Can social enterprise save the world, ken peattie, brass and tsrc april 2013
Can Social Enterprise Save the World?Experience froma Decade of Research.”Professor Ken PeattieBRASS Research Centre, &Sustainable Places Research Institute, Cardiff
More Localised More GobalisedUnsustainableSustainableYou areHere (ish)TheTrajectoryofHumanCivilisation(DonewithLinesandArrows)
Social Enterprise andEnvironmental SustainabilityVirtuallyeverythingwrittenaboutSocialEnterpriseatsomepointreferstotheir‘social andenvironmental value (orcontribution)’ ….but…..…theroleofSocialEnterpriseintacklingenvironmentalsustainabilitychallengesiscurrentlynotunacknowledged,butcertainlyunder-appreciated.
In The Top 200 Google Scholar Resultsabout ‘Social Enterprise’PlentyaboutSEforms, role, governance,managementpractices, socialvalue&SRI, impactonhealth, poverty&employment, relationshipstothepublicsectorandcountry/regionperspectives,butonly….– Onerelatedtowater;– Onerelatedtorecycling;– Onerelatedtoenergy;– Oneaboutsocialforestry(Citationonly);– Onerelatedtobroadsustainabilityindicators;
Some Honourable ExceptionsSuchasJohnThompson& BobDoherty’s"The diverse world of socialenterprise: Acollection of social enterprisestories", InternationalJournalofSocial Economics, 33(5/6), 2006.
BRASS’s Background inSocial Enterprise Research1. Measuring Sustainability Impacts Of SocialEnterprises /Sustainability Indicators(NewportandNewportWasteSavers);2. SEs & Waste – seekingtodevelopthecapacityofSEsintheUKtointegratewithUKwastemanagementinfrastructure(Defra, CommunityRecyclingNetwork, Cylch)3. SEs as Alternative Business Models : TheCaseofOneWater; SustainableLocalFoodEnterprises&FoodHubs
Social Enterprise andEnvironmental SustainabilityTheroleofSocialEnterpriseintacklingenvironmentalsustainabilitychallengesiscurrentlynotunacknowledged, butisunder-appreciated.Why?‘Social’ isinthetitle;Emphasisonworkintegration(particularlyEurope);Emphasisonownershipstructureandapproachtogovernance;StrongconnectionwithhealthsectorinUK;Frequentlyoperateascommunityenterprises;
Fair Trade – More than just ‘Fair’TheFiveCoreObjectivesofFTCertification:1. ensurethatproducersreceivepricesthatcovertheiraveragecostsofsustainable production;2. provideanadditionalFairtradePremiumwhichcanbeinvestedinprojectsthatenhancesocial,economicandenvironmental development;3. enablepre-financingforproducerswhorequireit;4. facilitatelong-termtradingpartnershipsandenablegreaterproducercontroloverthetradingprocess;5. setclearcoreanddevelopmentcriteriatoensurethattheconditionsofproductionandtradeofallFairtradecertifiedproductsaresocially,economicallyfairandenvironmentally responsible.
Social Enterprises – Deceptively Innovative?SEs often referred to as ‘inherently innovative’(e.g. Vega & Kidwell, 2007 or Perrini & Vurro, 2006)yet spend relatively little on R&D (Jones et al., 2007).In practice they often acted as social innovators bycreating new types of relationships or business modelsin fields like housing and recycling.
Sustainable Innovation & Social Enterprise:Still ‘Below the Radar’?WhenEntrepreneurship & RegionalDevelopment: An InternationalJournal, didaSpecialIssueonInnovationinSocialEnterprise(2010)– howmanypapersrelatedtoanyformofenvironmentalsustainabilityorientatedinnovation?
Tourism – On the FrontLine for SustainabilityWhy?1. Enlightenedself-interest;2. Tourismasasolution;3. Tourismasanextractiveindustry.
Social Enterprise in Tourism:A Growing Momentum in Practice– InsomecountriessuchasItalyandPoland, recentchangestolawshaveencouragedthecreationofnewsocialenterpriseventuresintourismandagri-tourisminparticular.– Emergenceofagri-tourismcooperativesmanagedbywomeninGreece.– MajorecologicaltourismprojecttofosterappreciationforthenaturalandculturalheritageoftheAconcaguaValley, Chile.– Growingnumberofmuseumsestablishedandrunassocialenterprises
Key Benefits of Social Enterprise as a Mechanismfor Sustainable Community Tourism Projects– Vestedinterestinmaintainingenvironmentalqualitywithinthecommunityarea;– Provenabilitytogenerateviablebusinesseswithindisadvantagedcommunities;– Strongtrackrecordinpublic-privatepartnership;– Lowerprofitthresholdthanconventionalbusinesses;– Tendstowardsaconsultativeanddemocraticapproachtogovernance;– Involvesmanylegalformsbasedaroundcollectiveownership;
Çirali Sustainable Tourism project in TurkeyEstablishedasanalternativetointensivehoteldevelopment‘topromoteenvironmentally andsocially sounddevelopmentthrough integratedplanning, traditionaland alternativeeconomic activitiesand biodiversityconservation’.Awardedthe2002UNHabitatDubai InternationalAwardfor‘Best Practices inImproving the Living
The Social Enterprise PotentialIn the current (and foreseeable future) situation of economic andenvironmental challenges, SEs can play an important part as:- Firms who can make a profit, but do not have to;- Community focused employers & service/product providers asthe economy rebalances from global to local;- Cost-effective public service deliverers;- Innovators in delivering low environmental impact solutionsand services (such as lower carbon housing and distributedenergy solutions);
Social Enterprise – Active Where it Counts– 75-80%ofenvironmentalimpactsofhouseholdconsumptionrelatetofood, housing&homeenergy, andpersonalwork/leisuretransport(EIPROstudy);– Clothingandfootwear, furniture, telecoms,healthcareandeducationaccountedformuchoftherest;– Astrongmatchbetweenareasofgreatestenvironmentalimpactandsocialenterpriseactivity;
Social Enterprise, A Potential Role in Developing MoreSustainable Communities, Livelihoods and Businesses Through..– more localised food systems;– more affordable and less isolating housing;– communal and lower carbon solutions for personalmobility and energy;– retaining material value via supply ‘loops’ & networks;– care for our aging population;– greater global equity through international developmentand less ‘extractive’ tourism;– a return to less ‘exciting’ financial services;– useful work derived from our communities rather thanglobal supply chains;...... in other words – a more sustainable future.