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A Project Report on
MICROCONTROLLER BASED BI-COPTER
Submitted for partial fulfillment of award of
BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY
In
ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING
By
ABHISHEK KUMAR UPADHYAY
Roll -75113002
Under the Supervision of
Er. DEEPAK DHADWAL
Er. JAPJEET KAUR
At
MAHARISHI MARKANDESWAR UNIVERSITY, SADOPUR
AMBALA, HARYANA
APRIL,2015
CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that ABHISHEK KUMAR UPADHYAY has carried out the work
presented in this project entitled BI-COPTERfor the award of Bachelor of
Technology in Electronics & Communication Engineering from Maharishi
Markandeshwar University, Sadopur, Ambala, under my supervision.
Name of Supervisor:Er. DEEPAK DHADWAL &Er.JAPJEET KAUR
Designation: Asst. Professors
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
The project submission that is a part of course curriculum for B.Tech (Electronics and
Communication Engineering) is aimed at providing hands-on experience and practical
exposure. During the course of my project we came across a number of problems to
tackle and overcome. Now the project is complete, we feel my duty to thank all those
who have directly or indirectly helped me to cross several hurdles. We would like to
express my gratitude to Er.DEEPAK DHADWAL &Er.JAPJEET KAUR, without
whom this project was not possible to complete. It was a great pleasure to work together
with him. We are also thankful to Proff.PARVEEN BAJAJ of Electronics and
Communication Engineering Department who devoted their valuable time and helped
me in all possible ways towards successful completion of my project work.
ABHISHEK KUMAR UPADHYAY
75113002
ABSTRACT
This is a hovering bi-copter to be self-stabilized in pitch and roll the use of electronic
components in those directions. A mathematical model of aircraft dynamics is developed
in which the non-cyclic prop rotors are allowed to process freely as gyroscopes since
these are known to embody stabilizing elements. In the prior art of bi-copter oblique
active tilting (OAT), the prop rotors generate gyroscopic control moments only when
forcibly tilted, and stabilization in pitch and roll requires electronic attitude sensors and
actuator servos. A self-stabilized system, however, would reduce cost, stresses and
energy consumption, and could be scalable without limit. Through analysis of the
characteristic equations it is found that aircraft angular positions cannot be so stabilized,
but their velocities can be, maintaining the benefits listed above. This stability is similar
to that due the fly bar damping system of early Bell helicopters and still useful in small
models today.
LIST OF CONTENTS
Certificate………………………………………………………………………………………...ii
Acknowledgement…………………………………………………………………………….…iii
Abstract…………………………………………………………………………………………...iv
List of contents…………………………………………………………………………………v
List of figure……………………………………………………………………………………vi
List components………………………………………………………………………………vii
chapter. Title Page No.
1 Introduction and features 13
2 Block diagram of bi-copter 14-26
3 Circuit Description 27-28
4 Component Description 29-47
5 Software tool 48-57
6 Working Terminology 58-68
7 Conclusion 69
8 References 70-71
LIST OF FIGURES
Figure.
No.
Figure Name Page No.
1 Fig no.2.1 Block diagram of bi copter 2
2 Fig no.2.2 1000 mahlipo Battery 2
3 Fig no.2.3 ESC of 20 amps 3
4 Fig no.2.4 Propeller 3
5 Fig no.2.5 Brushless Motor 4
6 Fig no.2.5 Servo motor 5
7 Fig no.2.6 Flight controlling board 5
8 Fig no.2.7 Pin description 7
9 Fig no.2. 8 Typical receiver servo connection 7
10 Fig no.2.9 Connection detail 8
11 Fig no.2.10 connection of servo Propeller &
ESC
12
12 Fig 3.1 Transmitter 15
13 Fig 3.2 Receiver 16
14 Fig.4.1 PIC Microcontroller 17
15 Fig no.4.1.2 Pin Diagram 17
16 Fig no.4.2.1 HT 12E 30
17 Fig no.4.3.1 HT 12D 31
18 Fig no.4.4.1 ST 12E 32
19 Fig no 4.4.2 Transmitter Circuit diagram 34
20 Fig no4.4.3 receiver circuit diagram 35
21 Fig no 5.1.1 eagle software open window 36
22 Fig no.5.1.2 new create projects 37
23 Fig no.5.1.3 schematic diagram window 38
24 Fig no.5.1.4 select components 38
25 Fig no.5.1.5.complete schematic diagram 39
26 Fig no5.1.6 complete PCB designing board 39
27 Fig no.5.2.1 proteus design window open 40
28 Fig no.5.2.2 Select isis in proteus software 41
29 Fig no.5.2.3 Open new projects in proteus
software
41
30 Fig no.5.2.4 Select components in proteus
software
42
31 Fig no.5.2.5 assemble of components in proteus
software
43
32 Fig no.5.3.1 MP lab window 44
33 Fig no.5.3.2 complete program window 44
34 Fig no.5.3.3 complete program window out put 45
35 Fig no.6.3.4.1 Bi-copter 48
36 Fig no.6.3.4.2 Top: Free-tilt aircraft hovering
undisturbed with rotors level. bottom: rotors
processing inward and consequently forward
due to externally applied moment
49
37 Fig no.6.3.5.1 Applied external rolling moment
and resulting prop rotor tilting.
