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Public Agencies Meet Sustainable Design


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Dan Jacobs, AIA Principal, A3C – Collaborative Architecture

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Public Agencies Meet Sustainable Design

  1. 1. Public Agencies Meet Sustainable Design Dan Jacobs, AIA Principal, A3C – Collaborative Architecture
  2. 2. Agenda <ul><li>Descriptors and Indicators of Sustainability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What is it? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What are the indicators </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Standards for Policy Integration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>APA’s Sustainable Policy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>USGBC’s Site Related Sections </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alignment of USGBC & APA </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sustainable Policies from other Cities </li></ul><ul><li>Resources </li></ul>
  3. 3. Sustainability is: The capacity to equitably meet the vital human needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs by preserving & protecting the area’s ecosystems & natural resources. From APA Policy Guide on Planning for Sustainability The Concept of Living in Balance with Nature . . .
  4. 4. The Role of Planning & Planners: <ul><li>Planning is key to defining how, where & when development occurs. </li></ul><ul><li>Planners & their policies are therefore crucial to the sustainability of our communities. </li></ul>“ The best way to predict the future is to create it.” Peter Drucker
  5. 5. Greenhouse Gas (GHG) <ul><li>The Process of developing a climate action plan can identify cost-effective opportunities to reduce GHG emissions that are relevant to the state. </li></ul><ul><li>Without strong incentives, climate action plans will not achieve real reductions in GHG emissions. </li></ul>
  6. 8. Regional Initiatives
  7. 10. Public Benefit Funds
  8. 11. Green Pricing
  9. 12. American Planning Association There is growing concern for the issue of sustainability whether the Earth’s resources will be able to meet the demands of a growing human population that has rising aspirations for consumption and quality of life, while maintaining the rich diversity of the natural environment or biosphere. To address these issues the APA adopted the POLICY GUIDE ON PLANNING FOR SUSTAINABILITY on April 17, 1000
  10. 13. Dimensions of Sustainability <ul><li>Preserving communities as good places to live & work. </li></ul><ul><li>Protecting societal values - like liberty and democracy. </li></ul><ul><li>Protecting the bio-diversity of the natural environment. </li></ul><ul><li>Ability of nature to provide life support services. </li></ul>A Sustainable Community is One that Respects All Aspects . . .
  11. 14. Global Indicators of Unsustainability: <ul><li>Global Warming </li></ul><ul><li>Soil Degradation </li></ul><ul><li>Deforestation </li></ul><ul><li>Species Extinction </li></ul><ul><li>Declining Fisheries </li></ul><ul><li>Economic Inequity </li></ul>
  12. 15. Lifestyle Indicators of Unsustainability: <ul><li>Over Consumption </li></ul><ul><li>Population Growth </li></ul><ul><li>Pollution </li></ul><ul><li>Non-Renewables Dependency </li></ul><ul><li>Destructive Patterns (Enviro. & Social) </li></ul><ul><li>Inequities in Resource Distribution </li></ul><ul><li>Limited Public Participation </li></ul>
  13. 16. Community Indicators of Unsustainability: <ul><li>Suburban Sprawl </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of Wetlands </li></ul><ul><li>Segregation/Unequal Opportunity </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of Agriculture Land/Open Space </li></ul><ul><li>Depletion/Degradation of Water </li></ul><ul><li>Traffic Congestion & Air Pollution </li></ul><ul><li>Disproportionate Exposure to Hazards </li></ul>
  14. 17. <ul><li>Reduce dependence on fossil fuels, extracted metals of minerals. </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce dependence on chemicals that accumulate in nature. </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce dependence on activities that harm our ecosystems. </li></ul><ul><li>Meet needs of present & future fairly & efficiently. </li></ul>Four Objectives for Greater Sustainability:
  15. 18. Approach to Sustainable Objectives: “ All four policy objectives need to be dealt with in an integrated , comprehensive & systems approach in order to move toward sustainability in community in planning & development.&quot;
  16. 19. Policy No. 1 Support policies that encourage alternatives to gas powered vehicles. Public Transit Alternative Fuel Vehicles Bicycles & Pedestrian Routes
  17. 20. Policy No. 2 Support policies that encourage development that uses alternative renewable energy sources and energy conservation. Solar Wind Geothermal
  18. 21. Policy No. 3 Support policies that encourage land uses that minimize extraction of mercury, calcium and phosphorus. Development Agriculture Sustainable Land Uses
