1Self-conceptSelf-concept (also called self-construction or self-perspective) is a multi-dimensional construct that refers to an individuals perception of "self" in relation toany number of characteristics, such as academics (and nonacademics), gender roles and sexuality racial identity and many others. Each of these characteristics isa research domain (i.e. Academic Self-Concept) within the larger spectrum of self-concept although no characteristics exist in isolation as one’s self-concept is acollection of beliefs about oneself. While closely related with self-concept clarity (which "refers to the extent to which self-knowledge is clearly and confidentlydefined, internally consistent, and temporally stable"), it presupposes but is distinguishable from self-awareness, which is simply an individuals awareness oftheir self. It is also more general than self-esteem, which is a function of the purely evaluative element of the self-concept.The self-concept is an internal model which comprises self-assessments. Features assessed include but are not limited to: personality, skills and abilities,occupation(s) and hobbies, physical characteristics, etc. For example, the statement "I am lazy" is a self-assessment that contributes to the self-concept.However, the statement "I am tired" would not be part of someones self-concept, since being tired is a temporary state and a more objective judgment. Apersons self-concept may change with time as reassessment occurs, which in extreme cases can lead to identity crises. The term self-concept is a general term used to refer to how someone thinks about or perceives themselves. The self concept is how we think about and evaluate ourselves. To be aware of oneself is to have a concept of oneself. Baumeister (1999) provides the followingself concept definition: "the individuals belief about himself or herself, including the persons attributes and who and what the self is". Self Concept is an important term for both social psychology and humanism. Lewis (1990) suggests that development of a concept of self has two aspects: - (1) The Existential Self This is the most basic part of the self-scheme or self-concept; the sense of being separate and distinct from others and the awareness of the constancy of the self”(Bee 1992). The child realizes that they exist as a separate entity from others and that they continue to exist over time and space. According to Lewis awareness of the existential self begins as young as two to three months old and arises in part due to the relation the child has with the world. For example, the child smiles and someone smiles back, or the child touches a mobile and sees it move. (2) The Categorical Self Having realized that he or she exists as a separate experiencing being, the child next becomes aware that he or she is also an object in the world. Just as other objects including people have properties that can be experienced (big, small, red, smooth and so on) so the child is becoming aware of him or her self as an object which can be experienced and which has properties. The self too can be put into categories such as age, gender, size or skill. Two of the first categories to be applied are age (“I am 3”) and gender (“I am a girl”). In early childhood. the categories children apply to themselves are very concrete (e.g. hair color, height and favorite things). Later, self-description also begins to include reference to internal psychological traits, comparative evaluations and to how others see them. Carl Rogers (1959) believes that the self concept has three different components: The view you have of yourself (Self image) How much value you place on yourself (Self esteem or self-worth) What you wish you were really like (Ideal self) Self Image (what you see in yourself) *Dr. K. B. Praveena, Asst. Professor in Education (P.G.), Department Of Studies in Education, University of Mysore, Manasagangotri, Mysore-570006, Karnataka State, INDIA.
2This does not necessarily have to reflect reality. Indeed a person with anorexia who is thin may have a self image inwhich the person believes they are fat. A persons self image is affected by many factors, such as parental influences,friends, the media etc.SELF ESTEEMSelf esteem refers to the extent to which we like accept or approve of ourselves or how much we value ourselves. Selfesteem always involves a degree of evaluation and we may have either a positive or a negative view of ourselves.HIGH SELF ESTEEM i.e. we have a positive view of ourselves. This tends to lead toConfidence in our own abilitiesSelf acceptanceNot worrying about what others thinkOptimismLOW SELF ESTEEM i.e. we have a negative view of ourselves. This tends to lead toLack of confidence Want to be/look like someone else Always worrying what others might think PessimismIdeal Self(what youd like to be)If there is a mismatch between how you see yourself (e.g. your self image) and what you’d like to be (e.g. your ideal self) then this is likely to affect how much you value yourself. Therefore, there is an intimate relationship between self-image, ego-ideal and self-esteem. Humanistic psychologists study this using the Q-Sort Method.A person’s ideal self may not be consistent with what actually happens in life and experiences of the person. Hence, adifference may exist between a person’s ideal self and actual experience. This is called incongruence. *Dr. K. B. Praveena, Asst. Professor in Education (P.G.), Department Of Studies in Education, University of Mysore, Manasagangotri, Mysore-570006, Karnataka State, INDIA.
