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National Research Results: How & Why Do Students Use Closed Captioning?

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Earlier this year, the Oregon State University Ecampus Research Unit conducted a nationwide research project on closed captioning in higher education. With over 2,500 student respondents, this is the largest study on the topic to date.

In this webinar, Dr. Katie Linder, the head researcher on the project, will present for the first time on the findings of the study. She will take a close look at how students use and perceive captioning and transcription at their institutions (beyond the need for accommodation).

This presentation will cover:

Data & results from the student study
Student awareness of the availability of captioning
Student use of captioning and transcription
How & why students who have not requested an accommodation for captioning use captions and transcripts
How captions & transcripts support learning
The perceived benefits of captioning & transcription on learning
Common captioning hindrances identified by students
Takeaways from the study

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National Research Results: How & Why Do Students Use Closed Captioning?

  1. 1. 1 National Research Results: How & Why Do Students Use Closed Captioning? Dr. Katie Linder Research Director Oregon State University Ecampus Kathryn.Linder@oregonstate.edu www.3playmedia.com twitter: @3playmedia live tweet: #a11y  Type questions in the window during the presentation  Recording of presentation will be available for replay  To view live captions, please click the link in the chat window Lily Bond (Moderator) 3Play Media Director of Marketing lily@3playmedia.com
  2. 2. National Research Results: How & Why Do Students Use Closed Captioning? Presented by: Dr. Katie Linder, Research Director Oregon State University Ecampus kathryn.linder@oregonstate.edu Tweet using: @ecresearchunit @Katie__Linder @3playmedia
  3. 3. Presentation Objectives • An outline of the study recruitment and procedures • Data & results from the study including: • Information about the students who responded • Student awareness of the availability of captioning • Student use of captioning and transcription • How & why students use captions and transcripts • The perceived learning benefits of captioning & transcription • Common captioning hindrances identified by students • Takeaways from the study • Q&A 3
  4. 4. Study Origins 4
  5. 5. Study Research Questions • To what extent are students aware of the availability of video closed captions and transcripts in their courses? • To what extent do various student populations use video closed captions and transcripts? • Why do students use video closed captions and transcripts? • How do students use video closed captions and transcripts to support their learning? • To what extent do various student populations perceive the use of video closed captions as potentially valuable to their learning? 5
  6. 6. Recruitment • 3,742 institutional representatives received an email announcing the study • A series of webinars describing the study were held • For institutions that chose to participate in the study, recruitment materials for the student survey were shared for distribution 6
  7. 7. Instrument and Procedures • When consented for the survey, students were told that their institution was partnering with Oregon State University and 3Play Media • Student participants were asked to complete a 46-item online survey • Students had the option at the end of the survey to provide their email to be entered into a raffle for one of fifty $25 Amazon gift cards 7
  8. 8. Participants • Participants who were under the age of 18 were excluded from the study • A total of 15 institutions agreed to assist with recruitment of student survey participants • From those 15 institutions, 2,839 students responded • 2,124 student participant responses were included in the analysis of the outcomes after data cleaning procedures were completed 8
  9. 9. An Important Note • Many institutions are only thinking about closed captions in relation to student accommodation • Thus, some institutions only sent out the survey to the students who were receiving captions for accommodation • This is reflected in the response rates of students with registered disabilities and students who receive closed captions as an accommodation 9
