o Born :- May 18, 1883
Berlin , Germany
He has been recognized as one of
the great modernist architects of twentieth
According to Gropius, the spirit of modern times
was crystallized not in
glass and iron construction like glass ,
places or bridges.
Which possessed no architectural qualities for him
absolutely determined by function with no link to
Walter Gropius studied architecture between 1903
and 1907 at the Technical Universities in Munich
He joined the office of Peter Behrens in 1908. He
accepted a position at the German General
Electric Company (AEG) and would be responsible
for assisting in all aesthetic considerations of the
company including its products, advertising and
It was while he was working under at AEG that he
would be introduced to Ludwig Mies van der Rohe,
Dietrich Marcks and Le Corbousier.
In 1910 Gropius left the firm of Behrens and together
with fellow employee Adolf Meyer established a
practice in Berlin for three years.
Together they share credit for one of the seminal
modernist buildings created during this period: the
Faguswerk in Alfeld-an- der- Leine, Germany, a shoe
The Fagus Factory , a shoe last
factory in Alfeld on the Leine in
Germany, is an important
example of early modern
The Fagus main building can be
seen as an inversion of the
Both have corners free of
supports, and glass surfaces
between piers that cover the
whole height of the building.
However, in the Turbine factory
the corners are covered by
heavy elements that slant
inside. The glass surfaces also
slant inside and are recessed in
relation to the piers.
The load-bearing elements are
attenuated and the building has
an image of stability and
In Fagus exactly the opposite
happens; the corners are left
open and the piers are
recessed leaving the glass
surface to the front
The Fagus building is a 40-centimeter high, dark brick base
that projects from the facade by 4 centimetre.
The interiors of the building, which contained mainly offices,
were finished in the mid 20s. The other two big buildings on the
site are the production hall and the warehouse. Both were
constructed in 1911 and expanded in 1913.
The warehouse is a four-storey building with few openings. Its
design followed closely the original plan by Werner .
Apart from them, the site contains various small buildings
designed by Gropius and Meyer. Gropius and Meyer were able
to enforce only minor changes in the overall layout of the
The main building was erected on top of a structurally stable
basement with flat caps. Nonreinforced (or compressed)
concrete, mixed with pebble dashing was used for the
basement walls, an unfortunate blend unable to support great
The ceilings were underpinned with a formwork shell and
finished in rough-cast plaster on the services installation side.
The floors were composed of planks on loose sleepers – that is,
sleepers that were not fixed between the floor joists.
. Along the side of the building, 3-millimetre-thick steel plates
sealed the wedge between window frame and piers.
Although constructed with different systems, all of the
buildings on the site give a common image and appear as a
The first one is the use of floor-to-ceiling glass windows on
steel frames that go around the corners of the buildings
without a visible (most of the time without any) structural
The other unifying element is the use of brick.The first one is
the use of floor-to-ceiling glass windows on steel frames that
go around the corners of the buildings without a visible (most
of the time without any) structural support. The other unifying
element is the use of brick.
All buildings have a base of about 40 cm of black brick and
the rest is built of yellow bricks.
In order to enhance this feeling of lightness, Gropius and
Meyer used a series of optical refinements like greater
horizontal than vertical elements on the windows, longer
windows on the corners and taller windows on the last floor.
The name "Bauhaus" derives from the word "bauen" meaning
to build, including the idea of creating in a spiritual sense,
and "haus" meaning the house or building itself.
The primary driver behind the Bauhaus School was Walter
Gropius, the founder of the school and the primary influence
for the distinct style that the Bauhaus produced.
The school was established 1919 in Weimar, Germany. The
Bauhaus, an art and architectural school, was founded in the
The Bauhaus art school existed in three different cities
(Weimar from 1919 to 1925, Dessau from 1925 to 1932, and
Berlin from 1932 to 1933), under three different architect-directors
(Walter Gropius from 1919 to 1928, Hannes Meyer from 1928 to
1930, and Ludwig Mies van der Rohe from 1930 to 1933).
Bauhaus buildings are usually cubic, favour right angles,
(although some feature rounded corners and balconies); they
have smooth facades and an open floor plan.
This style of architecture came about (in part) because of new
engineering developments that allowed the walls to be built
around steel or iron frames.
Characteristics of Bauhaus Architecture
Bauhaus architecture is a great style of architecture for those who prefer
minimalism as well as function or style
This style of architecture also holds true to the old saying that ‘less is more.’
Buildings constructed from the Bauhaus design are always cubic in shape.
They feature four flat sides as well as flat roof tops.
The colours of the typical Bauhaus building are generally black, white, grey or
sometimes beige - however an owner can change the colour if desired.
The interior of the home or building reflects a functional, open floor plan.