  19. 22. Policy No. 4 Support policies that encourage development & businesses to reduce use of chemicals & synthetic compounds Construction Materials Services View snuggle up & read's map Taken in a place with no name (See more photos here )
  20. 23. Policy No. 5 Support policies that reduce the use of or eliminate pesticides and herbicides. Landscape Design Park Maintenance Agriculture
  21. 24. Policy No. 6 Support policies that encourage compact/mixed use development & avoids sprawl (Smart Growth) Minimize Need to Drive Reuse Existing Buildings Reclaim Brownfield's
  22. 25. Policy No. 7 Support policies that encourage planning, development and preservation that conserves & protects water and soil quality. Underdeveloped Land Open Space Agriculture
  23. 26. Policy No. 8 Support policies that encourage sustainable development, business & agriculture that reduce use of water. Reuse Waste Water On-Site Innovative Treatments Minimize Chemical Use
  24. 27. Policy No. 9 Support policies that encourage sustainable development that include the needs of those currently disenfranchised. Public Health Safety Welfare
  25. 28. Policy No. 10 Support policies that reduce & reuse by-products & waste, especially those that see waste as a resource. Businesses Communities Institutions
  26. 29. Policy No. 11 Support policies that encourage participation & partnership approaches to planning, especially sustainable planning. Resident Involvement Community Vision Participation in Planning
  27. 30. Policy No. 12 Support initiatives that further R&D of technology that promotes sustainability and provides the best available economic, social & environmental data. Alternatives Costs Benefits of Integration
  28. 31. Policy No. 13 Support policies that encourage support incentives & other economic tools to improve the sustainability of our natural resources. Local State Federal
  29. 32. U.S. Green Building Council <ul><li>A non-profit organization committed to sustainable buildings started in ‘93 </li></ul><ul><li>Over 14,200 organizations involved across the building industry. </li></ul><ul><li>Over 3.2 billion sq. ft. of building space are involved with the LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) Green Building Rating System™ </li></ul>
  30. 33. USGBC LEED-NC Divisions <ul><li>Sustainable Site (SS) </li></ul><ul><li>Water Efficiency (WE) </li></ul><ul><li>Energy & Atmosphere (E&A) </li></ul><ul><li>Materials & Resources (M&R) </li></ul><ul><li>Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ) </li></ul><ul><li>Innovation & Design Process (IDP) </li></ul>Areas Relating to Planning Issues
  31. 34. <ul><li>Avoid Developing Inappropriate Sites </li></ul><ul><li>Do Not Develop On: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Prime farmland </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Site of endangered species </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Parkland unless trading </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lower than 5’ above 100 yr flood plan </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Within 100’ wetland </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Within 50’ open water </li></ul></ul></ul>SS: Site Selection (Credit 1)
  32. 35. SS: Development Density, Connection & Community (Credit 2) <ul><li>Develop previous development sites that are either: </li></ul><ul><li>In a community w/ density of 60,000 sq. ft./acre </li></ul><ul><li>OR </li></ul><ul><li>Within a ½ mile of basic services </li></ul>
  33. 36. Rehabilitate a damaged site where development is complicated by environmental issues. SS: Brownfield Redevelopment (Credit 3)
  34. 37. <ul><li>Develop a project that has: </li></ul><ul><li>Access to Public Transportation </li></ul><ul><li>Bicycle Storage & Changing Rooms </li></ul><ul><li>Low-Emission & Fuel-Efficient Vehicles </li></ul><ul><li>Preferred Parking for Carpooling or Provides Less Parking than Required </li></ul>SS: Alternative Transportation (Credit 4)
  35. 38. <ul><li>Protect or Restore Habitats </li></ul><ul><li>Maximize Open Space that either: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce footprints & exceed open spaces (25%) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Provide open space equal to footprints </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Provide minimum 20% open space where non-regulated </li></ul></ul></ul>SS: Site Development (Credit 5)
  36. 39. <ul><li>Quantity Control Minimize impervious surfaces </li></ul><ul><li>Quality Control Eliminate sources of containments and remove pollutants from storm water </li></ul>SS: Storm Water Design (Credit 6)
  37. 40. <ul><li>Non-Roof </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Shade hard surfaces </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(SRI) 29 or better </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Open grid systems on areas requiring vehicle </li></ul></ul></ul>Solar Reflective Index (SRI) is the measure of the surface to reflect solar heat as shown by a small temperate rise. SS: Reduce Heat Island Effects (Credit 7) <ul><ul><li>Roof </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vegetated “Green” Roofs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(SRI) of 78 for low slope or 29 for steep slope </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Combination of both </li></ul></ul></ul>
