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  2. 2. What is Autism? Autism is a serious developmental problemcalled autism spectrum disorders (ASD) that canappear in early childhood that may happenbefore the age 3. Symptoms on Autism vary,many of the disorders affect a child ability tocommunicate and interact with others. Childrendiagnosed with autism are starting rise. Ithasn’t been clear of this could be due to betterdetecting results or reporting of autism,increase in the number of cases, or both.There’s no cure for Autism but early treatmentcan make a difference in a child’s life with thisdisorder.
  3. 3. Symptoms of Autism Children with autism have problems in 3 areas of development socialinteraction, language andbehavior. Symptoms varyso if two children with the Social Interaction:Fails to respond same diagnosis may act to his or her name, Poor eye contact, differently and have resists cuddling and holding, and seem to different skills. Other prefer playing alone. children may develop Language: Starts talking later than normally for months or age 2, has developmental delays in 30 years, then suddenly months, can’t start conversation or keep become withdrawn, they are aggressive or lose one going, May repeat words or language skills theyve phrases, speaks with an abnormal tone already learned. Each or rhythm (singsong voice, robot likechild with autism is likely speech to have a unique pattern Behavior: Moves constantly, of behavior. develops specific Routines or Rituals, performs repetitive movements (rocking, spinning or hand-flapping), Fascinated by parts of an object, Sensitive to light, sound, and touch Young children have hard time sharingexperience with others. When reading ex: they are unlikely to point atpictures in a book. Most Children with autism are slow to gain new skillsor knowledge and some have normal high intelligence.
  4. 4. What are the causes? Autism has no single, known cause. Complexity of the disease, the range of autistic disorders and the fact that no two children with autism are alike, there could be many causes. GENECTIC PROBLEMS: Genetic problems. Number of genes appears to be involved in autism. Some may make a child more influenced to the disorder; others affect brain development or the way brain cells communicate. Each problem in genes may account for a small number of cases, but taken together, the influence of genes may be substantial. Some genetic problems seem to be inherited others happen suddenly. ENVIORMENTAL FACTORS: Environmental factors: Many health problems are due to both genetic and environmental factor. Researchers are currently exploring whether viral infections and air pollutants plays a role. There’s No link between vaccines and autism. One of the greatest controversies in autism is centered on whether a link exists between autism and certain childhood vaccines, particularly the measles-mumps- rubella (MMR) vaccine. No reliable study has
  5. 5. What is the Risk Factors?Autism affects children of all races and nationalities butthere are factors increases a child’s risks are: Your Childsex: Boys are 3 – 4 times likely to develop than girls Family History: Family that has one or more child with Autism risk of having another child with the same disorder, Other disorders: Children with Certain medical Conditions are at risk conditions include fragile X syndrome, tuberous sclerosis which benign tumors develop in the brain, Tourette syndrome which cause seizures etc… Parents Ages: Father being 40 or older may increase a child risk. Also between a children being born to older mothers with autism.
  6. 6. Test/DiagnosisYour child to be diagnosed with autism, he/ she must meet the symptom criteria spelled out in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM). This manual is published by the American PsychiatricAssociation and is used by mental health providers todiagnose mental conditions and by insurancecompanies to reimburse fortreatment. To be diagnosedwith autism, your child musthave six or more of thefollowing symptoms and twoor more of those symptomsmust fall under the socialskills category.
  7. 7. Treatment & DrugsThere is no cure for Autism therange of home-based andschool-based treatments andinterventions for autism can beoverwhelming, but your doctorcan help identify resources in your area that maywork for your child.Behavior and communication therapies: developedto address the range of social, language andbehavioral difficulties. Some programs focus onreducing problem behaviors and teaching newskills. Other programs focus on teaching childrenhow to act in social situations or how tocommunicate better with other people. Childrendont always outgrow autism; they may learn tofunction well with the disorder.Educational therapies: Children with autism often respond well to highly structured education
  8. 8. programs. Successful programs often include ateam of specialists and a variety of activities toimprove social skills, communication andbehavior. Medications: No medication can improvethe core signs of autism, but certain medicationscan help control symptoms. Antidepressants maybe prescribed for anxiety. Antipsychotic drugs aresometimes used to treat severe behavioralproblems.