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Different Types of Backhaul

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Different Types of
Backhaul
@3g4gUK
Simplified Network Architecture
©3G4G
AS
CS NAS
Voice (PSTN)
Network
Data (IP)
Network
Device / UE
Radio
Access
Network
Co...
Backhaul Types
©3G4G
• Wired
• Optical (Fiber)
• (A)DSL
• Wireless
• Microwave (10 – 42 GHz)
• V Band / 60 GHz (57 – 64 GH...

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Different Types of Backhaul

  1. 1. Different Types of Backhaul @3g4gUK
  2. 2. Simplified Network Architecture ©3G4G AS CS NAS Voice (PSTN) Network Data (IP) Network Device / UE Radio Access Network Core Network Air Interface NAS = Non Access Stratum AS = Access Stratum UE = User Equipment PS NAS Backhaul AS
  3. 3. Backhaul Types ©3G4G • Wired • Optical (Fiber) • (A)DSL • Wireless • Microwave (10 – 42 GHz) • V Band / 60 GHz (57 – 64 GHz) • E-band (71 – 76, 81 - 86 GHz) • Satellite • Wi-Fi Mesh • LTE Backhaul • TD-LTE Backhaul • Self-backhauling • Optical • Laser
  4. 4. Wired Backhaul ©3G4G Optical Fiber Coaxial Cable Ethernet Cable
  5. 5. Wired Backhaul ©3G4G Virgin Media, UK advert singing praise of Coaxial cable and DOCSIS 3 technology for high speed broadband
  6. 6. ©3G4G
  7. 7. Wireless ©3G4G Line of Sight (LoS) Non Line of Sight (NLoS)
  8. 8. Wireless ©3G4G Line of Sight (LoS) Non Line of Sight (NLoS) 1. Penetration
  9. 9. Wireless ©3G4G Line of Sight (LoS) Non Line of Sight (NLoS) 1. Penetration 2. Reflection
  10. 10. Wireless ©3G4G Line of Sight (LoS) Non Line of Sight (NLoS) 1. Penetration 2. Reflection 3. Diffraction
  11. 11. Wireless ©3G4G Line of Sight (LoS) Non Line of Sight (NLoS) → Penetration 1. Penetration 2. Reflection 3. Diffraction Near Line of Sight (nLoS) → Reflection, Diffraction
  12. 12. Wireless ©3G4G Point-to-Point (PTP) Point-to-MultiPoint (PMP)
  13. 13. Microwave Frequencies ©3G4G • Microwave (10 – 42 GHz) • V Band / 60 GHz (57 – 64 GHz) • E-band (71 – 76, 81 - 86 GHz)
  14. 14. 5G Problem ©3G4G Coverage Layer Sub-1GHz Capacity Layer 1GHz – 6GHz High Throughput Layers 6GHz – 100GHz
  15. 15. 5G Problem ©3G4G
  16. 16. Work on Spectrum above 90GHz ©3G4G
  17. 17. Microwave Frequencies ©3G4G • Microwave (10 – 42 GHz) • V Band / 60 GHz (57 – 64 GHz) • E-band (71 – 76, 81 - 86 GHz)
  18. 18. V Band / 60 GHz (57 – 64 GHz) ©3G4G • Wide Bandwidth (7GHz) • Low transmission distance - < 1km due to oxygen absorption at 60GHz • Economy of scale – low cost • Unlicensed – more sources of interference
  19. 19. Satellite Backhaul ©3G4G Picture Source: Vizocom
  20. 20. Backhaul Technologies Comparison ©3G4G Wireless Backhaul Spectrum Policy Recommendations & Analysis - GSMA, October 2014 Not Necessarily true
  21. 21. LTE Backhaul (In-Band) ©3G4G • Macrocell and Small Cell use the same frequency f1 f1 f1 f1 MacrocellSmall Cell Interference
  22. 22. LTE Backhaul (Out-of-Band) ©3G4G • Macrocell and Small Cell use different frequency f1 f1 f2 f2 MacrocellSmall Cell
  23. 23. Wi-Fi Mesh & LTE Backhaul ©3G4G • Wi-Fi spectrum in 5GHz could be used to create Mesh links f1 f2 f2 MacrocellSmall Cell 1 (Macrocell edge) f2 f2 Small Cell 2 (No interference from Macrocell) f1f1 5GHz Mesh Link f2 f2 Small Cell 3 (No interference from Macrocell) f1f1 f2 f2 Small Cell 4 (No interference from Macrocell) f1f1 f2 f2 Small Cell 5 (No interference from Macrocell) f1f1 5GHz Mesh Link 5GHz Mesh Link
  24. 24. TD-LTE Backhaul ©3G4G • Ericsson & ITRI (Taiwan) demoed this concept • Small Cell in the train is transmitting on FDD • The Small Cell is backhauled on TD-LTE
  25. 25. 5G Self-Backhauling ©3G4G • Multiple 5G Base Stations will be backhauled on the same frequency as the access network eMBB FWA Small Cells for local coverage Self-Backhauling
  26. 26. Optical – Laser Backhaul ©3G4G • High throughput rates • Expensive • LOS & PTP only • Affected by fog and wind
  27. 27. Optical – Examples of Laser Backhaul ©3G4G AOptix reckons it’s got an alternative to fiber with a hybrid laser and Millimeter spectrum setup. Lightpointe HyBridge SX Single Beam - High speed full- duplex Gigabit connectivity for highly secure, reliable transmission up to a half mile/~750m.
  28. 28. Optical – Example of Laser Backhaul ©3G4G
  29. 29. Thank You To learn more, visit: 3G4G Website – http://www.3g4g.co.uk/ 3G4G Blog – http://blog.3g4g.co.uk/ 3G4G Small Cells Blog – http://smallcells.3g4g.co.uk/ Follow us on Twitter: https://twitter.com/3g4gUK Follow us on Linkedin: https://www.linkedin.com/company/3g4g ©3G4G

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