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Solving Web Accessibility: Leaving No One Behind

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With so many emerging standards and technical specifications, meeting web accessibility guidelines can be a daunting task. This webinar is presented by David Berman, the #1 rated speaker on the topic of web accessibility standards as well as an international expert in the field. He provides not only a deep understanding of web standards and requirements, but also a passion for accessibility. His expert approach to developing an accessible infrastructure provide you with a roadmap of what needs to be done as well as how you can meet your accessibility goals.

Topics covered include:

Discussion of emerging accessibility standards, W3C WCAG 2.0 guidelines, and legal requirements for web accessibility
Specific technologies and design techniques to satisfy accessibility concerns
Why accessibility is important, and how accessibility can mean usability for everyone
Tips and strategies that don’t require programming knowledge that you can implement immediately

Published in: Technology
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Solving Web Accessibility: Leaving No One Behind

  1. 1. 1 Solving Web Accessibility: Leaving No One Behind David Berman (Presenter) David Berman Communications President www.davidberman.com  Type questions in the window during the presentation  Recording of presentation will be available for replay  A link to live captioning can be found in the chat window Lily Bond (Moderator) 3Play Media lily@3playmedia.com Tel: (617) 764-5189 www.3playmedia.com twitter: @3playmedia
  2. 2. 3Play Media presents Solving Web accessibility: leaving no one behind by David Berman, RGD, FGDC January 14, 2015 @davidberma Ottawa Citizen January 14, 2015:Ontario vs Norway in Web accessibility shootout
  3. 3. davidberman.co m
  4. 4. 4 Expert Speaker David Berman, R.G.D., FGDC Topics (available publicly or at your location)  Perfecting Your Web Strategy 2.0  Accessible documents, Web, mobile, eLearning, virtual classrooms  Management of Web Projects + Accessible Documents  Effective Web Interface Design Links and books: http://www.davidberman.com/accessibility#resources facebook: David Berman linkedin.com/in/bermandavid twitter.com/davidberman davidberman.co m
  5. 5. 5 WHY SHOULD WE CARE? “Everyone deserves the opportunity to fulfill their potential.” | David C. Onley, Lieutenant Governor of Ontario davidberman.co m
  6. 6. “Over the next 10 to 15 years, technology has the capacity to virtually eliminate barriers faced by people with disabilities in the workplace.” | STEVE BALLMER, MICROSOFT
  7. 7. 7 5 reasons to care about accessibility davidberman.c om
  8. 8. 8 2015: legal expectations are shifting Defendants to lawsuits brought against them recently: America Online Bank of America BMI Connecticut Attorney General Government of Canada Netflix Penn State University davidberman.c om
  9. 9. 9 Leadership: Ontario, Canada davidberman.c om
  10. 10. 10 Leadership: Ontario, Canada davidberman.c om
  11. 11. 11 Leadership: Canada davidberman.c om
  12. 12. 12 July 1, 2011: Ontario leaps ahead Ontario’s precise Integrated Accessibility Standards Regulation 191/11 (IASR) kicks in, objectifying the 2005 Accessibility for Ontarians With Disabilities Act (AODA):  Information and Communications Standards  Employment Standards  Transportation Standards  Design of Public Spaces Standards (regulation 413/12) “making the province accessible for everyone by 2025” davidberman.co m Jan 1 2014: Ontario deadlines took hold
  13. 13. 13 December 5, 2013: Manitoba joins the herdManitoba’s Bill 26: The Accessibility for Manitobans Act: davidberman.co m
  14. 14. 14 July 1, 2014: Norway takes a lead Norway’s Anti-Discrimination and Accessibility Act, Section 14 davidberman.co m
  15. 15. 15 1876: an American improves learning for the deaf patent 174,465 davidberman.c om 1938: hearing aid innovation
  16. 16. 16 1947: Bell Labs + quantum physics davidberman.c om
  17. 17. 17 1953: $25,000 …“1 person, 1 radio” Akio Morita triggers the revolutio n in davidberman.c om
