刷子 watch - watches 錶 box - boxes 盒 但有些字尾是o的也只加上s: piano - pianos 鋼琴 photo - photos 相片 2) 字尾是y而y之前又不是母音(a,e,i,o,u)的,其複數形式是Y省略後加上"ies": fly - flies 蒼蠅 country -countries 國家 lady - ladies 女士 baby - babies 嬰兒 字尾是y而y字母前是母音(即a,e,i,o,u)的名詞,其複數只需加"s": day - days 日子 boy - boys 男孩 monkey - monkeys 猴子 3) 有些名詞字尾是f或fe的,其複數形式是省略其原有的f或fe而加上ves: half 一半 leaf 樹葉 loaf 一條(通常指麵包) thief 賊 shelf 架 wife 妻子 calf 小腿 life 生命 knife 刀 wolf 狼 wife - wives; loaf - loaves; wolf - wolves; etc. 但名詞scarf(領巾),wharf(碼頭)和hoof(馬蹄)之複數可加"s"或"ves": scarfs or scarves, wharfs or wh arves, hoofs or hooves. 也有其他字尾是f或fe的詞則如一般名詞一樣加"s"成為複數: safe - safes 保險箱 13
  14. 14. handkerchief - handkerchiefs 手帕 cliff - cliffs 懸崖 4) 也有少數名詞的複數是以改變母音而形成的: man - men 男人 woman - women 女人 foot - feet 腳 goose - geese 鵝 louse - lice 虱子 mouse - mice 老鼠 tooth - teeth 牙 ox - oxen 公牛 child 的複數是children。 5) 有些生物名稱的複數不改變其字形(即單複數之形式一樣)。 fish一字通常單複數的字形不變。(fishes一字存在,但非常少用。) deer 與 sheep 單複數字形也不變:one deer, two deer. 6) 有些詞永遠是單數: collective noun 集合名詞 furniture 家具 rubbish 垃圾 advice 忠告 information 資料 luggage 行李 knowledge 知識 news 新聞 7) 有些字永遠是複數: 包括兩部分之衣服: clothes 衣服 pants 褲 pyjamas 睡衣 trousers 長褲 breeches 馬褲 等; 包括兩部分之用具: shears 大剪刀 spectacles 眼鏡 binoculars 雙筒望遠鏡 pliers 鉗子 glasses 眼鏡 scissors 剪刀 以上這些名詞的動詞皆用複數形式。 8) 有些名詞為保留其原有的希臘或拉丁字形,因此其複數形式是按照希臘及拉丁字的規則形式: memorandum - memoranda 備忘錄 axis - axes 軸線 thesis - theses 學位論文 radius - radii 半徑 datum - data 數據 basis - bases 根據 oasis - oases 綠洲 crisis - crises 危機 phenomenon - phenomena 現象 9) 複合名詞: 通常是最後一詞變成複數形式: bookcase - bookcases 書櫃 armchair - armchairs 有扶手之椅子 但也有一些例外: brother - in - law -> brothers - in - law. 姐夫/妹夫; sister - in - law -> sisters - in - law. 兄或弟之妻,嫂、弟婦。 10) 起首字母略寫的複數形式: VIPs (Very Important Persons) 貴賓 OAPs (Old Age Pensioners) 老年津貼受惠人 MPs (Members of Parliament) 國會議員 UFOs (Unidentified Flying Objects) 不明飛行物體 14
  15. 15. d. 名詞後加's/of 以示"的"之意。 1) 一般單數及複數名詞如字尾不是s,加's表示"的"之意。 a pig's mouth 一隻豬的口 a girl's voice 一個女孩子的聲音 men's clothes 男仕們的服裝 children's room 兒童的房子 a bull's horns 一隻公牛的角 2) 字尾是s之複數名詞只需加apostrophe (') ,不用再寫s。 the students' hostel 學生宿舍 the Smiths' car 史密斯夫婦的車 3) 在起首字母略寫式之後亦可用"s": the MP's luggage 國會議員的行李 the VIP's escort 貴賓的護送員 the MP's (Prime Minister's) secretary 總理的秘書 4) 除了用's表示"的"之意,也可以用"of",如下例: the daughter of the politician = the politician's daughter 那政客的女兒 the intervention of America = America's intervention 美國的干預 the plays of Shakespeare = Shakespeare's plays 莎士比亞的劇作 5) 無生命之名詞必須以"of"表示"的"之意,不可用's。 the keys of the room 房子的鎖匙 the roof of the church 教堂的屋頂 the walls of the town 城鎮的牆 若不用of也無須加上's,也有"的"之意: the room keys the church room the town walls ** DAY 8 ** E. VERBS 動詞 A word or group of words that is used in describing an action, experience, or state. 動詞是一個單字或一組字用以表達一個動作,經驗或狀態/感覺。如: She "wrote" a letter. 她"寫"了一封信。 He "feels" good. 他"感覺"很好。 a. 動詞之分類 動詞是表示動作或狀態的詞,為任何文句中所不可缺少者,其種類繁多,主要的分類方法有以下兩種: 1) 從動詞(verb)和受詞(object)的關係來看,我們可將動詞分為以下兩類: a) 須有受詞(object)的動詞,叫做及物動詞(Transitive verb),如:read this book.一句中之read是及物 動詞,因為read之後有一個物件或稱受詞(object)。 b) 不須有受詞的動詞,叫做不及物動詞(Intransitive Verb),如Flowers bloom(花朵盛開)一句中之bloom (盛開)。 但英文中有許多動詞,既可作及物(Transitive Verb)亦可作不及物動詞(Intransitive Verb),如:He wrot e ( V.) two books (object). She cannot write (V.). 中之wrote及write。第一句wrote 後有object,所 以是Transitive Verb,而第二句write後則沒object,所以又是Intransitive Verb. 2) 從動詞形式(form)的變化來看,可將動詞分為規則動詞(Regular Verb)和不規則動詞(Irregular Verb)兩 種: a) 在動詞原形上添上ed而構成過去式(Past Tense)和過去分詞(Past Participle)的動詞,叫做規則動詞(Re gular Verb),如:walk, walked(過去式),walked(過去分詞)。 b) 不以上述方法構成過去式和過去分詞的動詞,叫做不規則動詞,如:give, gave (過去式),given(過去 分詞);see, saw(過去式),seen(過去分詞)。 b. 動詞的用法: 1) 普通動詞,即除助動詞以外的其他動詞: a) 主動語態動詞的主要部分:(work為例) 肯定式 ------------------ 現在不定詞 to work 現在進行不定詞 to be working 完成不定詞 to have worked 15
  16. 16. 完成進行不定詞 to have been working 現在分詞及動名詞 working 完成分詞及動名詞 having worked 過去分詞 worked 否定式 ------------------ 現在不定詞 not to work 現在進行不定詞 not to be working 完成不定詞 not to have worked 完成進行不定詞 not to have been working 現在分詞及動名詞 not working 完成分詞及動名詞 not having worked 規則動詞的過去式及過去分詞都是在原形不定詞後加d或ed。 b) 主動時式表:(以work為例) ------------------ 現在 簡單 He works 進行 He is working 完成 He has worked 完成進行 He has been working 過去 簡單 He worked 進行 He was working 完成 He had worked 完成進行 He had been working 將來 簡單 He will work 進行 He will be working 完成 He will have worked 完成進行 He will have been working 現在 條件式 He would work 條件進行式 He would be working 完成 條件式 worked 條件進行式 16
  17. 17. would have been working ------------------ 略寫式 在口語中,助動詞在肯定句及否定句中經常略讀。 注意: 's可以代表is或has: he's going = he is going he's gone = he has gone "d"可代表 had 或would: he'd paid = he had paid he'd like to come = he would like to come c) 時式的否定式: 簡單現在式的否定式do/does +not +原形不定詞。在口語中兩者通常都略讀: He doesn't work. You don't work. 簡單過去的否定式是did not (didn't)+原形不定詞: We/They didn't work. 其他各種時式都以助動詞構成,而其否定式都是在其助動詞後加not而成。略讀式常用於口語: He was not ready/He wasn't ready. It will not be easy/It won't be easy. 現在進行式與完成式可有兩種方式略寫(讀): He is not coming/He isn't coming/He's not coming. I have not seen it/I haven't seen it/I've not seen it. 將來式通常略寫(讀)成won't,但I'll not 亦可用。 英文的否定句只能有一個否定詞。兩個否定詞則使句子變成肯定: Nobody did nothing的意思是Everyone did something. 因never, no(形容詞),none, no-body, no one, no-thing, hardly, hardly ever 等與肯定動詞共用表示 否定意義,所以我們可以說: He didn't eat anything.或 He ate nothing. He doesn't complain.或 He never complains. We haven't seen anyone.或 We have seen no one. They didn't speak much.或They hardly spoke at all/They hardly ever spoke. 2) 助動詞: a) 助動詞與其主要部分: be 不定式 to be 現在式 am, is, are have 不定式 to have 現在式 have, has do 不定式 to do 現在式 do, does can 不定式 (to be able) 現在式 can am/is/are + able may 不定式 現在式 may must 17
  18. 18. 不定式 (to have to) 現在式 must need 不定式 to need 現在式 need will 不定式 現在式 will shall 不定式 現在式 shall ought 不定式 現在式 ought dare 不定式 to dare 現在式 dare used 不定式 現在式 be 過去式 was, were 過去分詞 been have 過去式 had 過去分詞 had do 過去式 did 過去分詞 done can 過去式 could was/were + able 過去分詞 been able may 過去式 might 過去分詞 must 18
  19. 19. 過去式 had to 過去分詞 had to need 過去式 needed 過去分詞 needed will 過去式 would 過去分詞 shall 過去式 should 過去分詞 ought 過去式 ought 過去分詞 dare 過去式 dared 過去分詞 dared used 過去式 used 過去分詞 這些動詞之所以被稱為助動詞是因為: (1) 他們與現在式,過去分詞,或原形不定詞組合,有助於各種時式(tense)的形成: I am waiting. They will be there. He would like to come. (2) 他們與原形不定詞共用,以表示可能性,許可,能力,義務,推斷等語意,例如: He may come tomorrow.(可能性) I can type.(能力) We must stop now.(義務) b) 適用於所有助動詞的規則: 1) 除 be, have及do 以外,所有助動詞都不產生字形的變化;所有人稱的形式都一樣: I can, you can, he can, we can 等 I must, you must, he must, we must 等 2) 否定式的形式是在助動詞後面加not: I must not, he has not, they do not (但有時候我們可在助動詞的原形不定詞之前加do not 。) 3) 疑問式的形式是將主詞及動詞倒裝(易位): Can he? May we? Must I? (但有時候亦可用do+主詞+原形不定詞。) 4) 除了be 與 have的某種用法以外,助動詞通常不用於進行式。 5) 助動詞後面緊接原形不定詞(be與have 後面可接其他的動詞形式)。 be have, ought 以及used之後接(原形)帶 to 的不定詞: He is to go. I have to work. Tom ought to write to her. She used to know Greek. do, can, may, must, will 以及shall之後接不帶to的不定詞: 19
