Chapter one powerpoint instructional strategies[1]


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Chapter one powerpoint instructional strategies[1]

  1. 1. Special Education in an Era of Inclusion and Standards<br />Strategies for Teaching Learners with Special Needs: Chapter One<br />By: Carrie Bertsch<br />
  2. 2. Lets Start with Inclusion<br />Inclusion- The desire to create a system where students with special needs receive their education in the general education classroom with non-disabled students.<br />Supported Education for inclusion emphasizes that successful inclusion hinges on provision of appropriate supports in the general education classroom as a basis for establishing a successful learning environment for students.<br />Inclusion does not refer to a physical space; it refers to a condition or state of being.<br />The concept of inclusion implies a sense of belonging and acceptance.<br />
  3. 3. Critical Legislatures in Special Education<br />Education for All Handicapped Children Act <br />(EHA, Public Law 94-142)<br />Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act <br />Individuals with Disabilities Act (IDEA)<br />Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)<br />No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB)<br />
  4. 4. Education for All Handicapped Children Act (EHA) and Section 504<br />EHA (PL 94-142) initially authorized funding to the states to assist in the development, expansion, and improvement of special education programs. <br />Law ensured rights of all children with disabilities.<br />Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act states:<br />Any student who has a physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more major life activities can qualify for services under Section 504.<br />This law provides services to students who may be categorized under IDEA but need certain accommodations and are entitled to protection under law. <br />
  5. 5. IDEA<br />Renamed after EHA and reauthorized in 2004<br />6 Key Provisions of IDEA<br />1. Free Appropriate Public Education (FAPE)<br />School districts must provide special education and realted services necessary to meet the needs of students with special learning requirements<br />School must furnish transportation and related services when deemed necessary to ensure appropriate education<br />If school districts cannot meet a child’s needs, other agencies must provide services at public expense.<br />2. Appropriate Evaluation<br />Prior to a student receiving special education and related services for the first time, a full and individual initial nondiscriminatory evaluation must be conducted. <br />
  6. 6. IDEA continued <br />3.Individualized Education Program (IEP)<br />Written document summarizing a student’s learning program an is required for every student who qualifies for services.<br />Establishes learning goals for student<br />4. Least Restrictive Environment (LRE)<br />Schools must educate children with disabilities to as great an extent possible in general education settings with other peers in the most inclusive setting.<br />5. Parent and Student Participation in Decision Making<br />Parental consent must accompany every decision that affects a child with a disability.<br />Parents are considered participants in the development of their child’s IEP.<br />Parents have the right to challenge or appeal any decision related to any aspect of the special education process.<br />6. Procedural Safeguards<br />Safeguards protect the rights of both parents and children. <br />Parents have the right to educational records, to obtain an independent educational evaluation, to request a due process hearing, to appeal decisions, and to initiate civil action when appealing a final hearing decision.<br />
  7. 7. Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)<br />ADA represents broad civil rights coverage for individuals who are disabled. <br />This law establishes guidelines for employment, public accommodations, transportation, state and local government operations, and telecommunication systems.<br />A key element of ADA is to protect individuals with disabilities who are “otherwise qualified” from discrimination. <br />
  8. 8. No Child Left Behind<br />Reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA)<br />Key provisions of NCLB include:<br />Increased accountability: state standards in reading, math, annual testing for grades 3-8, and adequate yearly progress evaluation.<br />Parent and student choice: funds available for parents to help their child obtain needs <br />Greater flexibility to states, school districts, and schools<br />Putting reading first: scientifically based reading instruction and funding provided, so every child can read by the end of third grade<br />Highly qualified teachers: teachers must be fully qualified by 2006<br />
  9. 9. Standard-Based Education<br />What is taught must be tied to the state-derived content and performance standards that now exist in almost all states in the core subject areas of language arts/English, math, social studies, and science.<br />Standards are developed so students demonstrate knowledge and skills necessary to read, write, compute, problem solve, think critically, apply technology, and communicate across subject areas. <br />Classifying Standards:<br />Content Standard: knowledge, skills, and understanding that students should attain in academic subjects.<br />Performance Standard: levels of achievement that students must meet to demonstrate their profieciency in the subjects. <br />
  10. 10. Student Accountability<br />The NCLB Act and standards-based reform underscore the need for accountability through student evaluation.<br />Typically by means of high stakes standards-based testing.<br />Most students with disabilities can take regular district-wide or statewide tests that nondisabled students take.<br />Accommodations, exemptions, and changes to the way a student takes their test must all be written up in that student’s IEP.<br />
  11. 11. Multi-tiered System of Addressing the Needs of Special Learners<br />Tier 1 <br />High-Quality Core Instruction: High quality research-based, and systematic instruction in a challenging curriculum in general education.<br />Tier 2: <br />High-Quality Targeted Supplemental Instruction: Targeted and focused interventions to supplement core instruction<br />Response to Interventions (RTI) in within Tier 2 serves as important pre-referral data should more formal special education assessment be needed.<br />Tier 3: <br />High-Quality Intensive Intervention: Specialized interventions to meet significant needs.<br />
  12. 12. Universal Design for Learning (UDL)<br />Universal design can be described as the development of educational curricula and materials that include potent supports for access and learning from the start, rendering them effective for a far wider range of students that traditional materials.<br />Main attractions of UDL:<br />It attends to individual needs in general fashion that does not draw attention for any one individual.<br />Proactive approach<br />Developing curricula and materials that attend to the needs of students with special needs “increases usability for everyone.”<br />UDL capitalizes on new technologies and electronic resources.<br />UDL provides new way of looking at students with disabilities- along with a continuum of students with learning-related differences.<br />
  13. 13. Differentiated Instruction<br />Differentiated instruction is a process to approach teaching and learning for students of differing abilities in the same class.<br />The intent of this is to maximize each student’s growth and individual success by meeting each student where he or she is and assisting in the learning process.<br />The integration of principles of UDL and differentiated instruction provide a potentially powerful way to address the individual needs of a range of students within the general education classroom. <br />
  14. 14. Evidence-Based Practice<br />General education and special education require teachers to use interventions that have evidence that they work with the population with who they are being used.<br />Instructional practices should have a research base if they are to be used with students with special needs. <br />
  15. 15. Diversity Considerations<br />The dimensions of diversity include:<br />Cultural, Racial-Ethnic, Behavioral, Physical/Sensory, Intellectual/Cognitive, Sexual Orientation, Economic, English Language Learners, and Setting (urban, migrant)<br />Teachers must develop a sensitivity to the needs of a diverse group of students and acquire specific knowledge about diverse students and develop skills to address the needs that these students present in the classroom<br />