  38. 41. Minimize light escaping site & building, reduce sky glow & reduce glare. SS: Light Pollution Reduction (Credit 8)
  39. 42. H 2 O: The Bad News <ul><li>340 billion gallons of fresh water is used daily from rivers, lakes & reservoirs. </li></ul><ul><li>65% is discharged back into rivers after use and/or treatment. </li></ul><ul><li>Annual US deficit of water is estimated at 3,700 billion gallons. </li></ul>
  40. 43. H 2 O: The Good News <ul><li>US industry uses 36% less water today than they did in 1950. </li></ul><ul><li>Water efficient measures in commercial building can reduce water usage by 30% or more. </li></ul><ul><li>Typical office occupants use on average 20 gallons per day/person. </li></ul>
  41. 44. WE: Landscaping (Credit 1) <ul><li>Reduce use of potable water for irrigation by 50%. </li></ul><ul><li>Eliminate use of potable water for irrigation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use rainwater or grey water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plant selection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Irrigation efficiency – drip </li></ul></ul>
  42. 45. <ul><li>Reduce generation of wastewater </li></ul><ul><li>Increase local aquifer recharge </li></ul><ul><li>Use water conserving fixtures </li></ul><ul><li>Treat wastewater on site </li></ul>WE: Innovative Wastewater Technologies (Credit 2)
  43. 46. <ul><li>Reduce burden on public utilities by reducing demand by 20% (1 pt) or 30% (2 points) </li></ul>WE: Water Use Reduction (Credit 3) <ul><li>Use higher efficiency fixtures & consider reuse rainwater & greywater for non-potable use. </li></ul>
  44. 47. Leading the Way The APA, USGBC & AIA are all making strides to implement the tools, benchmarks and resources to bring sustainability to the main stream.
  45. 49. LEED Development <ul><li>LEED for Neighborhood </li></ul><ul><li>Development, Retail & </li></ul><ul><li>Healthcare are currently in </li></ul><ul><li>pilot test. </li></ul>2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 LEED – New Construction LEED – Commercial Interior LEED – Existing Building LEED – Core/Shell ANSI Standards LEED – Home
  46. 50. Policy 1: Alt. Transportation Policy 3: Min. Extraction Policy 4: Reduce Chemical Use Policy 5: Reduce Pesticides Policy 6: Smart Growth SS: Credit 4 Alt. Transportation SS: Credit 1 Site Development SS: Credit 2 Density & Connection SS: Credit 3 Brownfield Redevelopment SS: Credit 5 Protect Habitats & Open Space SS: Credit 6 Quantity & Quality Control SS: Credit 7 Reduce Heat Island SS: Credit 8 Light Pollution Reduction Policy 7: Water & Soil Policy 8: Storm Water & Treatment Policy 9: Public Wellness Policy 10: Re-use Waste Policy 11: Community Involvement Policy 12: Support R&D Policy 13: Support Incentives Policy 2: Renewable Energy WE: Credit 1 Reduce Irrigation WE: Credit 2 Innovation WE: Credit 3 Reduce Use EA: Credit 2 Renewables EQ: Credit 4 Low Emitting Mat. MR: Credits 3 & 4 Reuse/Recycle
  47. 51. AIA 2030 Challenge Goals <ul><li>All new buildings, developments and major renovations shall be designed to meet a fossil fuel, GHG-emitting, energy consumption performance standard of 50% of the regional (or country) average for that building type. </li></ul><ul><li>At a minimum, an equal amount of existing building area shall be renovated annually to meet a fossil fuel, GHG-emitting, energy consumption performance standard of 50% of the regional (or country) average for that building type. </li></ul>
  48. 52. AIA 2030 Challenge Targets Edward Mazria AIA, is a senior principal at Mazria Inc. and is the architect who initiated the 2030 Challenge. Carbon Neutrality
  49. 53. Counties & Cities Adopt 2030 Challenge <ul><li>NACo supports the goals of the 2030 Challenge to encourage counties to set goals for renovated & all new public buildings to become carbon neutral by 2030. </li></ul><ul><li>The U.S. Conference of Mayors encourages it’s members to adopt the “2030 Challenge” for building performance targets. </li></ul>
  50. 54. <ul><li>Sustainability can be encouraged by offering incentives to those who make environmentally supportive decisions. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Expedited Services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discounts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Training </li></ul></ul>Incentives and Policies The key to increasing implementing sustainability is establish an action plan
  51. 55. Paths to a Green Building/Planning Policy The Pew Center on Global Climate Change was established in 98. The Center's mission is to provide credible information, straight answers, and innovative solutions in the effort to address global climate change.