3Where a person’s ideal self and actual experience are consistent or very similar, a state of congruence exists. Rarely, if ever does atotal state of congruence exist; all people experience a certain amount of incongruence. The development of congruence isdependent on unconditional positive regard. Roger’s believed that for a person to achieve self-actualization they must be in a stateof congruence. COMMUNICATION SKILL FOR TEACHERS *Dr. K. B. PRAVEENA The word „communication‟ came from the Latin word „communicare‟, meaning „to share‟. The act of teaching and learning is also an act of sharing the content, the skills and the attitudes. Communication is defined in many different ways. Some explain it as an „art‟ – something creative, while others say it is a science – a learned behaviour/skill. In a broader sense, communication is much more than an art. It involves certain learnable techniques and psychomotor skills. Communication is a process by which people create and share information with one another in order to reach a common understanding. Communication is the exchange and flow of information and ideas from one person to another. It involves a sender transmitting an idea to a receiver. Effective communication occurs only if the receiver understands the exact information or idea that the sender intended to transmit. Studying the communication process and practicing the communication skill is very important for a teacher because we „facilitate‟, „teach‟, „coordinate‟, „guide‟, „counsel‟, „evaluate‟ and „supervise‟ through this process. It is the chain of understanding that integrates all the members of an institution in all perspectives. „Oral communication‟, „Written communication‟, „Visual Communication‟ and „electronic communication‟ are the various forms of communication. Oral and Written Communications are classified into „Verbal communication‟ and „Nonverbal communication‟. Process of Communication (Communication Cycle): Sender-Receiver Model Sender: Initiates a thought/feeling Encodes it into words/body language and sends the message Transmits it through channels Receiver: Decodes the message Assigns thought/feelings to a response Encodes a response Sends a message back VERBAL COMMUNICATION Verbal communication requires the use of words, vocabulary, numbers and symbols and is organized in sentences using language. Mastering linguistic skill is not reserved for the selected few but is a skill that each and every one should develop to improve relationships and interactions. Everyones brain is forever having thoughts and they are primarily with words. Words spoken, listened to or written affect your life as well as others. COMPONENTS VERBAL COMMUNICATION FOR TEACHERS: SIMPLICITY OF THE LANGUAGE APPROPRIATENESS OF VOCABULARY GRAMMATICAL CORRECTNESS CONTINUITY OF IDEAS LOGICAL SEQUENCE *Dr. K. B. Praveena, Asst. Professor in Education (P.G.), Department Of Studies in Education, University of Mysore, Manasagangotri, Mysore-570006, Karnataka State, INDIA.
4NONVERBAL COMMUNICATIONNonverbal communication is sending and decoding messages with emotional content. Up to 93 % of communication is non-verbal. Including tone of voice, eye movement, posture, gestures, facial expressions and more. The pressure of bodylanguage can especially be felt in emotional situations. Body language usually prevails over words.All communication methods are important in training but our emphasis will be upon the spoken word... since 70 % or all ourcommunication efforts are misunderstood, misinterpreted, rejected, disliked, distorted, or not heard (in the same language,same culture)!A research study identifies,Words are 7% effective (Verbal Communication)Tone of voice is 38% effective (Nonverbal Communication)Non-verbal clues are 55% effective (Nonverbal Communication)Components Nonverbal CommunicationKinesics (body language): Body motions such as shrugs, foot tapping, drumming fingers, eye movements such as winking,facial expressions, and gesturesProxemics (proximity): Use of space to signal privacy or attractionHaptics: TouchOculesics: Eye contactChronemics: Use of time, waiting, pausingOlfactics: SmellVocalics: Tone of voice, timbre, volume, speedSound symbols: Grunting, mmm, er, ah, uh-huh, mumblingSilence: Pausing, waiting, secrecyPosture: Position of the body, stanceAdornment: Clothing, jewellery, hairstyleLocomotion: Walking, running, staggering, limpA FEW SELECTED NONVERBAL COMPONENTS FOR TEACHERS:POSTURES APPEARANCEGESTURES AUDIBILITYFACIAL EXPRESSIONS MODULATIONEYE CONTACT FLUENCY AND SPEEDSPACE PAUSEVISUAL COMMUNICATIONTheres an old saying that "a picture is worth a thousand words." Teaching-learning