  20. 20. He doesn't read. She can swim. You may go. I must see it. He will help you. need 及 dare 後接不帶 to 的不定詞,但與 do 共用時例外: You need not go. You don't need to go. How dare you borrow it without my permission! He didn't dare to say anything. 6) 在會話中,助動詞通常略讀: be, have, would, will 在肯定式中亦可略讀(寫): I'm here. We've seen it. They'll go. had 與 would 的略讀(寫)式都是'd: I'd seen it = I had seen it. I'd go = I should (would) go. is 與 has 的略讀(寫)式都是's。在句末的位置上不可用肯定略讀(寫)式: I'm not French but he is.(he is 在此不可略讀(寫))。所以助動詞的否定式都可略讀。 ** DAY 9 ** F. ADJECTIVES 形容詞 An adjective is a word that describes a noun or pronoun. 形容詞是指一個用以形容名詞或代名詞的詞。如: She wore a "black" dress. 她穿著一條"黑色" 裙。 句中"黑色"便是用來形容裙這一個名詞。 又如: The news made them "happy". 那則新聞令他們高興。 這句中"高興"是用來形容代名詞them(他們)。 a. 形容詞的種類 形容詞主要有以下六種: 1) 性質的:square, good, golden, fat, heavy, dry, clever 2) 指示的:this, that, these, those 3) 分配的: each, every, either, neither 4) 定量的:some, any, no, few, many , much, one, twenty 5) 疑問的:which, what, whose 6) 屬於的:my, your, his, her, its, our, your, their b. 形容詞與名詞之相配 英文的形容詞只用一種形式,無論與單數、複數、陽性、陰性名詞皆可共用: a good boy, good boys, a good girl, good girls 唯一的例外指示形容詞 this 和 that,這兩字在複數名詞前變成 these 和those : this dog 這隻狗 these dogs 這些狗 that man 那個男人 those men 那些男人 c. 形容詞的位置與and 的用法 英文的形容詞通常出現在名詞之前: a big city a blue car an exciting news 當名詞前有二個或二個以上的形容詞時,通常這些形容詞不以and來分開,除非最後兩個形容詞是顏色的形容 詞: a big square box a tall young girl four red roses a black and white cup a red, white and blue flag 20
  21. 21. 但有一些形容詞可以放在動詞 be, seem, appear, look (這些字都是解作似)之後;在這種情形下,最後兩 個形容詞之間加 and: The house looked large and old. The weather was cold, wet and windy. d. 比較 1) 形容詞的比較有三等級: (1) 原級 tall dark useful (2) 比較級 taller darker more useful (3) 最高級 the tallest the darkest the most useful 2) 單音節(即那個英文字只有一個音)形容詞的比較級和最高級分別由原級加er及est而形成: bright 光亮 brighter 更光亮 the brightest 最光亮 old 舊 older 更舊 the oldest 最舊 3) 三或多於三音節(三音節即指該英文字有三個音節的形容詞)的比較級和最高級分別在原級前加more 及the most 而形成: beautiful more beautiful the most beautiful frightening more frightening the most frightening 4) 兩音節的形容詞則應用以下的規律。 字尾是 ful 的形容詞通常在前面加more及 the most : careful 小心 more careful 更小心 the most careful 最小心 obscure 隱蔽 more obscure 更隱蔽 the most obscure 最隱蔽 字尾是 er, y 或 ly 的形容詞通常在其後加 er, est: pretty 漂亮 prettier 更漂亮 prettiest 最漂亮 clever 聰明 cleverer 更聰明 the cleverest 最聰明 5) 不規則的比較: good 好 better 更好 the best 最好 bad 壞 worse 更壞 the worst 最壞 little 少 less 更少 the least 最少 6) 在一句完整之句子中,比較級形容詞後用"than": The new tower blocks are much lighter "than" the old buildings. He makes fewer mistakes "than" you (do). 7) as...as 另一種比較結構是把形容詞置於在as...as 之中,表示兩個人或物件均有該形容詞之特性。 如: A boy of fifteen is often as tall as his father. 一個十五歲之男童通常是與他的父親一樣高。 John is as fat as Sam. 約翰與阿森是一樣胖。 而否定式則把形容詞放在 not as/so...as 中。 如: Manslaughter is "not as/so bad as" murder. 誤殺沒有謀殺那麼糟。 Your coffee is "not as/so good as" the coffee my mother bought. 你的咖啡沒有我母親所買的那麼香濃。 8) 相對的增加(或減少)是以"the + 比較級…the + 比較級"句型表達: House Agent: Do you want a big house? Wife :Yes, "the bigger, the better!" 房屋代理人問:你想要一間大屋嗎? 妻子則回答說:好,"越大,越好!" 9) 逐漸的增加或減少是以 and 來連接兩個比較級形容詞來表達: The weather is getting colder and colder. 天氣越來越冷。 He became less and less interested. 他變得越來越沒有興趣。 10) 比較式的其他例子: Mr. Wong is not so kind as Mr. Chen. 21
  22. 22. 王先生並沒有陳先生那麼仁慈。 Mrs. Li is as nice as Mrs. Ho. 李太太和何太太一樣那麼好。 This one is the better of the two. 這個是兩者中比較好的一個。 Helen was the most beautiful woman in Greece. 凱倫是希臘中最美的女人。 Tom is the laziest boy in his class. 湯美是他們班最懶的男孩子。 ** DAY 10 ** G. ADVERBS 副詞 adverb: A group of words that describe or add to the meaning of a verb or an adjective. Words showing t ime are also called adverb. 副詞是指一個或一組形容動詞或形容詞之詞。另用以顯示時間性的也稱之為副 詞。 a. 副詞的種類 1) 單純的(simple)副詞 單純的副詞,依其詞意,又可分為: a) 指性質(quality)或方式(manner)的,如: foolishly 愚蠢地 slowly 緩慢地 b) 指數量(quantity)或程度(degree)的,如: almost 差不多 quite 全然 very 甚 c) 指數目(number )的,如: once 一次 twice 兩次 again 再 often 常常 d) 指時間(time)的,如: before 在前 after 在後 yesterday 昨天 today 今天 e) 指地方(place)的,如: here 這裡 there 那裡 above 在上 below 在下 f) 指肯定(affirming)或否定(denying)的,如: yes 是 no 否 not at all 全不 by all means 無論如何 2) 疑問(interrogative)副詞 疑問副詞又可分為: a) 指時間(time) 的,如: when 何時 how long 多久 b) 指地方(place)的,如: where 什麼地方 c) 指數目(number )的,如: how often 多少次 how many 多少 d) 指數量(quantity)或程度(degree)的,如: how much 多少 how far 多遠 e) 指性質,方式或狀態(quality, manner or state)的,如: How is he today? 22
  23. 23. 他今天好嗎? How did he do this? 他怎樣做這個? f) 指原因(cause)的,如: why 為什麼 3) 關係(relative )副詞 關係副詞的形式和疑問副詞相同。 關係副詞通常是接連在"時間"、 "地點"、 "理由"等名詞的後面,但有時這名詞 亦可省去,例如: The time when this accident happened was midnight. 意外事件發生時是在午夜。 This is (the way) how it should be done. 是應該這樣做的。 That is (the reason) why we don't like her. 這是我們所以不喜歡她的緣故。 b. 由形容詞構成的副詞 1)大部分狀態副詞以及部分程度副詞是在相對應的形容詞之後加ly詞尾而形成的: slow 緩慢的 slowly 緩慢地 grave 莊重的 gravely 莊重地 immediate 立即的 immediately 立即地 拼寫要點: 1. 字尾的y改為i: gay 快樂的 gaily 快樂地 2. 字尾的e保留: extreme 極端的 extremely 極度地 例外: true 真正的 due 適當的 whole 全部的 truly 真正地 duly 適當地 wholly 全部地 3. 字尾是able/ible 的,省略e加y: sensible 明智的 sensibly 明智地 capable 能幹的 capably 能幹地 4. 字尾是l的字,則按照一般規則加ly: final 最後的 finally 最後地 beautiful 美麗的 beautifully 美麗地 2)例外: 1. good(好)的副詞是well(好). 2. 除kindly一字以外,字尾是ly 的形容詞,如:friendly(友好的),likely(有可能的),lonely(孤單的), lovely(可愛的),lowly(位低的)沒有對應的副詞。 為了彌補這個缺點,我們可使用另一相似的副詞或是用副詞 片語:friendly友好的(形容詞),in a friendly way 用一個友好的方式(副詞片語),likely 可能的(形容 詞),probably有可能地(副詞) 3. high(高的),near(附近的),fast(快的),hard(艱難的),direct(直接的),可以當形容詞及副詞用: (當形容詞) a high mountain 一座高山 (當副詞) The bird flew high. 鳥兒高飛。 (當形容詞) the near bank 附近的銀行 (當副詞) Don't come near. 不要走過來。 (當形容詞) a fast train 快車 (當副詞) The train went fast. 火車行駛得快。 (當形容詞) The work is hard. 這份工作很艱難。 (當副詞) They worked hard. 他們努力工作。 4. highly(高地),lowly(矮矮地),nearly(接近),lately(最近),hardly(艱難地),directly(直接地),w rongly(錯誤地)等詞是存在的,但是他們比其對應的形容詞如:high(高的),low(低的)等的語意要狹窄些。 highly 只以抽象的語意使用: He was highly placed = He had an important office. 他身居高位。 They thought very highly of him = They praised/recommended him. 他們賞識/推薦他。 lowly 是形容詞,其語意為"謙卑、卑微"。 deeply 主要以與情緒有關的語意使用: He was deeply hurt = His feelings were very much hurt. 他的感情受到很深的傷害。 nearly(幾乎)= almost(幾乎) lately(近來)= recently(近來) 23