  52. 56. Incentive Options Communities offer several incentives varying from cost free to a direct investment by the city to encourage sustainable planning concepts and development of green buildings. The following options represent the most common incentives offered by cities across the country . . .
  53. 57. <ul><li>Streamline the permitting process for building, plan & site permits. </li></ul><ul><li>May require some reorganizing of staff or policy changes. </li></ul><ul><li>Great cost-savings to the city, the architects & developers involved. </li></ul>Expedited Service
  54. 58. <ul><li>Offer a Green Award for marketing purposes. </li></ul><ul><li>Highlight your Green Award on your green building web site & provide links to participating firms. </li></ul>Green Building Awards <ul><li>Subsidize USGBC cost through direct grants. </li></ul>Subsidized LEED Fees
  55. 59. <ul><li>Establish a loan fund specifically for green improvements. </li></ul><ul><li>Initial investment start-up cost, but proven profitable in the long run. </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced interest rates to developers that agree to build to green standards. </li></ul><ul><li>Pay back loan cost through future energy savings. </li></ul>Green Loan Fund
  56. 60. <ul><li>Train building inspectors & other officials in green building standards. </li></ul><ul><li>Trained local officials can educate the community and assist developers. </li></ul><ul><li>Cities can use these officials to earn revenue by offering discounted consulting for green building projects. </li></ul>Training
  57. 61. <ul><li>In return for achieving levels of green building ratings the following with be offered: </li></ul><ul><li>Implement height & floor/area ratio bonuses. </li></ul><ul><li>Reductions in landscaping requirements. </li></ul><ul><li>Counting green roof space as landscaping/open space. </li></ul>Density Bonuses
  58. 62. Waive or give partial or total reimbursement of the application, building, or permit fees in return for reaching specific levels of green rating systems. Permit Fee Waiver Temporarily reduce taxes for specific levels of green certification. Property Tax Abatement
  59. 63. Buy these energy-efficient appliances in bulk & offer discounted prices. Discounted Energy Star Appliances Incentives for additional costs on energy-efficient & other green systems such as HVAC, windows, solar energy and water. Subsidized Green Premium
  60. 64. LEED initiatives including legislation, executive orders, resolutions, ordinances, policies, and incentives are found in 75 cities, 23 counties, 17 towns, 27 states, 12 federal agencies, 10 public school jurisdictions and 36 institutions of higher education across the US. Gaining Momentum for Sustainability
  61. 65. U.S. Cities with Green Building Programs
  62. 66. AIA Sustainable Study Findings Green Building Programs in Cities with a Population Over 50,000
  63. 67. D.C. Sets A Green Standard <ul><li>First major U.S. city to mandate sustainability guidelines for privately owned real estate. </li></ul><ul><li>Passed the Green Building Act of 2006 which calls for all new development in the city to conform to the USGBC’s LEED standards. </li></ul><ul><li>Law takes force in 2008 for all publicly financed buildings and will be phased in by 2012 for private construction . </li></ul>
  64. 68. D.C. Sets A Green Standard <ul><li>Incentives: </li></ul><ul><li>Green Building Fund (an advisory counsel) </li></ul><ul><li>Incentives for developers </li></ul><ul><li>Green development ambassador </li></ul><ul><li>Green building permit application reviewer </li></ul><ul><li>Fast-track permits </li></ul><ul><li>Revision of codes to include green building </li></ul><ul><li>Priority leasing for green buildings </li></ul>
