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Opinion: What is “Real 5G”? (and “Real 4G”?)

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Zahid Ghadialy, Principal Analyst and Consultant discusses the controversial topic of "Real 5G" or "True 5G". To explain the concept he goes back to explain the difference between ITU defined requirements of IMT-Advanced and how that translated to 4G via LTE/LTE-Advanced. The main point to remember is that "there will be different flavours of 5G whether you like it or not. Get over it!"


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Opinion: What is “Real 5G”? (and “Real 4G”?)

  1. 1. Opinion: What is “Real 5G”? (and “Real 4G”?) Zahid Ghadialy, Principal Analyst and Consultant @3g4gUK
  2. 2. The Battle of “Real 5G” ©3G4G
  3. 3. Three’s claim for ‘True 5G’ ©3G4G IMT-2020 (5G) Requirements Bandwidth: Bandwidth is the maximum aggregated system bandwidth. The bandwidth may be supported by single or multiple radio frequency (RF) carriers. The bandwidth capability of the RIT/SRIT is defined for the purpose of IMT- 2020 evaluation. • The requirement for bandwidth is at least 100 MHz. • The RIT/SRIT shall support bandwidths up to 1 GHz for operation in higher frequency bands (e.g. above 6 GHz). Source: The 3G4G Blog
  4. 4. ‘This is Fine’ Dog Meme ©3G4G
  5. 5. Evolution of Mobile Networks and ITU IMT Vision ©3G4G CS PS 1990 2000 2010 2020 IMT-2000 IMT-Advanced IMT-2020 Voice & SMS PS Data MBB eMBB URLLC mMTC CSFB to 3G CSFB to 2G VoLTECS Data [2G] [3G] [4G] [4.5G] [5G]
  6. 6. ©3G4G LTE: 3.9G or 4G? Bandwidth Scalable At least 40 MHz Scalable 1.4 MHz – 20 MHz Max 2x20 (40 MHz) Scalable Up to 5x20 (100 MHz) Peak Data Rates DL = 1 Gbps UL = 1 Gbps DL = 150 Mbps (2x2) UL = 50 Mbps DL = 300 Mbps (2x2) UL = 100 Mbps (2x2) DL = 3 Gbps (8x8) UL = 1.5 Gbps (4x4) Latency 10 ms max 4.9 ms 4.9 ms 4.9 msUser Plane (UP) 100 ms max 50 ms 50 ms 50 ms Control Plane (CP) Max peak spectral efficienc y 15 bps / Hz 16.3 bps / Hz 16.8 bps / Hz 30 bps / Hz Downlink (DL) 6.75 bps / Hz 4.32 bps / Hz 8.4 bps / Hz 15 bps / Hz Uplink (UL) IMT-A LTE (Rel.8) LTE-A (Rel.10) LTE-A
  7. 7. ©3G4G Carrier Aggregation
  8. 8. ©3G4G LTE-Advanced: Real 4G Bandwidth Scalable At least 40 MHz Scalable 1.4 MHz – 20 MHz Max 2x20 (40 MHz) Scalable Up to 5x20 (100 MHz) Peak Data Rates DL = 1 Gbps UL = 1 Gbps DL = 150 Mbps (2x2) UL = 50 Mbps DL = 300 Mbps (2x2) UL = 100 Mbps (2x2) DL = 3 Gbps (8x8) UL = 1.5 Gbps (4x4) Latency 10 ms max 4.9 ms 4.9 ms 4.9 msUser Plane (UP) 100 ms max 50 ms 50 ms 50 ms Control Plane (CP) Max peak spectral efficienc y 15 bps / Hz 16.3 bps / Hz 16.8 bps / Hz 30 bps / Hz Downlink (DL) 6.75 bps / Hz 4.32 bps / Hz 8.4 bps / Hz 15 bps / Hz Uplink (UL) IMT-A LTE (Rel.8) LTE-A (Rel.10) LTE-A
  9. 9. ©3G4G 4G Evolution 3.9G? 4G? 4G? 4G+? Advanced 4G? 4.5G? 4.5G? 4.9G? 5G? 5GE?
  10. 10. ‘Gigabit LTE’ Networks ©3G4G
  11. 11. ‘Gigabit LTE’ Networks ©3G4G GSA Report Link Gigabit LTE does not always equal Gigabit speed. Some networks capable of delivering downlink speeds of 1 Gbps can do so without using all three key LTE-Advanced features Some networks using all three features do not achieve 1 Gbps The fastest networks in the GSA database are: • KDDI, Swisscom, Turkcell: 1.2 Gbps • China Unicom: 1.156 Gbps • Bell Mobility: 1.15 Gbps • 3 Hong Kong, Singtel: 1.1 Gbps • Optus: 1.03 Gbps • Vodafone Italy: 1.023 Gbps • Telstra, Vodafone Germany, Vodafone Netherlands, HKT, Elisa, Ooredoo Qatar, Starhub, Dialog Axiata, AT&T Mobility, China Mobile Hong Kong, DNA, Telenor Denmark, TeliaSonera Denmark, Smartone, CYTA, Sprint: 1 Gbps ©2019 GSA Gigabit LTE: At the end of February 2019, GSA has identified 100 operators in 59 countries or territories investing in all the three core LTE-Advanced features for Gigabit LTE (defined as Carrier Aggregation, 4×4 MIMO or higher, and 256QAM modulation in the downlink). 51 operators have deployed all three of these technologies and / or launched commercial services based on them.