50
38 Fig no.6.3.5.2 Static roll stability requires a
raised center of mass, the amount of which is
reduced by the presence of prop rotor drag-
torques ( shown
50
39 Fig no.6.3.5.3 Differential tilting initiated by
roll disturbance begins to yaw the aircraft.
51
40 Fig no.6.3.5.4 (a) Nymbus OAT radio-
controlled VTOL model aircraft by the author.
53
41 Fig no.6.3.5.5 (b) Propeller pod close up
showing how oblique tilting arises from bent
spar-end.
53
42 Fig no. 6.3.5.6Oppositely spinning control
moment gyroscopes of orbital satellite. Each is
tilted towards the other at rate together
generating net moment M on vehicle (from
Gress, 2007).
54
43 Fig no 6.4.2.1. Top views of OAT aircraft
showing the two possible spin directions
relative to aircraft, and the associated proper tilt
directions for generating the reinforcing
gyroscopic and drag-torque control moments.
55
44 Fig no.6.4.3.1 OAT stick aircraft. Pitch angle
and tilt angles both shown positive. From
(Gress, 2007).
56
LISTOF COMPONENTS
Sr. No Quantity Name of Component Specification Price
1 2 BRUSLESS MOTOR 1100 Rpm/v 4000
2 2 SERVO MOTOR 700
3 2 ESC 2000
4 2 PROPELLER 300
5 1 BATTERY 11.1 V 2000
6 1 BATTERY CHARGER 11.1 1500
7 2 PIC16F877 16MHZ 400
8 4 Tx and Rx 433MHZ 1000
9 2 HT12 IC 300
10 2 ST12 IC 500
11 2 XTAL 16MHZ 30
12 6 BASE 80
13 4 PCB 150
14 4 7805 60
15 100 RESISTOR 100
16 LED 60
17 SWITCH 20
18 JUMPER WIRE 50
19 CAPACITOR 50
20 8 FEVILITE 320
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A project report on

  • 1. A Project Report on MICROCONTROLLER BASED BI-COPTER Submitted for partial fulfillment of award of BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY In ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING By ABHISHEK KUMAR UPADHYAY Roll -75113002 Under the Supervision of Er. DEEPAK DHADWAL Er. JAPJEET KAUR At MAHARISHI MARKANDESWAR UNIVERSITY, SADOPUR AMBALA, HARYANA APRIL,2015
  • 2. CERTIFICATE This is to certify that ABHISHEK KUMAR UPADHYAY has carried out the work presented in this project entitled BI-COPTERfor the award of Bachelor of Technology in Electronics & Communication Engineering from Maharishi Markandeshwar University, Sadopur, Ambala, under my supervision. Name of Supervisor:Er. DEEPAK DHADWAL &Er.JAPJEET KAUR Designation: Asst. Professors
  • 3. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The project submission that is a part of course curriculum for B.Tech (Electronics and Communication Engineering) is aimed at providing hands-on experience and practical exposure. During the course of my project we came across a number of problems to tackle and overcome. Now the project is complete, we feel my duty to thank all those who have directly or indirectly helped me to cross several hurdles. We would like to express my gratitude to Er.DEEPAK DHADWAL &Er.JAPJEET KAUR, without whom this project was not possible to complete. It was a great pleasure to work together with him. We are also thankful to Proff.PARVEEN BAJAJ of Electronics and Communication Engineering Department who devoted their valuable time and helped me in all possible ways towards successful completion of my project work. ABHISHEK KUMAR UPADHYAY 75113002
  • 4. ABSTRACT This is a hovering bi-copter to be self-stabilized in pitch and roll the use of electronic components in those directions. A mathematical model of aircraft dynamics is developed in which the non-cyclic prop rotors are allowed to process freely as gyroscopes since these are known to embody stabilizing elements. In the prior art of bi-copter oblique active tilting (OAT), the prop rotors generate gyroscopic control moments only when forcibly tilted, and stabilization in pitch and roll requires electronic attitude sensors and actuator servos. A self-stabilized system, however, would reduce cost, stresses and energy consumption, and could be scalable without limit. Through analysis of the characteristic equations it is found that aircraft angular positions cannot be so stabilized, but their velocities can be, maintaining the benefits listed above. This stability is similar to that due the fly bar damping system of early Bell helicopters and still useful in small models today.