  18. 18. davidberman.c om colorblind = life + death18
  19. 19. colorblind = life + death davidberman.c om 19
  20. 20. 20 color + shape + how many davidberman.c om
  21. 21. color + shape + how many davidberman.c om 21
  22. 22. 22 Online accessibility: it’s never been easier  Our world has never been so accessible  By helping build a more accessible Web, you are part of the largest liberation in human history davidberman.c om
  23. 23. 23 DIFFICULTIES AND TECHNOLOGIES: AVOIDING TRADEOFFS davidberman.co m
  24. 24. 24 Kinds of disabilities and online challenges EXAMPLES 1. Permanent face blindness since birth 2. Episodic cast, driving, eye drops, tipsy, flu, PTSD, smoke-filled room, noisy place, pregnant, distance 3. Acquired ageing-related 4. Societal left-handedness Impairments  Visual…  Dexterity (mobility)…  Hearing…  Language and speech…  Cognitive…  Social… davidberman.c om
  25. 25. 25 Visual difficulties Conditions:  Low or constrained vision  Colorblindness  Blindness davidberman.c om
  26. 26. Dexterity/mobility difficulties  Loss of limb  Risk or loss of feeling or control  Limited reach, strength, manipulation  Arms full, hand in a cast, pain davidberman.c om
  27. 27. 27 Hearing difficulties From slight hearing loss to complete deafness davidberman.c om
  28. 28. 28 Language and speech difficulties  Aphasia  Delayed speech  Lack of knowledge/skills (e.g. illiteracy) davidberman.c om
  29. 29. 29 Cognitive and learning difficulties  Dyslexia, dysgraphia, distraction, ADD, ADHD  Developmental disabilities  Being a search engine rather than a human! davidberman.c om
  30. 30. 30 Cognitive and learning difficulties: dyslexia Dyslexia d b davidberman.c om
  31. 31. Assistive technologies In a world that assumes all faculties are available, swapping and extending senses is the creative response… davidberman.c om
  32. 32. 32 Instead of reading small… magnify  Magnifier software (e.g. ZoomText)  Large print software  Large print keyboard  Text size commands  Pinch-zoom touch interfaces davidberman.c om
  33. 33. 33 davidberman.c om Instead of seeing unclearly… enhance eSight Corporation’s computerized glasses reconfigures high-definition
  34. 34. 34 Instead of mousing… point nose and blink! NRC’s Nouse scans head movements and eye blinks davidberman.c om
  35. 35. 35 Instead of swiping and scrolling… move your eyes Tobii EyeMobile uses gaze alone with every Windows app davidberman.c om
  36. 36. 36 Instead of typing… talk  Voice recognition commands the device through voice (for example, Dragon Naturally Speaking, Siri, Google Now)  …or augment challenged typing by hearing what you have just typed davidberman.c om
  37. 37. 37 Instead of typing… click, sip, puff, tap  Alternative keyboards, input devices  Software can assist typed input through anticipation and filtering  Scalable objects help too davidberman.c om
  38. 38. 38 Instead of reading… feel davidberman.c om Dynamic braille displays raise or lower dot patterns on command … typically 12 to 80 cells. Braille embossers print braille.
  39. 39. 39 Instead of reading… listen  Screen readers (e.g., JAWS, NVDA, Window-Eyes, VoiceOver, TalkBack, Narrator, Thunder) davidberman.c om
  40. 40. “The revolution will not be televised …because it’s on the Internet.” | ALEXANDER FELSENBERG, GERMANY davidberman.c om
  41. 41. Affordable accessibility: Jaipur foot and knee davidberman.c om
  42. 42. Global shift to mobile davidberman.c om
  43. 43. 44 Global shift to small screen and touch By the end of 2013, more people on Earth owned a smartphone (22%) than a laptop (20%). davidberman.c om
  44. 44. 45 Mobile has opened up a world of affordable development for accessibility davidberman.c om
  45. 45. 46 Mobile is reducing the barriers of cost and convenience by putting many devices in one davidberman.c om
  46. 46. 47 Mainstream applications are bumping some of the need for specialized assistive technologiesDedicated devices are giving way to apps davidberman.c om
  47. 47. 48 The ideal accessible digital world Usable by everyone on any user agent (e.g. browser, app, PDF/eBook reader) on any kind of device with any kind of connection in any kind of environment davidberman.c om
