walter gropius theory and international style


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about walter gropuis and his revolution in modern architecture and opening of bahaus school and what is international style

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  • Modernist
  • walter gropius theory and international style

    1. 1. o Born :- May 18, 1883 Berlin , Germany  He has been recognized as one of the great modernist architects of twentieth century.  According to Gropius, the spirit of modern times was crystallized not in glass and iron construction like glass , places or bridges.  Which possessed no architectural qualities for him absolutely determined by function with no link to historical architecture.
    2. 2.  Walter Gropius studied architecture between 1903 and 1907 at the Technical Universities in Munich and Berlin.  He joined the office of Peter Behrens in 1908. He accepted a position at the German General Electric Company (AEG) and would be responsible for assisting in all aesthetic considerations of the company including its products, advertising and buildings.  It was while he was working under at AEG that he would be introduced to Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, Dietrich Marcks and Le Corbousier.
    3. 3. In 1910 Gropius left the firm of Behrens and together with fellow employee Adolf Meyer established a practice in Berlin for three years. Together they share credit for one of the seminal modernist buildings created during this period: the Faguswerk in Alfeld-an- der- Leine, Germany, a shoe last factory.
    4. 4.  The Fagus Factory , a shoe last factory in Alfeld on the Leine in Germany, is an important example of early modern architecture.  The Fagus main building can be seen as an inversion of the Turbine factory.  Both have corners free of supports, and glass surfaces between piers that cover the whole height of the building.
    5. 5.  However, in the Turbine factory the corners are covered by heavy elements that slant inside. The glass surfaces also slant inside and are recessed in relation to the piers.  The load-bearing elements are attenuated and the building has an image of stability and monumentality.  In Fagus exactly the opposite happens; the corners are left open and the piers are recessed leaving the glass surface to the front
    6. 6.  The Fagus building is a 40-centimeter high, dark brick base that projects from the facade by 4 centimetre.  The interiors of the building, which contained mainly offices, were finished in the mid 20s. The other two big buildings on the site are the production hall and the warehouse. Both were constructed in 1911 and expanded in 1913.
    7. 7.  The warehouse is a four-storey building with few openings. Its design followed closely the original plan by Werner .  Apart from them, the site contains various small buildings designed by Gropius and Meyer. Gropius and Meyer were able to enforce only minor changes in the overall layout of the factory complex.
    8. 8. CONSTRUCTION SYSTEM  The main building was erected on top of a structurally stable basement with flat caps. Nonreinforced (or compressed) concrete, mixed with pebble dashing was used for the basement walls, an unfortunate blend unable to support great individual loads.  The ceilings were underpinned with a formwork shell and finished in rough-cast plaster on the services installation side. The floors were composed of planks on loose sleepers – that is, sleepers that were not fixed between the floor joists.  . Along the side of the building, 3-millimetre-thick steel plates sealed the wedge between window frame and piers.
    9. 9. DESIGN  Although constructed with different systems, all of the buildings on the site give a common image and appear as a unified whole.  The first one is the use of floor-to-ceiling glass windows on steel frames that go around the corners of the buildings without a visible (most of the time without any) structural support.  The other unifying element is the use of brick.The first one is the use of floor-to-ceiling glass windows on steel frames that go around the corners of the buildings without a visible (most of the time without any) structural support. The other unifying element is the use of brick.
    10. 10.  All buildings have a base of about 40 cm of black brick and the rest is built of yellow bricks.  In order to enhance this feeling of lightness, Gropius and Meyer used a series of optical refinements like greater horizontal than vertical elements on the windows, longer windows on the corners and taller windows on the last floor.
    11. 11. Bauhaus school  The name "Bauhaus" derives from the word "bauen" meaning to build, including the idea of creating in a spiritual sense, and "haus" meaning the house or building itself.  The primary driver behind the Bauhaus School was Walter Gropius, the founder of the school and the primary influence for the distinct style that the Bauhaus produced.  The school was established 1919 in Weimar, Germany. The Bauhaus, an art and architectural school, was founded in the year 1919.