  • 5. LIST OF CONTENTS Certificate………………………………………………………………………………………...ii Acknowledgement…………………………………………………………………………….…iii Abstract…………………………………………………………………………………………...iv List of contents…………………………………………………………………………………v List of figure……………………………………………………………………………………vi List components………………………………………………………………………………vii chapter. Title Page No. 1 Introduction and features 13 2 Block diagram of bi-copter 14-26 3 Circuit Description 27-28 4 Component Description 29-47 5 Software tool 48-57 6 Working Terminology 58-68 7 Conclusion 69 8 References 70-71
  • 6. LIST OF FIGURES Figure. No. Figure Name Page No. 1 Fig no.2.1 Block diagram of bi copter 2 2 Fig no.2.2 1000 mahlipo Battery 2 3 Fig no.2.3 ESC of 20 amps 3 4 Fig no.2.4 Propeller 3 5 Fig no.2.5 Brushless Motor 4 6 Fig no.2.5 Servo motor 5 7 Fig no.2.6 Flight controlling board 5 8 Fig no.2.7 Pin description 7 9 Fig no.2. 8 Typical receiver servo connection 7 10 Fig no.2.9 Connection detail 8 11 Fig no.2.10 connection of servo Propeller & ESC 12 12 Fig 3.1 Transmitter 15 13 Fig 3.2 Receiver 16 14 Fig.4.1 PIC Microcontroller 17 15 Fig no.4.1.2 Pin Diagram 17 16 Fig no.4.2.1 HT 12E 30 17 Fig no.4.3.1 HT 12D 31 18 Fig no.4.4.1 ST 12E 32 19 Fig no 4.4.2 Transmitter Circuit diagram 34 20 Fig no4.4.3 receiver circuit diagram 35
  • 7. 21 Fig no 5.1.1 eagle software open window 36 22 Fig no.5.1.2 new create projects 37 23 Fig no.5.1.3 schematic diagram window 38 24 Fig no.5.1.4 select components 38 25 Fig no.5.1.5.complete schematic diagram 39 26 Fig no5.1.6 complete PCB designing board 39 27 Fig no.5.2.1 proteus design window open 40 28 Fig no.5.2.2 Select isis in proteus software 41 29 Fig no.5.2.3 Open new projects in proteus software 41 30 Fig no.5.2.4 Select components in proteus software 42 31 Fig no.5.2.5 assemble of components in proteus software 43 32 Fig no.5.3.1 MP lab window 44 33 Fig no.5.3.2 complete program window 44 34 Fig no.5.3.3 complete program window out put 45 35 Fig no.6.3.4.1 Bi-copter 48 36 Fig no.6.3.4.2 Top: Free-tilt aircraft hovering undisturbed with rotors level. bottom: rotors processing inward and consequently forward due to externally applied moment 49 37 Fig no.6.3.5.1 Applied external rolling moment and resulting prop rotor tilting. 50 38 Fig no.6.3.5.2 Static roll stability requires a raised center of mass, the amount of which is reduced by the presence of prop rotor drag- torques ( shown 50
  • 8. 39 Fig no.6.3.5.3 Differential tilting initiated by roll disturbance begins to yaw the aircraft. 51 40 Fig no.6.3.5.4 (a) Nymbus OAT radio- controlled VTOL model aircraft by the author. 53 41 Fig no.6.3.5.5 (b) Propeller pod close up showing how oblique tilting arises from bent spar-end. 53 42 Fig no. 6.3.5.6Oppositely spinning control moment gyroscopes of orbital satellite. Each is tilted towards the other at rate together generating net moment M on vehicle (from Gress, 2007). 54 43 Fig no 6.4.2.1. Top views of OAT aircraft showing the two possible spin directions relative to aircraft, and the associated proper tilt directions for generating the reinforcing gyroscopic and drag-torque control moments. 55 44 Fig no.6.4.3.1 OAT stick aircraft. Pitch angle and tilt angles both shown positive. From (Gress, 2007). 56 LISTOF COMPONENTS Sr. No Quantity Name of Component Specification Price 1 2 BRUSLESS MOTOR 1100 Rpm/v 4000
  • 9. 2 2 SERVO MOTOR 700 3 2 ESC 2000 4 2 PROPELLER 300 5 1 BATTERY 11.1 V 2000 6 1 BATTERY CHARGER 11.1 1500 7 2 PIC16F877 16MHZ 400 8 4 Tx and Rx 433MHZ 1000 9 2 HT12 IC 300 10 2 ST12 IC 500 11 2 XTAL 16MHZ 30 12 6 BASE 80 13 4 PCB 150 14 4 7805 60 15 100 RESISTOR 100 16 LED 60 17 SWITCH 20 18 JUMPER WIRE 50 19 CAPACITOR 50 20 8 FEVILITE 320