would indeed be difficult withoutpaintings, photographs, diagrams, charts, drawings, and graphic symbols. These are some of the reasons why SHOWING issuch an important form of communication. Visual communication is a form of nonverbal communication.Most people understand things better when they have seen how they work.Involved, complex ideas can be presented clearly and quickly using visual aids.People retain information longer when it is presented to them visually.Visuals can be used to communicate to a wide range of people with differing backgrounds.Visuals are useful when trying to condense information into a short time period.Visual aids--used imaginatively and appropriately--will help your audience remember more. Consider the following:People think in terms of images, not words, so visuals help them retain and recall technical information.Visuals attract and hold the attention of observers.Visuals simplify technical information.Visuals may be useful in presenting technical information to a non-technical audience.COMPONENTS OF VISUAL COMMUNICATION FOR TEACHERS:SUITABILITY TO THE CONTENTCOLOUR HARMONYVISIBILITY (Letters, Pictures, Diagrams, Graphs, Charts, Maps Etc.)DISPLAYAPPROPRIATE TIMINGWRITTEN COMMUNICATIONWritten materials often bear the greatest burden for the communication of new ideas and procedures. Effective writing is theproduct of long hours of preparation, revision and organization.“Vigorous writing is concise. A sentence should contain no unnecessary words, a paragraph no unnecessary sentences, forthe same reasons that a drawing should have no unnecessary lines and a machine no unnecessary parts. This requires notthat the writer make all his sentences short, or that he avoid all detail and treat his subjects only in outline, but that EVERYWORD TELL.”*Dr. K. B. Praveena, Asst. Professor in Education (P.G.), Department Of Studies in Education,University of Mysore, Manasagangotri, Mysore-570006, Karnataka State, INDIA.
5Clear, vigorous writing is a product of clear, vigorous thinking. Clarity is born of discipline and imagination. Kirkpatrickgives the following guidelines for using written communication:Use Written Communication When:The sender wants a record for future references.The receiver will be referring to it later.The message is complex and requires study by the receiver.The message includes a step by step procedure.Oral communication is not possible because people are not in the same place at the same time.There are many receivers.A copy of the message should go to another person.The receiver prefers written.Advantages of Written Materials:Highly technical topics can be presented using words and diagrams.Written material provides a permanent record that can be referred to from time to time or passed on to others.Written material can be duplicated in large quantities or distributed on the Internet relatively inexpensively.It is fairly easy to distribute written material to many people, but this practice is getting increasingly expensive and itseffectiveness questionable.Written material is preferred when it is desirable to get the same information to a group of people.Written records and reports are sometimes useful in legal matters.Written material may be useful for documenting the success or progress of some project or activity.COMPONENTS OF WRITTEN COMMUNICATION FOR TEACHERS:CONCISENESS ( BREVITY) LOGICAL PRESENTATIONCOMPLETENESS LANGUAGE SIMPLICITYCLARITY/SPECIFICITY GRAMMATICAL CORRECTNESSACCURACYBARRIERS TO COMMUNICATIONBarrier with Senders and ReceiversLack of rapport Ambiguity/confusionPoorly defined objectives Background and experienceProblem of Language Selection of wrong mediumExcessive verbalism Choosing an unsuitable timeSocio-Psychological BarriersAptitude, attitude, interest, motivation etc.Tension, frustration, anxiety etcEmotional StateFear of change, denialDefensivenessPermanency of attitude/Prejudice/biasDomestic or social problemsLack of incentivesPoor employment opportunitiesSelf centred attitudesSelf imageRank/Status/PowerSuperiority and ArroganceResistance to changeClosed mindDay dreamingPoor communication skillsHealth status*Dr. K. B. Praveena, Asst. Professor in Education (P.G.), Department Of Studies in Education,University of Mysore, Manasagangotri, Mysore-570006, Karnataka State, INDIA.
6External or Physical Barriers:Poor infrastructureAny type of external noisePoor written or printed impressionsPoor maintenance of equipmentSubstandard gadgetsWeak transmission******Dr. K. B. Praveena, Asst. Professor in Education (P.G.), Department Of Studies in Education,University of Mysore, Manasagangotri, Mysore-570006, Karnataka State, INDIA.