    12. 12. The Bauhaus art school existed in three different cities (Weimar from 1919 to 1925, Dessau from 1925 to 1932, and Berlin from 1932 to 1933), under three different architect-directors (Walter Gropius from 1919 to 1928, Hannes Meyer from 1928 to 1930, and Ludwig Mies van der Rohe from 1930 to 1933). Bauhaus buildings are usually cubic, favour right angles, (although some feature rounded corners and balconies); they have smooth facades and an open floor plan. This style of architecture came about (in part) because of new engineering developments that allowed the walls to be built around steel or iron frames.
    13. 13. Characteristics of Bauhaus Architecture Bauhaus architecture is a great style of architecture for those who prefer minimalism as well as function or style This style of architecture also holds true to the old saying that ‘less is more.’ Buildings constructed from the Bauhaus design are always cubic in shape. They feature four flat sides as well as flat roof tops. The colours of the typical Bauhaus building are generally black, white, grey or sometimes beige - however an owner can change the colour if desired. The interior of the home or building reflects a functional, open floor plan. Generally, the interior of the homes are often minimalist or contemporary - but it can depend entirely on the owner’s preference
    14. 14. Archite ct Walter Gropius Locatio n Dessau, Germany map Date 1919 to 1925 timeline Buildin g Type Art and architecture school Constr uction System and glass Climat e temperate Contex t urban Style Modern exemplar Notes Transparent walls, asymmetrical Walter Gropius, Bauhaus Building, Dessau, Germany, 1925
    15. 15.  "It consists of three connected wings or bridges...School and workshop are connected through a two-story bridge, which spans the approach road from Dessau. The administration was located on the lower level of the bridge, and on the upper level was the private office of the two architects, Walter Gropius and Adolf Meyer, which could be compared to the ship captain's 'command bridge' due to its location.  The doArmitories and the school building are connected through a wing where the assembly hall and the dining room are located, with a stage between.
    16. 16. The basic structure of the Bauhaus consists of a clear and carefully thought- out system of connecting wings, which correspond to the internal operating system of the school. The technical construction of the building... is demonstrated by the latest technological development of the time: a skeleton of reinforced concrete with brickwork, mushroom-shaped ceilings on the lower level, and roofs covered with asphalt tile that can be walked upon . The construction area consisted of 42,445 [cubic yards] (32,450 [cubic meters]) and the total cost amounted to 902,500 marks.
    17. 17. Site plan
    18. 18. Floor plan
    19. 19. Floor plan
    20. 20. Bauhaus at Berlin
    21. 21. Main entrance of Bauhaus at Berlin
    22. 22. Bauhaus at Weimar •The Bauhaus was founded in 1919 in the city of Weimar by German architect Walter Gropius (1883–1969). •Its core objective was a radical concept: to re imagine the material world to reflect the unity of all the arts. •The Bauhaus combined elements of both fine arts and design education.
    23. 23. Stair detail •After the war , style in architecture and consumer goods was to be functional, cheap and consistent with mass production. •Since the Weimar Republic lacked the quantity of raw materials available to the United States and Great Britain, it had to rely on the proficiency of a skilled labour force and an ability to export innovative and high quality goods.
    24. 24. Some Local Bauhaus Adaptations Smaller Windows  Some of the key elements of Bauhaus architecture had to be adapted to the local environment, primarily because of the climate.  One of the key elements of the International Style in Europe was a large window. However, in a hot climate – large windows that let great amounts of light shine into the rooms – do not make sense.  Locally, glass was used sparingly and long, narrow, horizontal windows are visible on many of the Bauhaus buildings.
    25. 25. Stilt Columns (Pilotis)  Another element used by Le Corbusier was stilt- type columns (pilotis), which raised the buildings off street level thereby creating room for a green garden area while providing greater airflow. Flat Roofs  Another of the local features of the Bauhaus buildings, are the flat roofs, as opposed to the typical shingled and slanted roofs, prevalent in the European buidlings.