Generally, the interior of the homes are often minimalist or contemporary - but it
can depend entirely on the owner’s preference
Art and architecture
Style Modern exemplar
Notes Transparent walls,
Walter Gropius, Bauhaus Building, Dessau,
"It consists of three connected wings or bridges...School and
workshop are connected through a two-story bridge, which spans
the approach road from Dessau. The administration was located on
the lower level of the bridge, and on the upper level was the private
office of the two architects, Walter Gropius and Adolf Meyer, which
could be compared to the ship captain's 'command bridge' due to its
The doArmitories and the school building are connected through a
wing where the assembly hall and the dining room are located, with
a stage between.
The basic structure of the Bauhaus
consists of a clear and carefully thought-
out system of connecting wings, which
correspond to the internal operating
system of the school.
The technical construction of the building...
is demonstrated by the latest technological
development of the time: a skeleton of
reinforced concrete with brickwork,
mushroom-shaped ceilings on the lower
level, and roofs covered with asphalt tile
that can be walked upon
The construction area consisted of 42,445
[cubic yards] (32,450 [cubic meters]) and
the total cost amounted to 902,500 marks.
•The Bauhaus was founded
in 1919 in the city of
Weimar by German
architect Walter Gropius
•Its core objective was a
radical concept: to re
imagine the material world
to reflect the unity of all the
•The Bauhaus combined
elements of both fine arts
and design education.
•After the war , style in
architecture and consumer
goods was to be functional,
cheap and consistent with mass
•Since the Weimar Republic
lacked the quantity of raw
materials available to the United
States and Great Britain, it had
to rely on the proficiency of a
skilled labour force and an
ability to export innovative and
high quality goods.
Some Local Bauhaus
Some of the key elements of Bauhaus architecture
had to be adapted to the local environment, primarily
because of the climate.
One of the key elements of the International Style in
Europe was a large window. However, in a hot
climate – large windows that let great amounts of light
shine into the rooms – do not make sense.
Locally, glass was used sparingly and long, narrow,
horizontal windows are visible on many of the
Another element used by Le Corbusier was stilt-
type columns (pilotis), which raised the buildings
off street level thereby creating room for a green
garden area while providing greater airflow.
Another of the local features of the Bauhaus
buildings, are the flat roofs, as opposed to the
typical shingled and slanted roofs, prevalent in the
The local building technology of the time was not
Reinforced concrete was first used (in Tel Aviv) in 1912.
Later it became widely used, because it was easy to work
with and did not require skilled workers.
Bauhaus architecture became common in Tel Aviv of the
1930’s for a variety of reasons.
• There was a strong tendency toward modernization.
Architects, who worked locally, had strong ties to the
European architectural developments of the day.
• There was also a need to build cheaply and quickly
because of the growing metropolis.
International Style, architectural
style that developed in Europe and
the United States in the 1920s and
’30s and became the dominant
tendency in Western architecture
during the middle decades of the
20th centuryInternational Style.
The most common characteristics
of International Style buildings are
rectilinear forms; light, taut plane
The term International
Style was first used in
1932 0Architecture Since
1922, which served as a
catalog for an architectural
exhibition held at the
Museum of Modern Art.
HITCHCOCK AND PHILIP
THIS AND ENTITELD THIS
The International Style grew out
of three phenomena that
confronted architects in the late
1. Architects’ increasing
dissatisfaction with the
continued use in stylistically
eclectic buildings of a mix of
decorative elements from
different architectural periods
and styles that bore little or no
relation to the building’s
MOMA (MUSEUM OF MODERN ART)
MODERN ARHITECTURE INTERNATIONAL STYLE
EXHIBITION IN 1932 IS KNOWN
AS THE MOST INFLUETUAL EVENT IN THE
HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE.
SUPERVISING THE MACHINE
ART AT MOMA.
The economical creation of large numbers of office
buildings and other commercial, residential, and
civic structures that served a rapidly industrializing
The development of new building technologies
centring on the use of iron and steel, reinforced
concrete, and glass.
These three phenomena dictated the search for an
honest, economical, and utilitarian architecture that
would both use the new materials and satisfy
society’s new building needs while still appealing to
WORK BY WALTER GROPIUS AT
MODERN ART MUSEUM
THIS IS A
THE PIONEER IN
THE VARIOUS ARCHITECTS
WITH THERE WORK AT
Birthplace: Hamburg, Germany
Peter behrens was a
german architect and
he was trained as a
painter from 1886 to
1889 at the karlsruhe
school of art.
Behrens attended the
from September 1877
until Easter 1882. He
studied painting in his
native Hamburg, as
well as in Düsseldorf
and Karlsruhe, from
1886 to 1889.
At the beginning of the century, he brought forth
outstanding works in painting, architecture, graphic
design and industrial design, which exerted a
paramount influence in all these various fields.
In 1899 Behrens accepted the invitation of the Grand-
duke Ernst-Ludwig of Hesse to be the second
member of his recently-inaugurated Darmstadt Artists'
Behrens built his own house and fully conceived
everything inside the house (furniture, towels,
paintings, pottery, etc.)