  24. 24. directly 主要表示時間: He'll be here directly.(soon 很快) 他很快就會來了。 wrongly 通常與過去分詞共用: You were wrongly informed (incorrectly informed). 你的消息不正確。 5. warmly(熱情地),hotly(熱心地),coolly(冷淡地),coldly(冷漠地),presently (不久地),short-ly (即刻),scarce-ly(殆無)及bare-ly(僅)亦與其對應的形容詞語意不同。 warmly(熱情地),hotly(熱心地),coolly(冷淡地),coldly(冷漠地)主要以與情緒有關的語意使用: She welcomed me warmly.(in a friendly way 很友善地) 她熱情地歡迎我。 He denied the accusation hotly.(indignantly 憤怒地) 他憤怒地否認罪狀。 They behaved very coolly in a dangerous situation.(calmly , courageously 鎮靜地,勇敢地) 他們在危險情況下做事非常冷靜。 We received them coldly.(in an unfriendly way,不友善地,冷漠地) 我們冷漠地接待他們。 presently(不久)= soon (不久) shortly(即刻)= briefly(即刻)或soon(即刻) 6. just(作"公平","公正","合法"解釋時)其副詞是justly。 7. 副詞可放在形容詞前。 如: "Karaoke is popular."(卡拉OK是受歡迎的。) 這句中,"popular"是adjective(形容詞),用以形容Karaoke(卡拉OK)是受歡迎的。 若我們想說卡拉OK越來越受歡迎,便可在popular這形容詞前加上一個副詞"increasingly",全句則是:"Kar aoke is increasingly popular." c. 副詞的比較 1) 比較級與最高級的形式: 兩音節或兩音節以上的副詞,其比較級是在原級副詞前加more,而最高級則在原級副詞前加most: quickly ore quickly ost quickly fortunately more fortunately most fortunately 單音節的副詞與副詞early 則加 er及est字尾: hard 難地 harder 較難地 hardest 最難地 high 高地   higher 較高地   highest 最高地 early 早地   earlier 較早地   earliest 最早地 (變 y 為 i) 不規則的比較: well 好 better 較好 best 最好 badly 壞地 worse 較壞地 worst 最壞地 late 遲 later 較遲 latest 最遲 little 少 less 較少 least 最少 much 多 more 更多 most 最多 24
  25. 25. far 遠   farther 較遠 further 較遠 farthest 最遠(祇用於表距離) furthest 最遠(用於表距離、時間及抽象的語言) 2) 副詞比較結構 1. 原級副詞的比較,肯定式是用肯定動詞+as...as, 否定式是用否定動詞+as/so...as: He worked as slowly as he dared. 他盡量放慢工作。 He doesn't snore as/so loudly as you do. 他睡覺打鼾的聲音沒有你那般大。 2. 比較級副詞則用than: They arrived earlier than she did/than her. 他們比她到達早一些。 He eats more quickly than I do/than me. 他吃飯比我快。 He played better than he had ever played. 他比以前玩得更好。 He went further than the other explorers. 他比其他的探險家去得更遠。 They work harder than us/than we do. 他們比我們努力工作。 "the+比較級…the+比較級"亦可適用於副詞: The earlier you start, the sooner you'll be back. 早做早完成。 3. 最高級可用of+名詞: He went the furthest of the explorers. 在所有的探險家中,他去得最遠。 但以上這個例句的結構並不常用,通常我們是以上述(2)之例句的比較級句型來表達。 最高級副詞+of all卻十分普遍: He ran fastest of all. 他是我們當中跑得最快的。 但of all 通常也指主詞所從事的其他活動: He likes swimming best of all. 比他喜歡任何其他東西更多。 She works best of all when she is alone. 比任何其他時間更好。 of all 可以省略: He likes swimming best. 他最喜歡游泳。 4. most 置於副詞或形容詞之前亦可有very 的意思: She behaved most gracefully. 她舉止最高雅。 They were most apologetic. 他們是最表歉意的。 ** DAY 11 ** Exercise 1 列出下列名詞的陰性形式: 1. drake Answer: duck 2. prince Answer: princess 3. bull Answer: cow 4. duke Answer: duchess 5. uncle Answer: aunt 6. actor Answer: actress 25
  26. 26. 7. count Answer: countess 8. manager Answer: manageress 9. salesman Answer: saleswoman 10. spokesman Answer: spokeswoman Exercise 2 列出下列名詞的陽性形式: 1. chairwoman Answer: chairman 2. conductress Answer: conductor 3. niece Answer: nephew 4. female Answer: male 5. hen Answer: cock 6. sister Answer: brother 7. lady Answer: gentleman Exercise 3 給出下列名詞的複數形式: 1. potato Answer: potatoes 2. piano Answer: pianos 3. treasury Answer: treasuries 4. knife Answer: knives 5. man Answer: men 6. aircraft Answer: aircraft 7. erratum Answer: errata 8. brother-in-law Answer: brothers-in-law 9. cock Answer: cocks 10. church Answer: churches 11. donkey Answer: donkeys 12. county Answer: counties 13. thief Answer: thieves 14. child Answer: children 15. bus Answer: buses 16. toy Answer: toys 17. mediocrity 26
  27. 27. Answer: mediocrities 18. wolf Answer: wolves 19. woman Answer: women 20. deer Answer: deer 21. axis Answer: axes 22. booker-on Answer: bookers-on 23. computer Answer: computers 24. brush Answer: brushes 25. tray Answer: trays 26. duty Answer: duties 27. calf Answer: calves 28. foot Answer: feet 29. dish Answer: dishes 30. key Answer: keys 31. city Answer: cities 32. loaf Answer: loaves 33. tooth Answer: teeth 34. sheep Answer: sheep 35. radius Answer: radii 36. court Answer: courts 37. moose Answer: moose 38. oasis Answer: oases 39. datum Answer: data 40. grouse Answer: grouse 41. place Answer: places 42. sister-in-law Answer: sisters-in-law Exercise 4 判斷下列名詞,正確的打(R),錯誤的打(W): 1. the children's room ( ) Answer: R 2. a girls's school ( ) Answer: W 3. the people's choice ( ) Answer: R 4. Archimedes's Law ( ) 27
  28. 28. Answer: W 5. My mother's-in-law fan ( ) Answer: W 6. Bill the seventh's wives ( ) Answer: W 7. Shakespeare's plays ( ) Answer: R 8. Russia's exports ( ) Answer: R 9. The eagles's nest ( ) Answer: W 10. Pythagoras' Theorem ( ) Answer: R 11. Her father -in -law's hat ( ) Answer: R 12. America' intervention ( ) Answer: W 13. men's clothes ( ) Answer: R 14. the bull's horns ( ) Answer: R 15. the students's hotel ( ) Answer: W 16. men' work ( ) Answer: W 17. the politi-cian' son ( ) Answer: W 18. the dog's tail ( ) Answer: R 19. a woman's job ( ) Answer: R 20. the Smiths's truck ( ) Answer: W Exercise 5 用動詞的適當形式填空: 1. Susan # # (be) a teacher. Answer: is 2. My father # # (work) for a bank. Answer: works 3. We # # (visit) our uncle last Sunday. Answer: visited 4. She # # (be) fourteen years old next year. Answer: will be 5. Jim and I # # (be) good friends. Answer: are 6. They # # (do) not speak French. Answer: do 7. They # # (be) good friends ten years ago. Answer: were 8. # #(be) Tom at home last night? Answer: Was 9. # # (do) you buy that vase yesterday? Answer: Did 10. # # (do) your brother come home about eight? Answer: Does 11. I # # (live) in Beijing. Answer: live 12. Tom # a # (have) a basketball and I # b # (have) a football. Answer: a. has b. have 13. He # # (have) not any money on him yesterday. 28
  29. 29. Answer: had 14. I # # (watch) TV now. Answer: am watching 15. What is Bill # # (do) now? Answer: doing 16. They # # (listen) to music when I reached their house. Answer: were listening 17. Karl # # (read) a magazine at that time. Answer: was reading 18. Mr. Smith # # (live) in this house since 1980. Answer: has lived/has been living 19. I # # (not write) the letter yet. Answer: have not written 20. Mr. Brown # # (teach) us English next year. Answer: will teach 21. I # # (spend) my summer vacation in Hawaii. Answer: am going to spend/will spend 22. English # # (speak) in many countries. Answer: is spoken 23. The stars # # (see) at night. Answer: are seen 24. That window # # (break) yesterday. Answer: was broken 25. These trees # # (plant) by my father. Answer: were planted 26. The book # # (write) in German. Answer: was written 27. He # # (play) there at this moment. Answer: is playing 28. She # # (play) the piano now. Answer: is playing 29. I # # (get) there after six o'clock. Answer: will get 30. They # # (be) pianists. Answer: are ** DAY 12 ** Exercise 6 用助動詞 may, can, must, need, would, should, dare, ought, used 填空: % a. may % b. can % c. must % d. need % e. would % f. should % g. dare % h. ought % i. used 1. # # I leave after I finish the test? Answer: a 2. # # you reach the top shelf? Answer: b 3. You # # return the book by the end of this month. Answer: c 4. # # we go so soon? Answer: f 5. # # you carry this bag upstairs for me? Answer: e 6. You # # stay in bed if you are not well. Answer: f 7. You # # not stay out till late at night. 29
