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High-performance lithium battery 
anodes using silicon nanowires 
EE235 Nanofabrication 
John Gerling 
4-7-08
Lithium Ion Battery Basics 
 Electrochemical performance is determined by properties of the anode 
and cathode materials. 
 Currently, carbon is used as the anode material. 
Li Ion Discharge 
Electrolyte Cathode 
Li Ion 
Charge 
 Charge battery (lithiation): large volume expansion 200-400% LiM 
 Discharge battery (delithiation): volume contraction
Silicon NW Anode 
 Graphitized carbon (LiC6) – 372 
mAh/g 
 Silicon (Li22 Si5) – 4200 mAh/g 
(10x improvement!) 
 Silicon film gets pulverized from 
volume changes. Si NW can 
accommodate volume change. 
 Si NW Anode Advantages: 
1) Small NW diameter allows for 
better accommodation of large 
volume changes. 
2) All NW contribute to the capacity. 
3) Direct 1D electronic pathways for 
efficient charge transport. 
4) No need for binders (extra weight 
eliminated).
Fabrication and Measurement 
 Si NWs were synthesized using the VLS process on stainless 
steel substrates using Au catalyst. 
 The electrochemical properties were evaluated under an argon 
atmosphere by both cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic cycling 
in a three electrode configuration, with the Si NWs on the 
stainless steel substrate as the working electrode and Li foil as 
both reference and counter-electrodes.
Silicon NW Anode Results 
Peaks related to LiX 
formation and 
decomposition, the larger 
the peak, the larger the 
increase in formation and 
decomposition.
Morphology Changes in Si NW
Structural Evolution
Comments and Conclusion 
 Only 10-20 cycles were performed. Lithium-ion batteries typically 
have 1000 cycles. More needed here. 
 100% charge capacity achieved. 75% capacity discharge. 
Irreversible capacity loss after first cycle. What is the efficiency of 
Li-ion batteries now? Wikipedia quotes 99%.

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(1) nanowire battery gerling (4)

  • 1. High-performance lithium battery anodes using silicon nanowires EE235 Nanofabrication John Gerling 4-7-08
  • 2. Lithium Ion Battery Basics  Electrochemical performance is determined by properties of the anode and cathode materials.  Currently, carbon is used as the anode material. Li Ion Discharge Electrolyte Cathode Li Ion Charge  Charge battery (lithiation): large volume expansion 200-400% LiM  Discharge battery (delithiation): volume contraction
  • 3. Silicon NW Anode  Graphitized carbon (LiC6) – 372 mAh/g  Silicon (Li22 Si5) – 4200 mAh/g (10x improvement!)  Silicon film gets pulverized from volume changes. Si NW can accommodate volume change.  Si NW Anode Advantages: 1) Small NW diameter allows for better accommodation of large volume changes. 2) All NW contribute to the capacity. 3) Direct 1D electronic pathways for efficient charge transport. 4) No need for binders (extra weight eliminated).
  • 4. Fabrication and Measurement  Si NWs were synthesized using the VLS process on stainless steel substrates using Au catalyst.  The electrochemical properties were evaluated under an argon atmosphere by both cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic cycling in a three electrode configuration, with the Si NWs on the stainless steel substrate as the working electrode and Li foil as both reference and counter-electrodes.
  • 5. Silicon NW Anode Results Peaks related to LiX formation and decomposition, the larger the peak, the larger the increase in formation and decomposition.
  • 8. Comments and Conclusion  Only 10-20 cycles were performed. Lithium-ion batteries typically have 1000 cycles. More needed here.  100% charge capacity achieved. 75% capacity discharge. Irreversible capacity loss after first cycle. What is the efficiency of Li-ion batteries now? Wikipedia quotes 99%.