  48. 48. 1. process orientation 2. strategy 3. technical discovery 4. content outline 5. information architecture design 6. estimating (project planning) 7. graphic design 8. production (programming, testing, maintenance) 9. evaluation 49 When to plan for accessible publishing davidberman.c om
  49. 49. 50 Common Standards “guidelines”, “recommendations”, “requirements”, “success criteria”, “WCAG”, “CLF”, “AODA”, “IASR”, “Section 508”, “W3C”, “PDF/UA”, oh my! “ It felt like I was being forced to learn a whole new language from someone who was deliberately trying to confuse davidberman.co m
  50. 50. 51 WCAG 2.0 success criteria W3C (World Wide Web Consortium) publishes WCAG 2.0 (Web Content Accessibility Guidelines) … can inoculate us against future change. davidberman.c om
  51. 51. 52 WCAG 2.0 “conformance levels” (published 2008, ratified 2010) NOTHING LEVEL A LEVEL AA LEVEL AAA Worst   Best  Without level A: some people will find it impossible  Without level AA: some people will find it difficult  Without level AAA: some people will miss full impact For your site to be Level AA compliant, you must meet all 25 Level A and 13 Level AA standards. davidberman.c om
  52. 52. 53 WCAG 2.0 as a legal standard trending globally Canada govt. CLF 2.0 Part 2 WCAG 1.0 2001 Canada govt. Standard on Web Accessibility WCAG 2.0 AA 2011 Ont. govt.+biz AODA IASR WCAG 2.0 A/AA 2012- 2021 Quebec govt. SGQRI 008 ~WCAG 2.0 2011 Manitoba govt. Website Standards WCAG 1.0 2005 USA, NY govt. Section 508 WCAG 1.0 partial current USA govt. “new” Section 508 WCAG 2.0 AA 2015 Illinois govt. IITAA ~WCAG 2.0 AA ~2015 Australia govt.+biz IPS/NTS WCAG 2.0 A/AA* 2012-2014 EU govt. Mandate M 376 WCAG 2.0 ??? France govt. RGAA 2.2.1 ~WCAG 2.0 2011 Germany govt. BITV 2 ~WCAG 2.0 2011 New Zealand govt. NZGWS 2.0 WCAG 2.0 2011 davidberman.c om
  53. 53. 54 U.S. Government “Section 508” Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 called for standards. Triggered by a Congressional amendment in 1998, Section 508 Electronic and Information Technology Accessibility Standards, includes “Part 1194.22: Web-based Intranet and Internet Information and Applications”, which includes 16 standards named (a) through (p), issued December 2000. Today: a second draft of the “new Section 508” was released for public comment in 2011. It will replace the 16 standards with WCAG 2.0 … when Congress gets around to it. davidberman.c om
  54. 54. 55 U.S. Section 508 covered by WCAG 508 WCAG 1 WCAG 2 a 1.1 1.1 b 1.4 1.2 c 2.1 1.4 d 6.1 1.3, 1.4, 2.1 e 1.2 2.1 f 9.1 1.1 g 5.1 1.3 h 5.2 1.3 508 WCAG 1 WCAG 2 i 12.1 2.4 j 11.4 2.3 k * 1.3 l * 2.1, 4.1 m * 2.4 n 5.1-5.4 1.3, 2.1, 3.2, 3.3 o * 2.4 p 7.3 2.2 * in the spirit of WCAG 1.0 davidberman.c om
  55. 55. 56 PDF/UA PDF/UA: the PDF specification specifically for universal access is an ISO standard (ISO 14289) Acrobat Pro X’s Accessibility Checker focusses on the WCAG 2.0 rules. Acrobat Pro XI’s Accessibility Checker focusses more on PDF/UA. The Matterhorn Protocol: 31 checkpoints (seeking 136 potential failures… 89 of which are software detectable and 45 requiring human judgment) davidberman.c om
  56. 56. 57 AODA: Ontario’s accessibility legislation Accessibility for Ontarians with Disabilities Act (2005) pertains to both government and private sector davidberman.c om
  57. 57. 58 AODA Accessibility Standard for Information and Communications Government of Ontario, Legislative Assembly: Jan 1 2012: content posted 2012+ to new* internet, intranet sites: AA with 2 exclusions Jan 1 2016: content posted 2012+ to all internet sites: AA with 2 exclusions Jan 1 2020: content posted 2012+ to all internet, intranet sites: AA Designated public sector organizations**, organizations with 50+ employees: Jan 1 2014: content posted 2012+ AND on new internet sites: A Jan 1 2021: content posted 2012+ on all internet sites: AA with 2 exclusions *“new” means a site with a new domain name (including subdomains) or where over 50% of the content is being changed, rewritten, reorganized, redesigned, or re-managed **“designated public sector” includes all municipalities, hospitals, boards (e.g. district school boards), colleges, universities, public transportation organizations, commissions, authorities, and agencies There are additional deadlines for educational training resources and materials, that apply to education/training institutions and libraries. davidberman.c om