  30. 30. Answer: a 8. He # # be an important person. Answer: c 9. # # I use your telephone? Answer: b/a 10. You # # stay here if you want to. Answer: b/a 11. He looks old. He # # be over seventy years old. Answer: c 12. You # # not be late for school. Answer: c 13. I # # like to have some more coffee. Answer: e 14. I # # rather stay home than go out in the rain. Answer: e 15. He # # speak French well, for he was brought up in France. Answer: f 16. How # # you talk about my sister like that? Answer: g 17. You # # to do your homework every day. Answer: h 18. She # # to play tennis, but now she is too busy. Answer: i 19. You are so young that you # # not drive a car yet. Answer: a/f 20. You # # get up very early to catch the 6:30 train. Answer: c 21. # # I answer all the questions on the page? Answer: c 22. # # I use your desk? Answer: a 23. # # he be a movie star? I can't believe it. Answer: b 24. You # # keep this book for two weeks. Answer: c 25. You # # not answer his silly questions. Answer: d 26. He # # to take his dog for a walk, but he is too weak now. Answer: i 27. You # # not go to bed so late every night. Answer: f 28. He is dishonest. You # # not to lend him that money. Answer: h 29. The ground is wet. It # # have rained last night. Answer: c 30. Our teacher # # come here at any moment. Answer: a 31. # # you mind opening the door for me? Answer: e 32. My house is only two blocks from here. You # # not take a bus. Answer: d 33. You # # lock the door. Answer: f 34. # # I borrow your bicycle? Answer: a 35. # # I help you? Answer: b 36. This is a very beautiful car, but it # # be very expensive. Answer: c 37. I # # rather watch TV than go to the movies. Answer: e 30
  31. 31. 38. You # # take a taxi. It's too far to walk. Answer: f Exercise 7 請指出下列各句中的形容詞: 1. No one remained alive in the terrible accident. Answer: terrible 2. This is a very hard question. Answer: hard 3. Is this the last lesson for today? Answer: last 4. I have many good friends in Beijing and Shanghai. Answer: good 5. I want those big apples on the table. Answer: big Exercise 8 在括號內填入適當的單詞。 % a. tall % b. difficult % c. old % d. fast % e. long % f. wide % g. black % h. good % i. easy % j. obstinate 1. Riding a horse is not as ( ) as riding a bicycle. Answer: i 2. This building is as ( )as that. Answer: a 3. Your coffee is not as ( ) as the coffee my mother makes. Answer: h 4. This book is as ( ) as that. Answer: b 5. My father is as ( ) as your uncle. Answer: c 6. This river is as ( ) as that. Answer: f 7. This horse is as ( ) as that. Answer: d 8. You are as ( ) as a mule. Answer: j 9. This rope is not as ( ) as that. Answer: e 10. His face is as ( ) as coal. Answer: g Exercise 9 用形容詞的比較級或最高級填空。 1. Your bicycle is # # than hers.(small) Answer: smaller 2. I think English is much # # than mathematics.(interesting) Answer: more interesting 3. Andy is the # # student in my class. (tall) Answer: tallest 4. Baseball is # # than soccer in Taiwan. (welcome) Answer: more welcome 5. Which is the # # of those mountains? (high) Answer: highest 31
  32. 32. 6. He is the # # man in our town. (famous) Answer: most famous 7. Betty is # # than her sister.(beautiful) Answer: more beautiful 8. This is the # # game that I have ever seen.(exciting) Answer: most exciting 9. She is the # # speaker that I have ever met. (eloquent) Answer: most eloquent 10. Bill looks # # than his brother. (young) Answer: younger Exercise 10 請指出下列各句子中的副詞: 1. That man can run fast. Answer: fast 2. Mary will probably be absent. Answer: probably 3. Our baby is very pretty. Answer: very 4. Tom is often late for school. Answer: often 5. Happily he didn't die. Answer: Happily 6. He always takes some exercise before breakfast. Answer: always 7. Bill, will you speak slowly? Answer: slowly 8. I am rather tired. Answer: rather 9. I reached the place early in the morning. Answer: early 10. Susan speaks English fluently. Answer: fluently Exercise 11 在括號內填入適當的字,並依中文將下列句子完成。 1. 你昨天去那裡了嗎? Did you go ( a )( b )? Answer: a. there b. yesterday 2. 她通常對自己的朋友都很親切。 She ( a ) treats her friends ( b ). Answer: a. always b. kindly 3. 他們總是認真地工作。 They ( a ) work very ( b ). Answer: a. always b. hard 4. 我只去過北京一次。 I have been to Beijing ( a )( b ). Answer: a. only b. once 5. 他今天早上有沒有比他的朋友們起得早呢? Did he get up ( a ) ( b ) his friends this morning? Answer: a. earlier b. than Exercise 12 用 very, fast, often, now, here, quite, happily, hard, early, ago等副詞填空: % a. very % b. fast % c. often % d. now % e. here % f. quite 32
  33. 33. % g. happily % h. hard % i. early % j. ago 1. His uncle left here long ( ). Answer: j 2. The train runs ( ). Answer: b 3. The wind began to blow ( ). Answer: h 4. Your bag is( ) heavy. Answer: a 5. She got up ( ) in the morning. Answer: i 6. Tom ( ) goes to school by bus. Answer: c 7. ( ) he did not meet the accident. Answer: g 8. What is he doing ( )? Answer: d 9. Shall we stay ( ) tonight? Answer: e 10. It is ( ) warm today. Answer: f Exercise 13 用副詞的原級,比較級或最高級填空: 1. Can you run # # Andy?(同 Andy 一樣快) Answer: as fast as 2. Sandy got up # #.(比 Nancy 早) Answer: earlier than Nancy 3. Nobody can move # #.(像我一樣快) Answer: as quickly as I do 4. Will you # #?(講得慢一點) Answer: speak more slowly 5. Diana sings # #.(像 Barbara 一樣好) Answer: as well as Barbara 6. They arrived # #.(比她晚) Answer: later than her 7. He worked # #.(像老人一樣慢) Answer: as slowly as an old man 8. He eats # #.(比我還快) Answer: more quickly than me 9. Who # #?(做得最好) Answer: did it best 10. He played # #.(比我好) Answer: better than me 11. He doesn't snore # #.(像你一樣大) Answer: as loudly as you 12. They work # #.(比我們努力) Answer: harder than us 13. She dances # #.(比你更差) Answer: worse than you 14. Which shines # # (最明亮),the sun, the moon or stars? Answer: brightest 15. A new knife cuts # #.(比舊刀好) Answer: better than an old knife 16. Old men walk # #.(比年輕人慢) Answer: more slowly than young men 17. My brother eats # #(最多)in my family. Answer: the most 33