  65. 69. <ul><li>Established a Green Building Task Force in 2003 composed of public & private experts in the field to recommend a comprehensive green building plan for the city. </li></ul><ul><li>First major U.S. city to implement a green building zoning code in 2007. </li></ul><ul><li>Requires all major new & rehabilitation construction projects exceeding 50,000 Sq. Ft. to earn 26 LEED New Construction points . </li></ul>Green collar jobs created is a strong incentive for the program. Boston, MA
  66. 70. New York, NY <ul><li>In September 2006 Mayor Bloomberg created the Sustainability Advisory Board , a panel of environmental design & policy experts gathered to develop strategies for greening NYC. </li></ul><ul><li>Announced PlaNYC 2030, a sweeping climate change proposal, on Earth Day of 2007. </li></ul>
  67. 71. <ul><li>Since the release of PlaNYC 2030, the Sustainability Advisory Board has refocused their efforts to ensure that the city’s strategies for sustainability are implemented in full & remain publicly accountable to citizen’s concerns. </li></ul>New York, NY
  68. 72. <ul><li>Uses a series of mandates, challenges, & incentives to reduce demand among the city’s largest energy consumers. </li></ul><ul><li>Encourages the installation of green roofs through a new incentive program. </li></ul><ul><li>Uses upcoming rezoning to direct growth toward areas with strong transit access . </li></ul>New York, NY
  69. 73. <ul><li>Dedicates $15 million to a fund supporting brownfield redevelopment . </li></ul><ul><li>Implements more efficient construction management practices, including accelerating the adoption of technologies to reduce construction-related emissions. </li></ul><ul><li>Amends the building code to address the impacts of climate change . </li></ul>New York, NY
  70. 74. <ul><li>The green building component: </li></ul><ul><li>Offers incentives for green building techniques. </li></ul><ul><li>Strengthens energy & building codes to support energy efficiency strategies & other environmental goals. </li></ul><ul><li>Supports the construction of the city’s first carbon-neutral building . </li></ul>New York, NY
  72. 76. <ul><li>American Council on Renewable Energy (ACORE) Works to bring all forms of renewable energy into the mainstream </li></ul><ul><li>Alliance for Regional Stewardship (ARS) A peer-to-peer network of leaders working to solve community problems </li></ul><ul><li>Complete Streets Coalition (CSC) Promote change in how streets are designed to accommodate all users </li></ul><ul><li>Community Design Partnership (CDP) Public health, government, design, and development associations promoting health through planning and design. </li></ul><ul><li>Green Communities Initiative (GCI) The initiative is a 5-year, $550 million commitment to build environmentally friendly affordable homes </li></ul>APA Resources
  73. 77. USGBC Resources <ul><li>The Playbook for Green Buildings and Neighborhoods: Strategic Local Climate Solutions </li></ul><ul><li>LEED Initiatives in Governments and Schools </li></ul><ul><li>State and Local Government Toolkit </li></ul><ul><li>Energy Policy Act of 2005 Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>USGBC Facts and Figures </li></ul>
  74. 78. Sustainable Design Assessment Teams (SDAT) Designing a Sustainable World <ul><li>The AIA offers the SDAT program as a community assistance program that focuses on the principals of sustainability. </li></ul><ul><li>SDAT brings teams of volunteer professionals (such as architects, urban designers, planners, hydrologists, economists, attorney’s & others) to work with community decision-makers and stakeholders to help them develop a vision & framework for a sustainable future. </li></ul>
  75. 79. Thank You! <ul><li>Thank you for joining us at the </li></ul><ul><li>MAP Spring Institute! </li></ul><ul><li>If you have any questions regarding today’s presentation or other aspects of sustainable design please feel free to contact us at: </li></ul><ul><li>734.663.1910 or </li></ul><ul><li>visit our website at </li></ul>