  12. 12. ‘Gigabit LTE’ Networks ©3G4G
  13. 13. ©3G4G FACT: No existing 4G / LTE Network meets the ITU ‘IMT-Advanced’ Requirements
  14. 14. 5G (IMT-2020) Requirements ©3G4G 10 years battery life M2M Ultra low cost 100 x More devices than 4G >10 Gbps Peak data rates 100 Mbps Whenever needed 10000 x More traffic than 4G UR Ultra-Reliable (99.999%) < 1 ms Low latency on radio interface 1,000,000 devices per km2 ITU-R IMT-2020 requirements
  15. 15. 5G and IMT-2020 ©3G4G Submission 1: SRIT Component RIT: NR Component RIT: E-UTRA/LTE Submission 2: NR RIT RIT = Radio Interface Technology SRIT = Set of Radio Interface Technologies Standalone (SA)Non-Standalone (NSA)
  16. 16. 5G Bandwidth (BW) ©3G4G f1 f2 f3 f4 f5 f6 LTE Carrier Aggregation 5G NR Carrier Aggregation 5G NSA BW = 4G Carrier Aggregated BW + 5G Carrier Aggregated BW 5G SA BW = 5G Carrier Aggregated BW
  17. 17. Other Interesting IMT-2020 Requirements ©3G4G • Peak Data Rate (eMBB) ▪ Downlink peak data rate is 20 Gbit/s. ▪ Uplink peak data rate is 10 Gbit/s. • User experienced data rate (eMBB) ▪ Downlink user experienced data rate is 100 Mbit/s. ▪ Uplink user experienced data rate is 50 Mbit/s. • Control Plane Latency (air interface) ▪ Minimum requirement is 20 ms (eMBB & URLLC) • User Plane Latency (air interface) ▪ 4 ms for eMBB ▪ 1 ms for URLLC • And there are more…
  18. 18. ©3G4G FACT: No 5G Network will meet the ITU ‘IMT-2020’ Requirements
  19. 19. Why is 5G not as simple as Wi-Fi? ©3G4G Source: TechSpot
  20. 20. Wi-Fi is Simpler than 5G but… ©3G4G Internet ISP 750 Mbps Backhaul 100 Mbps Wi-Fi doesn’t have: • Wide Area Coverage • Mobility Management • QoS Management • Worldwide Roaming • Inter-RAT Handovers • Paging
  21. 21. 5G is Far More Complex Because… ©3G4G • Each country has different regulations ▪ Spectrum is not necessarily harmonized across all regions • Each operator has different amount and type of spectrum ▪ Remember, Licensed Spectrum is Expensive too • Backhaul varies from area to area ▪ Fibre cannot be used everywhere ▪ Latency depends on type of backhaul ▪ Rural / Remote areas relying on Satellite will have a very high latency o But they can still benefit from 5G security mechanism, QoS, etc. • There are many other things like slices, functional splits, network architecture options, migration paths, etc.
  22. 22. 3GPP Specifications for 3G, 4G & 5G ©3G4G Source: Nokia / The 3G4G Blog
  23. 23. Different Flavours of 5G ©3G4G
  24. 24. ©3G4G FACT: There will be different flavours of 5G whether you like it or not. Get over it!
  25. 25. Thank You To learn more, visit: 3G4G Website – https://www.3g4g.co.uk/ 3G4G Blog – https://blog.3g4g.co.uk/ Operator Watch – https://operatorwatch.3g4g.co.uk/ Connectivity Technology Blog – https://www.connectivity.technology/ 3G4G Small Cells Blog – https://smallcells.3g4g.co.uk/ Follow us on Twitter: https://twitter.com/3g4gUK Follow us on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/3g4gUK/ Follow us on LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/company/3g4g Follow us on SlideShare: https://www.slideshare.net/3G4GLtd Follow us on YouTube: https://www.youtube.com/3G4G5G ©3G4G

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