  34. 34. 18. My father has bought a car # #.(近來) Answer: recently/lately ** DAY 13 ** H. AGREEMENT: SINGULAR NOUNS +SINGULAR VERBS 單數名詞+單數動詞 在上一課我們簡略地學了一些名詞與動詞之間的文法,這課我們會多做一些singular noun 與singular verb 之文法練習。 Examples: The door #is# open. 門是開著的。 The child #is# crying. 小孩童在哭泣。 He #does not# like tea. 他不喜歡茶。 Bill #has# an apple. 比利有一個蘋果。 Sam, with his classmates, #is# coming now. 森美正在與他的同學過來。 I #am# twenty years old. 我今年20歲。 She #was# angry with you. 她對你不滿。 Exercise 1 用括號內的正確單詞填空。 1. Bread # # made from flour.(is / are) Answer: is 2. There # # not any water left , please give me some.(is / are) Answer: is 3. I # # to school by bus every day.(go / goes) Answer: go 4. Nobody # # the answer to the question.(know / knows) Answer: knows 5. Each of the students # # seen this.(has / have) Answer: has 6. Neither of the girls # # taken it.(has / have) Answer: has 7. Bill, with his brothers, # # (is / are) coming now. Answer: is 8. One of those children # # broken the window.(has / have) Answer: has 9. Each of the soldiers # # given a gun.(is / are) Answer: is 10. Neither of the students # # seen the movie.(has / have) Answer: has 11. Either Bob or his brother # # reading now.(is / are) Answer: is 12. Sam, with his friends, # # to the park every day. (go / goes) Answer: goes 13. The driver, as well as the policeman, # # coming. (is / are) Answer: is 14. Either Susan or her sister# # this picture.(has / have) Answer: has 15. Someone # # knocking at the door. (is / are) Answer: is 16. Here # # the train.(come / comes) Answer: comes 17. Light # # faster than sound.(travel/travels) Answer: travels 18. # # either of you going? (Is / Are) 34
  35. 35. Answer: Is 19. The city # # hit by a big storm . (was / were) Answer: was 20. The cow, as well as the sheep # # grass.(eats / eat) Answer: eats ** DAY 14 ** Exercise 2 根據括號內之動詞,以正確的形式填入句中。 1. # # (do) everybody have a pencil? Answer: Does 2. Either Mary or Betty # # (have) to go out. Answer: has 3. Nobody # # (be) allowed to enter the new park. Answer: is 4. # # (be) either of the students writing a composition? Answer: Is 5. Tom, like his brother, # # (be) very quiet in class. Answer: is 6. There # # (be) a lot of water in this pot. Answer: is 7. None of them # # (know) the answer. Answer: knows 8. No news # # (be) good news. Answer: is 9. There # # (be) not any coffee left, please give me some. Answer: is 10. He # # (do) not live in Tokyo. Answer: does 11. Mr. Brown # # (have) a big dog. Answer: has 12. My uncle # # (be) very kind to me. Answer: is 13. What kind of bird # # (fly) fastest? Answer: flies 14. How fast Bill # # (run) ! Answer: runs 15. What a big garden your grandfather # # (have) ! Answer: has 16. My dream # # (be) to be a film star. Answer: is 17. Playing tennis # # (be) fun. Answer: is 18. Everyone # # (love) peace. Answer: loves 19. This box # # (be) made of wood. Answer: is 20. France # # (be) one of the countries in Europe. Answer: is 21. There # # (be) not much room in the elevator. Answer: is 22. It # # (be) about two kilometers from here to our school. Answer: is 23. There # # (be) some wine in the bottle. Answer: is 24. It # # (be) only three hours to drive from here to the Great Wall. Answer: is 25. A mailman is a man who # # (deliver) letters. Answer: delivers 26. I have an American friend who # # (speak) Cantonese very well. Answer: speaks 35
  36. 36. 27. She # # (know) none of the members. Answer: knows 28. Politics # # (be) a kind of tricks. Answer: is 29. Neither of my parents # # (be) able to go to the university. Answer: was 30. None of those students # # (speak) Japanese. Answer: speaks ** DAY 15 ** I. ARTICLES 冠詞 冠詞一般放在名詞(noun)的前面,它有不定冠詞(indefinite articles)和定冠詞(definite articles) 之分,不定冠詞有"a" 、"an",定冠詞有"the"。 a. 不定冠詞 1. 形式 不定冠詞有a及an兩種形式。"a" 用於子音(即非a、 i、 u之英文字母)開始的字或發音如子音的母音字母 e、 o、 【如u讀/ju/】開始的字之前: Examples: a boy, a dog, a university, a table "an"用於母音(a、e、i、o、u)或是不發音的"h "字開始的字之前: Examples: an orphan, an uncle, an elephant, an hour, an honourable man 2. 不定冠詞a或an在以下各種情形使用: (1) 在可數名詞之前,當這名詞第一次被提及,而其本身並不是代表特指的人和物: I need a dictionary. (我要一本字典。) There is a doctor at the door. (有一位醫生在門口那邊。) (2) 在一個用以代表其類別(全體)的單數可數名詞之前。 A car must be insured = All cars must be insured. 車一定要接受保險。 A child needs love = Every child needs love. 小孩需要愛。 (3) 用在表示職業的名詞前: He is a doctor. 他是一位醫生。 She is a teacher. 她是一位教師。 He became an actor. 他成為一位演員。 b. 定冠詞 定冠詞the在以下各種情形使用: 1. 表示獨一無二,或被看作一整體的名詞前: the earth 地球 the moon 月亮 the sky 天空 the weather 天氣 2. 上文出現,下文再提起的名詞前: His car struck a tree. Now, you can see a mark on the tree. 他的車撞了一棵樹。現在你能在那棵樹上看到一個標記。 3. 後面有定語修飾的名詞前面: The boy that I met. 我遇見的那個男孩子。 The man on the horse. 那匹馬上的男人。 The woman in red. 那個穿紅衣的女郎。 The book on the desk. 那本在桌子上的書。 以上可見,"the"是"那"的意思。 36
  37. 37. 4. 談話雙方都知所指的名詞前面: Ann is in the garden. 安妮在花園裡。 (這是假設大家也知道所指的是哪一個花園。) Please pass me the wine. 請把那瓶酒遞給我。 5. 在形容詞(adj.)最高級或序數詞(1st, and …… )之前用定冠詞。 the highest mountain 最高的山 the first man 第一男人 the second 第二個 the most beautiful girl 最漂亮的女孩 the cleverest student 最聰明的學生 6. the + 形容詞表示一類人: the old = old people in general. 泛指一般老人。 the rich = rich people in general. 泛指一般富有的人。 這種用法的動詞要用複數,對應的代名詞(pronoun)是they: The young are impatient and they like changes. 年青人是缺乏耐性的,而且他們喜歡改變。 7. 用於表示海洋,河流,島嶼,山脈,複數國家名稱及沙漠,建築,劇院等專有名詞之前: e.g. the Atlantic Ocean 大西洋 the Pacific Ocean 太平洋 the Alps 阿爾卑斯山 the Sahara 撒哈拉沙漠 the United States 美國 the United Kingdom 大英帝國 8. 用於樂器名稱之前: She learnt to play the violin. 她學拉小提琴。 He is playing the piano. 他在彈鋼琴。 c. 下列情況下不用冠詞: 1. 在名詞的複數形式前一般不用冠詞: Why do people (most people) give boys (many boys) guns (all kinds of guns) and girls (many girl s)dolls (all kinds of dolls)? 為什麼人們總是給男孩子玩槍而女孩子則玩洋娃娃? 2. 除非指定,不可數名詞(uncountable nouns) 和抽象名詞(abstract nouns)前不用冠詞: We order beer. 我們要酒。 The ruler is made of wood. 那把尺是用木造的。 Men fear death. 人怕死亡。 指定: I drank the beer he gave me. 我喝他給我的酒。 The wood on that truck is from Brazil. 在那貨車上的木材是巴西運來的。 3. 在kind of, sort of(那種)和by 後的名詞除非被修飾,否則不用冠詞: Joan is just that sort of student. Joan就是那種學生。 We go to school by bus. 我們乘巴士上學。 被修飾: Joan is the sort of student that our teacher likes. Joan就是那種老師喜歡的學生。 We go to school by the school bus. 我們乘坐校車上學。 4. 在三餐的名稱前,如果沒有修飾詞,一般不用冠詞: We have lunch at 11:30 a.m. 我們早上11點半吃午餐。 37