  58. 58. 59 Canada’s Standard on Web Accessibility replaces Part 2 of CLF 2.0 … and co-exists with the new Standard on Web Usability and upcoming Standard on Web Interoperability that will entirely replace CLF 2.0. davidberman.c om
  59. 59. 60 WCAG 2.0 principles (25 Level A, 13 Level AA, 23 Level AAA) Principle 1: Perceivable… Information and interface must be presentable to users in ways they can perceive. (guidelines 1.1-1.4) Principle 2: Operable… User interface components and navigation must be operable. (guidelines 2.1-2.4) Principle 3: Understandable… Information and the operation of user interface must be understandable (guidelines 3.1-3.3) Principle 4: Robust… Content must be robust enough to be interpreted reliably by a wide variety of user agents, including assistive technologies. (guideline 4.1)
  60. 60. 61 WCAG 2.0 principles 1 of 4. Perceivable Principle 1: Perceivable… Information and user interface components must be presentable to users in ways they can perceive. (guidelines 1.1-1.4) 1.1 text alternatives 1.2 time-based media 1.3 adaptable 1.4 distinguishable davidberman.c om
  61. 61. 62 “Non-text content” WCAG2 1.1.1 ≈508(a, e, f) Provide text equivalents for all non-text content. Text equivalents alternatively describe the relevant content and function of all non-text content (images, type graphics, symbols, image maps, animations, applets, spacers, sounds, audio files, video files, frames, form buttons, associated text labels on form inputs, …) alt=“symbol A davidberman.c om
  62. 62. We need a meaningful, consistent description of what the person not experiencing the image would miss out on, not a duplication of the caption…  imagine you are explaining it on the phone  include “Photo of”, 63 Non-text: meaningful alternative text davidberman.c om
  63. 63. 64 Non-text: when a picture is worth 1,000 words… <img src= "AfrApePopulations.jpg " width="438" height="323" border="0" alt="graph of African Great Ape Populations" longdesc= "ape_description.html" > …or longdesc= "ape_description.txt"> davidberman.c om
  64. 64. 65 Non-text: static accessible versions davidberman.c om
  65. 65. 66 Non-text: dynamic accessible versions davidberman.c om
  66. 66. 67 Non-text: Microsoft Office PowerPoint, Excel, Word: Office 2000/2003/2007: Alt Text tab Office 2010: Format Picture> Alt Text> Description field (… not Title field because only Description will get exported to PDF, while both Title and Description get exported to HTML!) Office 2013: Format Picture> Layout & Properties> Alt Text> Description field … not Title field Gotcha: If the document is in “Compatibility Mode”, the interface look and labelling will be like you are in the earlier version of Office! davidberman.c om
  67. 67. Berman Accessibility Ribbon for Word davidberm an.com Coming January 31! Beta testers welcome … email
  68. 68. 69 Non-text: InDesign Indesign: Choose the Object menu> Object Export Options> Alt Text Source = Custom (or choose from your choice of embedded metadata by setting Alt Text Source to: “From XMP: Title” or “From XMP: Description” or “From XMP: Headline” …or your choice of Property of “From Other XMP” davidberman.c om
  69. 69. 70 Non-text: LiveCycle Designer LiveCycle Designer: Accessibility palette> Custom Screen Reader Text (or if blank then the Tool tip text, if blank then Caption, if blank then Name) … or set Screen Reader Precedence to your choice … or dynamically pass alternative text to an object using LiveCycle Designer’s scripting language FormCalc, for example: ImageField1.assist.ToolTip = $record.imagetext.value davidberman.c om
  70. 70. 71 Non-text: apps xCode/iOS: a “label” is the equivalent of alt, with optional “hint” Android: a “Content Description” is the equivalent of alt, with optional “hint” Windows Phone: a “name” is the equivalent of alt, with optional “ToolTip” or “HelpText” On mobile, alternative text for controls is best kept to a word or two, always capitalized. Hints (or tooltips), used sparingly, describe what the result of use will be, for example “Adds a comment.” (Capitalized, ends with a period) davidberman.c om