  10. 10. Participating Schools School Respondents Institutional Profile A 1 Private 4-year, nonprofit, Northeast B 8 Public 2-year, nonprofit, Midwest C 32 Public 4-year, nonprofit, Southeast D 4 Public 4-year, nonprofit, Southeast E 32 Public 2-year, nonprofit, Southwest F 7 Public 4-year, nonprofit, Midwest G 64 Public 2-year, nonprofit, Midwest H 24 Private 4-year, nonprofit, Southwest I 60 Public 4-year, nonprofit, Midwest J 4 Public 4-year, nonprofit, Midwest K 1130 Public 4-year, nonprofit, West L 300 Public 4-year, nonprofit, West M 100 Private 4-year, nonprofit, Northeast N 123 Public 4-year, nonprofit, West O 235 Public 4-year, nonprofit, West 10
  11. 11. frequency percentag e freshman 357 18.1% sophomor e 323 16.4% junior 436 22.1% senior 514 26.1% graduate student 272 13.8% other 71 3.6% total 1973 100% Student Respondents freshman, 18.10% sophomore, 16.40% junior, 22.10% senior, 26.10% graduate student, 13.80% other, 3.60% Year in School freshman sophomore junior senior graduate student other 11
  12. 12. Student Respondents (cont.) 12
  13. 13. Student Respondents (cont.) 13
  14. 14. Student Respondents (cont.) 14
  15. 15. Student Respondents (cont.) face-to-face, 35.20% primarily face to face with occasional online, 3.60% equally face-to-face and online, 5.10% primarily online with occasional face-to-face, 51.90% only online, 4.10% Course Modality face-to-face primarily face to face with occasional online equally face-to-face and online primarily online with occasional face-to-face only online 15
  16. 16. Student Respondents (cont.) 16
  17. 17. Availability of Closed Captions • Approximately how many videos in your courses had closed captioning as an option? • How often did you use closed captions when they were available? frequency percentage all 125 6.0% most 269 12.8% many 209 10.0% some 370 17.7% just a few 318 15.2% none 240 11.5% I am not sure 565 27.0% total 2096 100% frequency percentage never 541 26.0% seldom 418 20.1% sometimes 394 19.0% often 356 17.1% always 370 17.8% total 2079 100% 17
  18. 18. • Do you know how to tell if a video has closed captioning as a feature? • Do you know how to turn on closed captioning? Use and Perceptions of Closed Captions frequency percentage yes 1174 55.9% sometime s 617 29.4% no 308 14.7% total 2099 100% frequency percentage yes 1251 59.6% sometime s 536 25.5% no 312 14.9% total 2099 100% 18
  19. 19. • Approximately how many videos in your courses have transcripts as an option? • How often did you use transcripts when they were available? Use and Perceptions of Transcripts frequency percentage all 62 3.1% most 82 4.1% many 81 4.0% some 193 9.6% just a few 364 18.0% none 864 42.8% I am not sure 371 18.4% total 2017 100% frequency percentage never 1087 55.5% seldom 248 12.7% sometimes 258 13.2% often 171 8.7% always 196 10.0% total 1960 100% 19
  20. 20. • How often did you use closed captions when they were available? • How often did you use transcripts when they were available? Comparing CC and Transcript Use frequency percentage never 1087 55.5% seldom 248 12.7% sometimes 258 13.2% often 171 8.7% always 196 10.0% total 1960 100% frequency percentage never 541 26.0% seldom 418 20.1% sometimes 394 19.0% often 356 17.1% always 370 17.8% total 2079 100% 20
  21. 21. • Approximately how many videos in your courses had closed captioning as an option? • Approximately how many videos in your courses have transcripts as an option? Comparing CC and Transcript Availability frequency percentage all 62 3.1% most 82 4.1% many 81 4.0% some 193 9.6% just a few 364 18.0% none 864 42.8% I am not sure 371 18.4% total 2017 100% frequency percentage all 125 6.0% most 269 12.8% many 209 10.0% some 370 17.7% just a few 318 15.2% none 240 11.5% I am not sure 565 27.0% total 2096 100% 21
  22. 22. Helpfulness of Closed Captions vs. Transcripts 1.40% 10.50% 29.00% 35.70% 23.40% 31.10% 18.40% 22.50% 17.00% 11.00% 0.00% 5.00% 10.00% 15.00% 20.00% 25.00% 30.00% 35.00% 40.00% Not at all Slightly Moderately Very Extremely Helpfulness of Captions & Transcripts (by percentage of whole) Captions Transcripts 22
  23. 23. Why do students use closed captions? frequency Helps me focus 1001 Helps me retain the information 963 Helps overcome poor audio quality 958 I watch videos in sound sensitive environments (e.g. a library) 650 Helps me with difficult vocabulary 418 I have difficulty with hearing 288 My professor has an accent 285 Other (please describe) 155 English is my second language 112 23
  24. 24. Five main themes emerged: 1) Environmental (quiet environments) 2) Video/audio quality (poor quality, too quiet) and/or instructor difficult to understand (accents, speaks too fast) 3) Convenience (faster, saves time) 4) Accommodation (disability accommodation) 5) Learning aid (accuracy, comprehension, retention, engagement) Perceived Benefits of Closed Captions 24