  38. 38. He had eggs for breakfast. 我們以雞蛋作早餐。 5. 在school, college, hospital, church, bed等名詞前,去這些地方的理由非常明顯,此時在這些名詞前 不用冠詞: She is at school.(studying) 她在學校(學習) He is in hospital.(receiving treatment) 他在醫院(接受治療) He went to church.(to pray) 他去教堂(祈禱) 但下列也對,因為他們去這些地方有個特別之目的: She is going to the hospital to visit her friend. 她去醫院探望她的朋友。 She works at the school as a secretary. 她在學校當秘書。 He went to the church for his friend's wedding. 他去教堂參加他朋友的婚禮。 6. 在basketball, football 等球類的名詞前不用定冠詞,但也有特殊。 He is playing basketball on the playground. 他在操場上打籃球。 He threw the basketball at me. 他把籃球擲向我。 ** DAY 16 ** Exercise 1 閱讀下列名詞,在可數名詞(countable nouns)左面填上"a"或"an",在不可數名詞(uncountable nouns)左面 則填"X",可參照例句。 Example: # x # water # an # elephant 1. # #hour Answer: an 2. # #universe Answer: a 3. # #butter Answer: x 4. # #house Answer: a 5. # #uniform Answer: a 6. # #idea Answer: an 7. # #fish Answer: a 8. # #ship Answer: a 9. # #adult Answer: an 10. # #piano Answer: a 11. # #cotton Answer: x 12. # #mail-box Answer: a 13. # #doctor Answer: a 14. # #tiger Answer: a 15. # #kitchen Answer: a 38
  39. 39. Exercise 2 閱讀下列各題,然後選擇填上"a", "an"或"the". 1. Everyone knows Linda is # # honest girl. Answer: an 2. I decided to stay at # # Dragon Hotel. Answer: the 3. Steve is thinking of crossing # a # Atlantic Ocean in # b # yacht. Answer: a. the b. a 4. It is more expensive to take # a # taxi than to take # b # ferry. Answer: a. a b. a 5. She is # # most beautiful girl in this class. Answer: the 6. I am going to # # United States next week. Answer: the 7. He speaks in English. He is from # # European country. Answer: a 8. Why does # a # earth go around # b # sun? Answer: a. the b. the 9. A hunter led # # elephant and walked along the road. Answer: an 10. He went to # # school to see his brother yesterday. Answer: the Exercise 3 下列各句子,填上"a", "an"或"the",若三者都不適合,則填上"x". Examples: He is #a# good student in the class. He is #the# best student in the class. 1. I met him on # a # No.33 bus when I was travelling to # b # work. Answer: a. the b. x 2. Selina goes to school by # # same ferry every morning. Answer: the 3. The company gave us # # wonderful dinner. Answer: a 4. Peter is # # university student. Answer: a 5. # a # apple a day, keeps # b # doctor away. Answer: a. an b. the 6. We can't live without # # love. Answer: x 7. What sort of # a # game do you like better, # b # football or basketball? Answer: a. x b. x 8. The dog ran into # # school. Answer: the 9. No one knows how deep # # Indian Ocean is. Answer: the 10. Susan never goes to # # bed early at night. Answer: x 11. I will never forget # # help you have given me. Answer: the 12. The shop sells # a # fruit and # b # drinks. Answer: a. x b. x 13. Are # a # Rockies # b # highest mountain ranges on earth? Answer: a. the b. the 14. We cannot survive without # # food. Answer: x 15. Tracy always dreams of studying in # # United States. Answer: the 16. The Wong's family went to Shatin by # # train. Answer: x 17. Most people send their Christmas parcels by # # air nowadays. 39
  40. 40. Answer: x 18. Have you seen # # real dinosaur before? Answer: a 19. # a # Muslims usually go to # b # mosques once a week. Answer: a. x b. x 20. They have # # dinner early in the evening. Answer: x ** DAY 17 ** J. PREPOSITION 介詞 介詞(preposition)是單個的詞或詞組,在句子中與一個名詞(nouns)或代名詞(pronouns)一起用來表示 它與另一個詞或幾個詞的關係。介詞的用法很多,在這一章裡,我們將學習最常見之介詞的用法。 介詞的用法如下: 1. 表地點: Angel studies in this middle school. 安琪在這所中學念書。 2. 表目的: I am going to buy a gift for my brother. 我將會買一份禮物給我的哥哥。 3. 表反對: I'm against the teacher's idea. 我反對老師的構想。 4. 表贊同: We agree to this arrangement. 我們同意這個安排。 5. 表方式: Please answer in English. 請用英語作答。 6. 表原因: He left out of anger. 他因忿怒而離去。 7. 表結果: The stray dog died of hunger. 那隻流浪狗因飢餓而死。 8. 表籍貫: She comes from the U.S. 她從美國來的。 9. 表方位: There are three books in my bag. 在我的書包內有三本書。 10. 表數量: There is a piece of paper on the desk. 桌上有一張紙。 a. 常用的介詞: 1. 舉例介詞(preposition)說明: Next to 靠近,貼近 The supermarket is next to the big hotel. 超級市場在那間大酒店旁。 Beside 在旁邊 Lucy sits beside me. 路西坐在我旁邊。 Opposite 相對 The theatre is opposite that factory. 戲院在那間工廠對面。 Near 在附近 The airport is near the city. 飛機場在那城市附近。 far from 遠離 My hometown is far from the railway station. 我的家鄉距離火車站很遠。 40
  41. 41. In front of 在…前面 There stands a tall tree in front of school. 學校前面有一棵大樹。 Behind 在…後面 The little boy hid behind the tree. 那小男孩藏在樹後。 across 橫過 The blind man was walking across the road. 那瞎子正在橫過馬路。 Away from 離開 Stay away from the dog! 快離開那隻狗! Towards 向,面向 The soldiers ran towards the enemies. 那些士兵們衝向敵軍。 Round (around) 圍著,繞著,向四周 He looked around the corner, but could see nobody. 他環顧四周,但看不見任何人。 Along 沿著 The gentleman walked along the street slowly. 那男子慢慢地沿著路邊步行。 Up/down up 上,向上 down 下,向下 He climbed up the mountain. 他向山上爬。 He went down the stairs. 他下樓梯。 Past 從旁邊經過 When I walked past the shop, I saw a beautiful skirt. 當我經過那間商店,看見一條很美麗的裙子。 b. 有相對或相反意思的介詞舉例: Inside 內面 Outside 外面 Tom is standing inside the square but John is standing outside it. 湯美站在廣場之內,但約翰則站在廣場之外。 Into 進入 Out of 出來 When the boy jumped into the water, a fish jumped out of it. 當那個男孩子跳進水裡時,有一條魚從水中跳出來。 On 在…上面 On to 到…上面 There was a bone on the desk, and so the dog jumped on to the desk. 桌子上有一塊骨頭,所以那隻狗跳到桌子上面。 over 在…正上方 under 在…正下方 above 在上面 below 在下面 by 在…旁邊 against 靠在… The chair is by the desk, the umbrella is leaning against the desk. 椅子在桌子旁,雨傘則靠著桌子。 between 在兩者之間 among 在三者或三者以上之間 The building stands between the lake and the hill. 那建築物屹立在湖與山中間。 The old man is sitting among the children. 那老人坐在孩童群中。 at 朝向 to 對,與 When I talked to Mary, her boyfriend shouted at me and made faces. 41
  42. 42. 當我與瑪利談話時,他的男朋友向我叫喊,並向我扮鬼臉。 ** DAY 18 ** Exercise 1 列出下面介詞之相反介詞。 1. above # # Answer: under 2. in # # Answer: out 3. on top of# # Answer: underneath 4. near of # # Answer: far from 5. towards # # Answer: away from 6. behind # # Answer: in front of 7. into # # Answer: out of 8. up # # Answer: down 9. over # # Answer: under 10. inside # # Answer: outside Exercise 2 在下列各句中,填上最合適之介詞。 1. There is a mosque # # top of that hill. Answer: on 2. The distance # # the 1st bus-stop and the 3rd bus-stop is 75 km. Answer: between 3. I live # # the sixth floor of that building. Answer: on 4. Please, stop! I can't keep running # # you anymore. Answer: after 5. "Stand straight! Don't lean # # the wall!" the teacher said to Tom. Answer: against 6. The moon moves # # the earth. Answer: round/around 7. The teacher never shouts # # her pupils. Answer: at 8. I will meet John # # five o'clock. Answer: at 9. The temperature in Hong Kong never falls # # freezing point. Answer: below 10. Crystal is colourless, we can see things # # it. Answer: through Exercise 3 在下列各題填上"in", "at"或"on". 1. What's # a # that metal box? I found it # b # my room. Answer: a. in b. in 2. My mother is a nurse # a # St Paul's Hospital # b # London. Answer: a. at b. in 3. Eva: Which class is Halley # a #? Halley: I've no idea. I only know his classroom is # b # the 3rd floor. Answer: a. in b. on 4. Judy works as a clerk # a # the sales department of a firm which is # b # the 15th flo or of a building # c # King's Road. Answer: a. in b. on c. on 42