    26. 26. Reinforced Concrete The local building technology of the time was not advanced. Reinforced concrete was first used (in Tel Aviv) in 1912. Later it became widely used, because it was easy to work with and did not require skilled workers. Bauhaus architecture became common in Tel Aviv of the 1930’s for a variety of reasons. • There was a strong tendency toward modernization. Architects, who worked locally, had strong ties to the European architectural developments of the day. • There was also a need to build cheaply and quickly because of the growing metropolis.
    27. 27. INTERNATIONAL STYLE  International Style, architectural style that developed in Europe and the United States in the 1920s and ’30s and became the dominant tendency in Western architecture during the middle decades of the 20th centuryInternational Style.  The most common characteristics of International Style buildings are rectilinear forms; light, taut plane surfaces .
    28. 28.  The term International Style was first used in 1932 0Architecture Since 1922, which served as a catalog for an architectural exhibition held at the Museum of Modern Art.  HENRY RUSSEL HITCHCOCK AND PHILIP JOHNSON INTRODUCED THIS AND ENTITELD THIS STYLE
    29. 29.  The International Style grew out of three phenomena that confronted architects in the late 19th century. 1. Architects’ increasing dissatisfaction with the continued use in stylistically eclectic buildings of a mix of decorative elements from different architectural periods and styles that bore little or no relation to the building’s functions.
    32. 32.  The economical creation of large numbers of office buildings and other commercial, residential, and civic structures that served a rapidly industrializing society.  The development of new building technologies centring on the use of iron and steel, reinforced concrete, and glass.  These three phenomena dictated the search for an honest, economical, and utilitarian architecture that would both use the new materials and satisfy society’s new building needs while still appealing to aesthetic taste.
    35. 35. Peter Behrens  Born: 14-Apr-1868 Birthplace: Hamburg, Germany  Peter behrens was a german architect and painter.  he was trained as a painter from 1886 to 1889 at the karlsruhe school of art.
    36. 36. EARLY LIFE  Behrens attended the Christianeum Hamburg from September 1877 until Easter 1882. He studied painting in his native Hamburg, as well as in Düsseldorf and Karlsruhe, from 1886 to 1889.
    37. 37.  At the beginning of the century, he brought forth outstanding works in painting, architecture, graphic design and industrial design, which exerted a paramount influence in all these various fields.  In 1899 Behrens accepted the invitation of the Grand- duke Ernst-Ludwig of Hesse to be the second member of his recently-inaugurated Darmstadt Artists' Colony.  Behrens built his own house and fully conceived everything inside the house (furniture, towels, paintings, pottery, etc.)
    38. 38. ROLE IN INDUSTRIES DESIGN  He was one of the leaders of architectural reform at the turn of the century and was a major designer of factories and office buildings in brick, steel and glass.  IN 1907 HE CAME WITH TEN PEOPLE AND 12 COPANIES TO FORM GERMAN WREKBUND.
    39. 39.  Members of the Werkbund were focused on improving the overall level of taste in Germany by improving the design of everyday objects and products.  This very practical aspect made it an extremely influential organization among industrialists, public policy experts, designers, investors, critics and academics.  Behrens' work for AEG was the first large-scale demonstration of the viability and vitality of the Werkbund's initiatives and objectives.
    40. 40.  In 1907, Allgemeine Elektricitäts-Gessellschaft (AEG) hired Behrens as a consultant. For them, he re-formed the company's image and create a corporate identity, a first for the time -- designing its trademark, stationery and catalogues, and key products of the company. The great architect Walter Gropius later wrote, "It was Behrens who first introduced me to logical and systematical coordination in the handling of architectural problems."
    41. 41. A. E. G. High Tension Factory The turbine hall for the AEG in Berlin-MoabiT —on the corner of Hutten Street —of 1909 ...represented the culmination of his efforts to give architectural dignity to a workplace, similar to the achievement of [Frank Lloyd Wright] with the Larkin Building in Buffalo.