  25. 25. Sample Comments of Perceived Benefits of Closed Captions • Environmental: “I don’t like playing videos with sound when I’m in an environment where doing so would be disruptive.” • Video/audio quality: “Helps when a video has poor sound quality.” • Instructor difficult to understand: “My professor has a slight accent that makes her words fast and jumbled.” 25
  26. 26. Sample Comments of Perceived Benefits of Closed Captions • Convenience: “I find it easier to read along with the videos rather than just sit there and listen to the professor talk.” • Accommodation: “I’m dyslexic so it helps me to know that the notes I’m writing down are both spelled correctly and in the right syntax.” 26
  27. 27. Sample Comments of Perceived Learning Benefits of Closed Captions • Accuracy: “If I need to write down notes, I know exactly how to quote a video.” • Comprehension: “It can help me deeply understand the lecture.” • Retention: “By simultaneously reading and listening to the content, I am able to retain the information better.” • Engagement: “They help me to focus on the video instead of just tuning out the noise.” 27
  28. 28. Perceived Hindrances of Closed Captions Frequency Percent Not at all 965 63.32% Slightly 401 26.31% Moderately 135 8.9% Very 16 1.05% Extremely 7 .05% Total 1524 100% 28
  29. 29. Perceived Hindrances of Closed Captions 400 qualitative comments included in analysis • 41.5% (166) said that closed captions were distracting or required too much cognitive load • 34.8% (139) said that closed captions included incorrect information such as typos or were incorrectly synced with the video • 32% (128) said that closed captions blocked important information 29
  30. 30. Distracting or required too much cognitive load • “I do not focus on the video, I focus on the reading.” • “If the video is simple with simple vocabulary then closed captioning can be annoying and seem repetitive causing the feeling of boredom.” • “They are distracting from the actual video.” Sample Comments of Perceived Hindrances of Closed Captions 30
  31. 31. Included incorrect information such as typos or were incorrectly synced with the video • “Most of the time the videos in class have used automatic captions which never match up with what is really being said which often makes them inaccurate and not helpful.” • “When the captioning is wrong, it is frustrating because in a PhD program details matter. Additionally, when they are wrong, it takes that much longer to process and contribute to a conversation.” Sample Comments of Perceived Hindrances of Closed Captions 31
  32. 32. Closed captions blocked important information • “Some instances it covered up the equations needed to see for the math classes.” • “It can block important images/pictures.” • “When they are in the way of the video (specifically words, such as names or positions of people talking in video).” Sample Comments of Perceived Hindrances of Closed Captions 32
  33. 33. Why do students use transcripts? 33 frequency I use transcripts as study guides 682 Helps me retain the information 668 Helps me find what I'm looking for 667 Helps me focus 491 Helps overcome poor audio quality 428 Helps with difficult vocabulary 288 Other (please describe) 273 I watch videos in sound sensitive environments (e.g. the library) 261 My professor has an accent 178 I have difficulty with hearing 136 English is my second language 75
  34. 34. Perceived Benefits of Transcripts Five main themes emerged: 1) Environmental (quiet environments) 2) Video/audio quality (poor quality, too quiet) and/or instructor difficult to understand (accents, speaks too fast) 3) Accommodation (for specified disability) 4) Convenience (search for information, easier, faster, use for citations and quoting) 5) Learning aid (comprehension, note- taking, study aid, review materials later) 34
  35. 35. Sample Comments of Perceived Benefits of Transcripts • Environmental: “They helped me understand what was being said if I was in a noisy environment, or when I was in a quiet environment. I found it easier to follow along as well.” • Video/audio quality: “They allow you to read what is said without having to understand the speaker clearly.” 35
  36. 36. Sample Comments of Perceived Benefits of Transcripts • Instructor difficult to understand: “It is not always easy to understand professors who have a foreign dialect or who speak too quickly.” • Convenience: “It’s much easier to locate the key ideas and terms.” • Accommodation: “It helps with my learning disability, being able to read the information while watching the video.” 36