  43. 43. 5. Grey and her family live # a # a small farm # b # a small island. Answer: a. on b. on 6. That shop is # a # 145 Des Voeux Road, # b # Central. Answer: a. on b. in 7. Donald's mother works # a # a bank # b # New York city. Answer: a. in b. in 8. I'll meet you # # home. Answer: at 9. Is Haman # # home? Answer: at 10. How long has Mary been # # hospital? Answer: in ** DAY 19 ** d. 關於表示處所,方位的介詞"in", "at" 的用法。 1. In 的用法: a. 在非專有名詞或不具體的地方前用in. b. 在街道,道路,地區,城市,國家,大洲等前用in. c. 在容器,房屋,公寓,公司等名詞前用in. Examples: 1. I'd rather live in a backward country than in an advanced country. 我寧可住在落後的國家也不住在先進的國家。 Did he sleep in the street last night? 他昨晚有沒有在街上露宿? 用"On" 如: Long time ago, there was a poor old fisherman on this small island. 很久以前,有一個老漁夫在這小島。 2. The supermarket I often go to is on Nathan Road. 我常去的那間超級市場是在彌敦道。 He went to work in Beijing in 1957. 他1957年在北京工作。 We went to visit our relatives in Manila last Saturday. 上週六我們到馬尼拉探望我們的親戚。 3. All the students are waiting in the classroom. 所有學生正在教室等候。 Anne works in a law firm. 安妮在一家律師行工作。 There's no water in this bottle. 這瓶內沒有水。 2. At 的用法: 1. 在一個專有名詞或表示具體的建築物或地址前用"at". 2. 在表示海灘,村莊等和在"the bottom", "the top" , "the front", "the corner"等詞前面用"at". Examples: 1. He's staying at the Hilton Hotel 他暫住在希爾頓酒店。 He's a doctor at Queen Mary Hospital. 他在瑪利醫院當醫生。 Miss Wong lives at 12 Lockhart Road. 黃小姐住在駱克道12號。 2. At the corner of the street stopped a black car. 街角停了一輛黑色的車。 They went swimming at Stanley Beach last Sunday. 上週日他們到赤柱游泳。 Every worker must enter at the front door. 每位工作人員必須由前門進入。 3. On 的用法: 1. 用在某人生活或工作的地方前面,而此地又不是建築物。 2. 表示建築物的樓層前面。 Examples: 1. David is working on that building site. Tom's family lives on a farm. 2. Shirley lives on the 28th floor of that building. His office is on the ground floor. 43
  44. 44. 4. 關於表示時間的介詞: 表示時間的介詞用來表示時間的關係,常用的介詞有"at", "in", "on", "for", "since", "by", "until"等。 1. At in on At用在下列時間前: 1. 一個特定的片刻或特定的時間。 2. 在持續一天以上的節日,假日等前面。 Examples: 1. They got up at midnight. 他們在午夜12時醒來。 I bought a new car at the beginning of the year. 我在年初買了一部新車。 2. People put on their best clothes at Christmas. 一般人在聖誕時會穿上最漂亮的衣服。 I usually watch TV at weekends. 我通常在週末看電視。 In 用在下列時間前: 1. 一段較長的時間或一個不確切的時間,此時我們所要表達的意思有:in June, in two weeks.... 2. 表示某事花多長時間或某事在某一時間的最後將發生。 Examples: 1. We should get up early in the morning. 我們應該早起。 I bought a new TV set in May. 我在五月時買了一部新電視機。 2. "Can you finish the reports in one hour?" "你能在一小時內完成報告嗎?" He'll come back in ten minutes. 他會在10分鐘內回來。 On用在下列時間前: 1. 指定的一天,日期或一週的某一天。 2. 指定的某一天,某日或星期的一部分。 Examples: 1. Children usually get up early on New Year's Day. 兒童一般在新年那天很早起床。 2. Most youngsters like to go to parties on Christmas Eve. 大部分年青人喜歡在平安夜晚上去派對。 I must get up early on Tuesday morning. 星期二早上我一定要早起。 g. 其他一些常用來表時間的介詞: 1. For 有,since自從 (1) For常用來表示事情在一段時間裡發生或進行。 (2) since 表示某事在過去某日期或時間發生且繼續進行到現在。 Examples: 1. Albert has been working on the plan for three months. Albert為這計劃忙碌了三個月。 Tom has been here for three hours. Tom在這裡已經有三小時。 2. Albert has been working on the plan since lst July. Albert自七月一日起便一直為這計劃忙碌。 Tom has been here since two. Tom自兩點已在這裡。 2. By, until 1. By用來表示某事情在某個日期或時間已完成或必須完成,此時by有on和before的意思。 2. Until用來表示在某個時間,某事將要發生,或事情將持續到某時。 Examples: 1. Albert has to finish the plan by lst July. 這就是說Albert,必須完成這項計劃,可早但不遲於1st July. Tom has to be here by three. 這就是說Tom必須在三點來這裡,可早但不可遲。 2. Albert will not finish the plan until lst July. 這說明Albert完成計劃的時間是七月一日。 Tom is staying here until three. 44
  45. 45. 這告訴我們Tom留在這裡直到三點為止。 3. 注意有些介詞詞組容易混淆。 Examples: 1. at one time = 以前有一陣子(formerly) 2. in time = 比預定時間早(early or soon enough) 3. on time = 準時(at the right time) 4. at times = 有時(occasionally) 5. in the end = 結果 (as a result)(at last) 6. at the end = 最後(at the last moment) 例句: 1. He comes to visit us #at times#. 他有時會來探望我們。 2. #At one time# you could buy a colour TV for ¥1000. 你曾經能花1000元買一台彩色電視機。 3. #At the time# he went out, the telephone rang. 當他離去時,電話響起。 4. He arrived at the airport #in time#. 他及早到達飛機埸。 5. John always attends meetings #on# #time#. 約翰總是準時出席會議。 6. We get our pay #at the end# of every month. 我們月底拿取工資。 7. He worked so hard for the exam, that #in the end# he got a distinction. 他為考試努力溫習,結果獲得好成績。 ** DAY 20 ** Exercise 4 在每句句子中,填上一個適當的介詞。 1. Tom is sleeping # # present. Answer: at 2. We should have plans # # the future. Answer: for 3. "Wait! I'll be back # # 5 minutes." Answer: in 4. # # the past, instead of travelling by cars, people rode on horses. Answer: In/in 5. We are only just # # time for the meeting. Answer: in 6. Hamlet had gone # # holiday in the U.K. Answer: on 7. Cindy's birthday is # # 20th December. Answer: on 8. They haven't seen each other # # years. Answer: for 9. Mark has been staying in Hong Kong # # over three years. Answer: for 10. David used to be a popular singer # # one time. Answer: at 11. He went to Hong Kong # # September last year. Answer: in 12. What do you usually do # # weekends? Answer: at 13. Those boys are quite naughty # # times. Answer: at 14. "Make sure you'll finish the homework # # six O'clock, Tommy!" Answer: by 15. The sun always rises # # the east. Answer: from/in ** DAY 21 ** K. CONNECTIVES 45
  46. 46. 連接詞 連接詞: 在句子中用來連接詞,詞組和句子等的詞叫連接詞。如:but, as, because, and, although, unless 等 The moon is bright #and# beautiful. 月亮又亮又美。 This old man can see #but# he cannot hear. 這老年人不是盲,但是聾。 John is rich #but# he is always sick. 約翰是富有但他經常生病。 You must work hard #or# you will fail. 你一定要努力否則你會失敗。 I wasn't able to go to work yesterday #because# I was exhausted. 昨天我不能上班因為我太疲倦了。 以上劃線部分都是連詞。在英語中能用作連詞的詞很多,為了容易掌握,我們把它們分組來解釋。 a. 連詞的分組及作用: 1.because 與 for 這兩個連接詞語意思幾乎相同,而且可以通用。然而,用because要比for較正式,because 表示原因的語氣比for強。用for引導的子句(我們稱之為for子句)在用法方面比because所引導的子句要受更多 的限制。 (1) for子句不能置於主句(main clause)的前面: #Because# it was wet, he took a taxi.(不能用for) (2) for子句之前不可用not, but或其他任何連接詞: He stole #not because# he wanted the money #but because# he liked stealing.(能用for) 2. as與like like 在較簡單的比較式中置於名詞/代名詞前面: He fought #like# a mad man. 他打得像一個瘋子。 但如果後面為句子則用as而不用like. Can you pour wine straight down your throat, #as# they do in Spain? 你能否把酒直注入咽喉,如西班牙人做的那樣呢? as與like一樣後面可接單一的名詞,但是用as與用like之間有語意差別: I worked #as# a slave = I was a slave (我是奴隸,我以奴隸的身分工作。) I worked #like# a slave. (我工作很辛苦,但是我是自由之身。) He used his umbrella #as# a weapon. (他以傘作武器自衛。) 3. though/although, nevertheless, however, yet, but與片語in spite of.以上這些詞,都可連語意相反 或成對比的兩句。他們的區別最好用例句來說明: (1) but, yet, #though/although#: He was angry, #but/yet# he listened to me patiently. 他很生氣,但也耐心地聆聽我的話語。 #Though/Although# he was angry, he listened to me patiently. 雖然他很生氣,但是他也耐心地聆聽我的話語。 要留意之地方是在英語中,although與but是不可以同時使用的。 (2) in spite of +名詞/代名詞/動名詞: #In spite of# being angry, he listened to me patiently. #In spite of# his anger, he listened to me patiently. 雖然他很生氣,他仍耐心地聆聽我的話語。 在例句中,我們可看見"In spite of"後是必須要用名詞的,如"being"或"his anger"。 (3) nevertheless, however He was angry, #nevertheless/however# he listened patiently.(nevertheless = in spite of this/tha t)他生氣,但仍耐心地聆聽著。 4. both, either, neither, nor, or, and及so. (1) both…and 可以強調表兩種事物(兩個名詞,動詞,形容詞等)的組合: He has both the time and the money to play polo. 他既有時間,又有金錢去玩馬球。 either…or 可以用在肯定句及問句中強調兩種選擇: We can have #either# tripe or liver. 我們可以選擇牛肚或肝。 Can you eat #either# tripe or liver? 牛肚和肝兩者,你能吃其中一種嗎? 46