  71. 71. 72 Non-text: PDF acrobat Pro: Acrobat X or earlier: TouchUp Object or TouchUp Reading Order tool, right-click image, Tag> Alternate Text Acrobat XI, use Tools> Accessibility> Set Alternate Text to process all images in the document in one sweep (the document must be tagged for this to work) Window> Accessibility> Custom Screen Reader Text and Screen Reader Preference …or use FormCalc to dynamically assign alternative text PDF: /Alt in /Figure /Figure <</Alt (Photo of Doctor Field davidberman.c om
  72. 72. 73 Save time and improve consistency: store alternative text in Description metadata Indesign: Object Export Options> Alt Text Source = From XMP (your choice of Title, Description, Headline or Other) Use tools (such as Adobe Bridge’s Metadata view or CS/CC apps) to set the XMP IPTC Core metadata for Description to your desired alt text in ai, dng, eps, gif, jpg, html, pdf, png, ps, svg, tif, and webp files. davidberman.c om
  73. 73. 74 “Audio-only and video-only” (non-live) WCAG2 1.2.1 ≈508(b) Provide descriptive text transcript for non-live audio. Provide descriptive text transcript or audio description for all non-live primary video having no sound. Transcripts help hearing-challenged and visually- challenged situations… as well as help SEO. A davidberman.c om
  74. 74. Provide synchronized captions for all video, animations, or webinars that have audio (as primary content). Synchronized captions describe spoken words and sounds, in substitute for hearing. 75 “Captions” (non-live, live) WCAG2 1.2.2, 1.2.4 ≈508(b)A,AA davidberman.c om
  75. 75. 76 … and the rest of WCAG 2.0 …without tradeoffs! davidberman.c om
  76. 76. Testing, auditing, reporting investment davidberm an.com
  77. 77. 78 Global thinking, starting at home. davidberman.c om
  78. 78. Don’t just do good sites … do good! Contact us for accessibility workshops, webinars, audits, remediation, and certification: wcag2.com facebook.com/davidbermanco mmunications twitter.com/davidberman … or +1-613-728-6777 79 davidberman.c om
  79. 79. Learn more: learning guides, coaching, on-site courses “The New Standard on Web Accessibility” “Accessible PDF by Design” “Accessible Virtual Classrooms” “Accessible Distance Learning” “Perfecting Your Web Branding Strategy 2.0” Available for $97 each from davidberman.com/store Learning guides: davidberman.com/store Blog: davidberman.com/blog davidberman.c om
  80. 80. Thank you! facebook.com/davidbermancommunications linkedin.com/in/bermandavid twitter.com/davidberman Subscribe to our notices: davidberman.com/subscribe Evaluation? davidberman.com/evaluation Upcoming events:  Perfecting Your Web Strategy course | Ottawa | February 2015  New Standard On Web Accessibility course | Toronto, Ottawa | April, July 2015  New Standard On Web Accessibility course/talks | Brussels, Stockholm | April 2015  New Standard on Web Accessibility course | Vancouver, Victoria | November 2015 davidberman.c om SOURCES/CREDITS: Sources for quotes, statistics, images available on request. Some material reproduced with permission. © 2001-2015 David Berman. All rights reserved. No reproduction, in whole or part, without written permission. Many Images courtesy of Shutterstock. Full Intellectual property credits, sources and available upon request or in the full event or the full learning guide for the full-day version of this event. E&OE
  81. 81. 882 Presenters David Berman David Berman Communications President Lily Bond 3Play Media lily@3playmedia.com +1.617.764.5189 X103 Resources DIY Resources for Captioning & Transcription http://info.3playmedia.com/wp-diy.html Sources of Grants & Funding for Closed Captioning http://info.3playmedia.com/wp-grants.html 2015 Roadmap to Web Accessibility in Higher Education http://info.3playmedia.com/wp-web-accessibility.html Accessibility Laws http://www.3playmedia.com/how-it-works/white- papers/#section-accessibility-law Q&A

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