  37. 37. Sample Comments of Perceived Learning Benefits of Transcripts • Accuracy: “If I missed anything, I could have it right in front of me.” • Comprehension: “It is harder to take notes from a video. Transcripts allow easier identification of key points.” • Retention: “I am a visual learner so being able to read the material at my own pace and take notes helped me retain the information better.” • Engagement: “It helps me not have to take notes, which allows me to focus on the video.” 37
  38. 38. Perceived Hindrances of Transcripts Frequency Percent Not at all 1482 81.03% Slightly 193 10.55% Moderately 114 6.23% Very 20 1.1% Extremely 20 1.1% Total 1829 100.0 38
  39. 39. Perceived Hindrances of Transcripts 153 qualitative comments included in analysis • 43.79% (67) said that transcripts were distracting from the video or visual cues or required too much attention or cognitive load • 20.26% (31) said that transcripts included incorrect information such as typos, were not well-written, or were not formatted well • 14.38% (22) said that transcripts were too long, were too much to read, or required too much time 39
  40. 40. Sample Comments of Perceived Hindrances of Transcripts Transcripts were distracting from the video or visual cues or required too much attention or cognitive load • “Transcripts are meant to be read without the video playing, so you cannot see an object if the person is pointing to it in the video.” • “Hard to read and listen and watch at the same time.” 40
  41. 41. Sample Comments of Perceived Hindrances of Transcripts Transcripts included incorrect information such as typos, were not well-written, or were not formatted well • “Contained info that was irrelevant.” • “Not all correctly transcribed and often have weird line breaks.” • “Hard to sift through big blocks of text sometimes.” 41
  42. 42. Sample Comments of Perceived Hindrances of Transcripts Transcripts were too long, were too much to read, or required too much time • “It can make studying take longer than it should.” • “It is time consuming when you have to request for transcripts.” • “I would have to read it and not be able to watch the video and might fall behind with the other classmate.” 42
  43. 43. Takeaways • Almost 100% of courses include some video content • Generally, students find closed captions to be more helpful than transcripts • Closed captions or transcripts are not being provided for all videos and multimedia items or students are not aware when closed captions or transcripts have been made available • Closed captions and transcripts are being used in a range of ways to aid student learning • Many of the common hindrances can be mitigated by instituting a quality assurance process that involves the creator of the content 43
  44. 44. Study Report • A full study report for the student survey will be available later this fall • The report will include: • Additional results from the study including more specific qualitative analyses • The survey instrument • Data tables for all questions Everyone who registered for this webinar will be emailed when the report is available. 44
  45. 45. Upcoming Webinar: October 12 How Colleges Nationwide Are Handling Captioning This presentation will cover: • Whether institutions are prioritizing captioning • How institutions are budgeting for closed captioning • Whether captioning efforts are being centralized • The people and departments involved in captioning decisions • How much captioning is currently being done • A comparison of captioning practices for face-to-face, online, and institutional purposes • Awareness of captioning across campus • Whether colleges & universities are meeting legal requirements for captioning 45
  46. 46. An Additional Resource A weekly podcast about topics and issues related to research in higher education. Full transcripts are provided with each episode. 46
  47. 47. National Research Results: How & Why Do Students Use Closed Captioning? For additional questions contact: Dr. Katie Linder, Research Director Oregon State University Ecampus kathryn.linder@oregonstate.edu @ecresearchunit & @Katie__Linder
  48. 48. 48 Dr. Katie Linder Research Director Extended Campus, Oregon State University Kathryn.Linder@oregonstate. edu Lily Bond (Moderator) Director of Marketing 3Play Media lily@3playmedia.com Q&A Upcoming Webinars:  Sept 20: Captioning the 3Play Way  Sept 29: 2016 Legal Update on Digital Accessibility Cases (with Lainey Feingold)  Oct 6: Developing an Accessibility Policy  Oct 12: Research Results: How Campuses Nationwide Are Handling Captioning  Oct 20: An Architect of the ADA on Its Application to Modern Technology Register for upcoming webinars at: http://www.3playmedia.com/webinars/

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