  47. 47. 在否定句中同樣的強調可用否定動詞either…or或用肯定動詞neither…nor I can't eat either tripe or liver = I can eat neither tripe nor liver. 兩句之意思相同,也是說牛肚和肝我皆不吃。但首句是用了否定動詞"can't"+"either+or"另一句則用了肯定 動詞"Can"+"neither+nor". (2) either, neither, nor與so用於倒裝句. I went #and# he went, too. 我去, 他也去。 倒裝句: I went and #so# did he. 因大家也有"去",所以用"so",然後再用"did"表示過去時態。 同樣在否定句中我們可以說: He didn't go #and# she didn't go, #either#. 他沒有去,她也沒有去。 倒裝句: He didn't go and neither did she. 如大家也沒有去,我們則用neither,然後再用did以示過去時態。 5. when, as, while (1) when when 在以下情形使用: 1. 當一動作與另一動作同時發生,或在另一動作發生的一段時間內發生時: When it rains, the buses are crowded. 下雨天時巴士十分擁擠。 When we lived in town, we often went to the cinema. 當我們住在市鎮時,我們經常去戲院。 2. 當一動作接著另一動作時: When she pressed the button, the lift stopped. 當他按按鈕時,那部電梯停了下來。 (2) as 基本上as有when(當)之意,所以在上述句子中,as可以代替when.此外,as也有下列的用法。 1. as有時有because意思,表示原因: #As# he was tired, he sat down. 由於他疲倦,故他坐下。 as可用because來代替。 #As# she loved him, she let him stay.(As=Because) 由於她愛他,她讓他留下。 2. As+名詞有"作為"之意。 #As# a student, he had to live on bread and water. 作為一個學生,他只可吃一些簡單的東西,如麵包和清水。 #As# a married man, he has to think of the future. 作為一個已婚男人,他要顧及未來。 3. as也有although的意思,但只能在形容詞+as+主詞+to be/to seem/to appear之組合中。 Expensive as the jacket was, Tom bought two.(Although the jacket was expensive, Tom bought two.) 縱使那件外套很昂貴,湯美買了兩件。 3) 1. while有正當之意。 While I was sleeping, the telephone rang. 正當我在睡覺之時,電話響起。 2. While有but的意思,在強調對比時用。 Jane likes singing #while# her sister likes dancing. 珍妮喜歡唱歌而她姐姐則喜歡跳舞。 Some people waste food #while# others haven't enough. 一些人浪費食物而其他人則沒有足夠食物。 ** DAY 22 ** b. 其他一些連接詞(other conjunctions): 1. after…之後 I felt much better #after# I had had a bath. 洗澡後,我好些了。 after也可用作介詞(preposition)如: I felt much better #after# having a bath. 2. as long as達…之久,長達… 47
  48. 48. You can stay here as long as you like. 你在這裡逗留多久,適隨尊便。 as long as =provided that = if假若,以…為條件。 You can stay here as long as you don't make a noise. 假若你不造成噪音滋擾,就可留在這裡。 3. as soon as一…就,如…一般早. Come here as soon as you finish the work. 一完成工作後,就過來。 They didn't arrive as soon as we had expected. 他們沒有如我們所料之時間到達。 4. as if / as though好像,彷彿 He works with such enthusiasm as if he never knew fatigue. 他工作不懈彷似永不覺得疲倦呢! He walked as though he were a blind man. 他行路好像一個盲人。 此處要留意之地方是用了as if /though後是不能用現在式的。 5. assuming(that)假定,倘若 They should be here by six, assuming everything goes well. 倘若一切順利,他們六點便應到達。 6. before以前,之前 Before I answer your question, please tell me why you want to know. 在我回答你的問題前,請告訴我你為何想知道。 7. in case假使,以防(萬一) In case he comes, let me know. 假使他來,請告之。 Take your key in case I am out when you get back. 記住拿你的鎖匙,以防你回來時我不在這裡。 8. now(that)既然現在 Now that I am well again, I can go on with my work. 既然我已康復,我能繼續我的工作了。 Now that you mention it, I do understand. 既然你已提及,我也明白了。 9. on condition that /(that)= if假如. You could go with me provided that/on condition that your mother permitted. 若你媽媽准許,你就可以與我一起去。 10. seeing(that)鑒於…,由於…緣故 Seeing that he is ill, we'll do the work for him. 鑒於他病倒,我們就為他工作。 Seeing that you have all worked so hard today, you needn't start work until ten tomorrow. 鑒於你們今天全都辛勤工作,明天就十點才上班。 seeing(that)有because 和in view of the fact that的意思。 11. so that( = in order that,表示目的) I'll give you all the facts so that you can judge for yourself. 我們把事實告訴你,那麼你就可以自己作判斷。 so+adj+that(表示結果) He was so excited that he could not speak. 他太高興了,連話也說不出來。 注意: "so that"後是用完整句子的,而so…that中,則用一個形容詞,that後才用完整句子。 12. supposing(that)假定,猜想 Supposing he is absent, what shall we do? 假定他缺席,我們怎辦? 13. unless =if not除非 I won't do it unless you want me to. 除非你要我幹,否則我是不會就範的。 You'll not pass the examination unless you study hard. 除非你努力溫習,否則你是不能及格的。 注意: 英語中用了unless(除非),不須寫 or/otherwise。 14. until/till直到…為止 They kept on working until it became completely dark. 48
  49. 49. 他們不停工作,直到天黑。 He didn't arrive until the game had begun. 他們在遊戲開始後才到達。 15. whenever =(very time)無論任何時候,每當 I always seem to bump into someone I know whenever I go to London. 每當我去到倫敦,總會遇見朋友。 Whenever we met with difficulties, they came to help us. 每當我們有困難,他們就來幫忙。 16. Wherever/every where 無論何地 They seem to cause trouble wherever/every where they go. 他們無論去到哪兒,也會引起麻煩的。 Wherever I go, I will remember what the teacher told me. 無論我去到哪裡,我總記得老師所說的話。 ** DAY 23 ** Exercise 1 在括號內,選擇適當的答案。 e.g. What do you want, a hamburger (either, or) # or # a hot dog? 1. She will not leave the hospital (when, until) # # her mother recovers. Answer: until 2. Peter never goes to the Water World (and, because) # # he doesn't know how to swim. Answer: because 3. They won't be able to sell the car (if, unless) # # a buyer comes along soon. Answer: unless 4. Amanda is a fan of Lesile, (so, as long as) # # she has booked the ticket for his conc ert. Answer: so 5. (As, Although) # # he did so well in his exams, Johnny was happy for weeks. Answer: As/as 6. Not only can Iris speak Japanese (once, but) # # she can write it, too. Answer: but 7. We will go to Ocean Park (because, if) # # the weather is fine tomorrow. Answer: if 8. Billy has been dreaming of being a fireman (as, since) # # he was a little child. Answer: since 9. I meet Donna (whether, whenever) # # I go to National Park. Answer: whenever 10. Sophia has studied very hard for the test (supposing, but) # # still, she could not get a pass. Answer: but Exercise 2 在下列字詞中,選取一個最適合的詞填入句中。 % a. so % b. because % c. unless % d. as soon as % e. although % f. or % g. whether % h. until % i. in case % j. so that 1. Which lessons do the students like more : English # # Chinese? Answer: f 2. The weather was very cloudy yesterday. # # the picnic was called off. Answer: a 3. # # I got home after work, I watched television. Answer: d 4. I won't stop my work # # I finish it. 49

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