    42. 42. CONSTRUCTION DETAILS  Glass and iron took over a workshop of an industrial plant, with an enormous span (28.16 yd.; 25.6 m). Behrens achieved a plastic effect and a dynamic form of construction of the trusses.  which were pulled towards the outside, as well as through the tapering iron trusses and the glass areas which were drawn towards the inside.
    44. 44. •Expressionism was a modernist movement, initially in poetry and painting, originating in Germany at the beginning of the 20th century. • Its typical trait is to present the world solely from a subjective perspective, distorting it radically for emotional effect in order to evoke moods or ideas. •expressionist artists sought to express meaning or emotional experience rather than physical reality. expressionism was developed as an avant-garde style before the First World War. •It remained popular during the Weimar Republic, particularly in Berlin. The style extended to a wide range of the arts, including painting, literature, theatre, dance, film, architecture and music.
    45. 45. •The style was characterised by an early-modernist adoption of novel materials, formal innovation, and very unusual massing, sometimes inspired by natural biomorphic forms, sometimes by the new technical possibilities offered by the mass production of brick, steel and especially glass.
    46. 46. •Many expressionist architects fought in World War I and their experiences, combined with the political turmoil and social upheaval that followed the German Revolution of 1919, resulted in a utopian outlook and a romantic socialist agenda.[
    47. 47. Distortion of form for an emotional effect. Subordination of realism to symbolic or stylistic expression of inner experience. An underlying effort at achieving the new, original, and visionary. Representations of concepts more important than pragmatic finished products. Themes of natural romantic phenomena, such as caves, mountains, lightning, crystal and rock formations. As such it is more mineral and elemental than florid and organic which characterised its close contemporary art nouveau. Utilises creative potential of artisan craftsmanship. Tendency more towards the gothic than the classical. Expressionist architecture also tends more towards the romanesque and the rococo than the classical. Conception of architecture as a work of art.
    48. 48. A recurring concern of expressionist architects was the use of materials and how they might be poetically expressed. Often, the intention was to unify the materials in a building so as to make it monolithic. The collaboration of Bruno Taut and the utopian poet Paul Scheerbart attempted to address the problems of German society by a doctrine of glass architecture. Such utopianism can be seen in the context of a revolutionary Germany where the tussle between nationalism and socialism had yet to resolve itself.
    49. 49. Another example of expressionist use of monolithic materials was by Erich Mendelsohn at the Einstein Tower. Not to be missed was a pun on the towers namesake, Einstein, and an attempt to make the building out of one stone, Ein stein. Though not cast in one pour of concrete (due to technical difficulties, brick and stucco were used partially) the effect of the building is an expression of the fluidity of concrete before it is cast. ‘Architecture of Steel and Concrete' was the title of an 1919 exhibition of Mendelsohn's sketches at Paul Cassirer's gallery in Berlin. Brick was used in a similar fashion to express the inherent nature of the material.
    50. 50. Expressionist architects Adolf Behne Hermann Finsterlin Antoni Gaudí Walter Gropius - early period Hugo Häring Fritz Höger Michel de Klerk Piet Kramer Carl Krayl Erich Mendelsohn Hans Poelzig Hans Scharoun Rudolf Steiner Bruno Taut
    51. 51. The Einstein Tower is an astrophysical observatory in the Albert Einstein Science Park in Potsdam, Germany built by Erich Mendelsohn.
    52. 52. It was built on the summit of the Potsdam Telegraphenberg to house a solar telescope designed by the astronomer Erwin Finlay-Freundlic. The telescope supports experiments and observations to validate (or disprove) Albert Einstein's relativity theory. Light from the telescope is directed down through the shaft to the basement where the instruments and laboratory are located. This was one of Mendelsohn's first major projects, completed when a young Richard Neutra was on his staff, and his best-known building. The exterior was originally conceived in concrete, but due to construction difficulties with the complex design and shortages from the war, much of the building was actually realized in brick, covered with stucco.