ROLE IN INDUSTRIES DESIGN
He was one of the leaders of architectural reform
at the turn of the century and was a major
designer of factories and office buildings in brick,
steel and glass.
IN 1907 HE CAME WITH TEN PEOPLE AND 12
COPANIES TO FORM GERMAN
Members of the Werkbund were focused on
improving the overall level of taste in Germany by
improving the design of everyday objects and
This very practical aspect made it an extremely
influential organization among industrialists, public
policy experts, designers, investors, critics and
Behrens' work for AEG was the first large-scale
demonstration of the viability and vitality of the
Werkbund's initiatives and objectives.
In 1907, Allgemeine Elektricitäts-Gessellschaft (AEG)
hired Behrens as a consultant. For them, he re-formed
the company's image and create a corporate identity, a
first for the time -- designing its trademark, stationery
and catalogues, and key products of the company.
The great architect Walter
Gropius later wrote, "It was
Behrens who first
introduced me to logical
coordination in the handling
of architectural problems."
A. E. G. High Tension Factory
The turbine hall for the AEG in Berlin-MoabiT —on the corner
of Hutten Street —of 1909 ...represented the culmination of
his efforts to give architectural dignity to a workplace, similar
to the achievement of [Frank Lloyd Wright] with the Larkin
Building in Buffalo.
Glass and iron took over a workshop of an
industrial plant, with an enormous span (28.16
yd.; 25.6 m). Behrens achieved a plastic effect
and a dynamic form of construction of the trusses.
which were pulled towards the outside, as well as
through the tapering iron trusses and the glass
areas which were drawn towards the inside.
THE INTERNAL SPAN OF THE BUILDING IS
ACHIEVED BY THE USE OF TRUSSES .
•Expressionism was a modernist movement, initially in
poetry and painting, originating in Germany at the
beginning of the 20th century.
• Its typical trait is to present the world solely from a
subjective perspective, distorting it radically for
emotional effect in order to evoke moods or ideas.
•expressionist artists sought to express meaning or
emotional experience rather than physical reality.
expressionism was developed as an avant-garde style
before the First World War.
•It remained popular during the Weimar Republic,
particularly in Berlin. The style extended to a wide range
of the arts, including painting, literature, theatre, dance,
film, architecture and music.
•The style was
characterised by an
adoption of novel
innovation, and very
by natural biomorphic
forms, sometimes by
the new technical
by the mass
production of brick,
steel and especially
•Many expressionist architects fought in World War I and
their experiences, combined with the political turmoil and
social upheaval that followed the German Revolution of
1919, resulted in a utopian outlook and a romantic
Distortion of form for an emotional effect.
Subordination of realism to symbolic or stylistic expression of
An underlying effort at achieving the new, original, and visionary.
Representations of concepts more important than pragmatic
Themes of natural romantic phenomena, such as caves,
mountains, lightning, crystal and rock formations. As such it is
more mineral and elemental than florid and organic which
characterised its close contemporary art nouveau.
Utilises creative potential of artisan craftsmanship.
Tendency more towards the gothic than the classical.
Expressionist architecture also tends more towards the
romanesque and the rococo than the classical.
Conception of architecture as a work of art.
A recurring concern of expressionist architects was
the use of materials and how they might be poetically
expressed. Often, the intention was to unify the
materials in a building so as to make it monolithic.
The collaboration of Bruno Taut and the utopian poet
Paul Scheerbart attempted to address the problems
of German society by a doctrine of glass architecture.
Such utopianism can be seen in the context of a
revolutionary Germany where the tussle between
nationalism and socialism had yet to resolve itself.
Another example of expressionist use of monolithic
materials was by Erich Mendelsohn at the Einstein Tower.
Not to be missed was a pun on the towers namesake,
Einstein, and an attempt to make the building out of one
stone, Ein stein. Though not cast in one pour of concrete
(due to technical difficulties, brick and stucco were used
partially) the effect of the building is an expression of the
fluidity of concrete before it is cast.
‘Architecture of Steel and Concrete' was the title of an
1919 exhibition of Mendelsohn's sketches at Paul
Cassirer's gallery in Berlin.
Brick was used in a similar fashion to express the inherent
nature of the material.
Walter Gropius - early period
Michel de Klerk
Tower is an
observatory in the
Science Park in
Germany built by
It was built on the summit of the Potsdam Telegraphenberg
to house a solar telescope designed by the astronomer Erwin
Finlay-Freundlic. The telescope supports experiments and
observations to validate (or disprove) Albert Einstein's
Light from the telescope is directed down through the shaft to the
basement where the instruments and laboratory are located.
This was one of Mendelsohn's first major projects, completed when
a young Richard Neutra was on his staff, and his best-known
The exterior was originally conceived in concrete, but due to
construction difficulties with the complex design and shortages
from the war, much of the building was actually realized in
brick, covered with stucco.