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Mark Jessell - Next Generation 3D Modelling

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Developing better integration of geological constraints into 3D regional modelling

Identify ways to carry geological meaning through the geophysical inversion process

Published in: Self Improvement
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Mark Jessell - Next Generation 3D Modelling

  1. 1. Mark Jessell WA Fellow & Winthrop Professor Laurent Aillères, Tom Carmichael, Monash Uni Eric de Kemp, Mike Hillier, Geol. Survey Canada Roland Martin, CNRS, Toulouse Mark Lindsay CET UWA Stéphane Perrouty, Uni Toulouse Next Generation 3D Modelling & Inversion After Dante 1315
  2. 2. Aims of WA Fellowship Program • Better integrate geological constraints into 3D regional modelling • Carry geological meaning through the geophysical inversion process
  3. 3. 3D Model(s) of Australia Gautier Laurent et al 2013 ARC DP1096409 Betts, Aillères, Jessell & de Kemp Active Mines Existing or planned 3D models
  4. 4. A good question
  5. 5. Sedimentary Basins Mines Regional Lithosphere 3D Constraints RICH (3D seismic, deep boreholes, gravity) RICH (dense boreholes, magnetics, seismic, electromagnetics) POOR (rare boreholes, surface outcrops, gravity, magnetics) RICH (Teleseismic, seismic, gravity, MT) Structural Complexity SIMPLE(R) COMPLEX COMPLEX SIMPLE(R) Dedicated Software Gocad 1989, Geomodeller 1999… MicroMine 1986, Leapfrog 2003... Noddy 1981 Gocad 1989 3D geomodelling scenarios
  6. 6. Jessell, 1981 Knowledge Data Data + Knowledge Data + Knowledge + Uncertainty Short history of 3D modelling
  7. 7. 3D geology is an under-constrained problem  We do not have sufficient geological and/or geophysical data to define a unique 3D model  We should not restrict ourselves to a single 3D model  3D Modelling tools that require continual manual intervention are a dead end
  8. 8. Ashanti Belt 3.6 - 2.5 Ga 2.3 - 2.0 Ga after Milési et al., 2004, BRGM SIGAfrique Gold deposits Orogenic Placer ______ 10 km Perrouty et al., submitted Econ Geol 2013 West African Craton 3D Prospectivity Analysis
  9. 9. Tarkwa Basin Kumasi Basin Akyem BasinVolume : 160*160*15 km Resolution : 200 m Model (after inversion) 0 (m) -14000 Depth (Faults) 3D Prospectivity Analysis Perrouty et al., submitted Econ Geol 2013
  10. 10. BVC2 BV1 BVC1 xy - Measure the minimum distance between deposits and the different Sefwi Group units - Count the number of deposits found less than 1500 m from each unit BVC2 BV1 BVC1 Distance 0 m x y Fault or unconformity 3D Prospectivity Analysis Number of deposits less than 1500m from each unit StratigraphicDepth(m) Perrouty et al., submitted Econ Geol 2013
  11. 11. Challenges Better Inputs Better use of geology during modelling & inversion Better analysis of results of modelling a) Training b) Structural analysis c) Geophysical imaging
  12. 12. a) Training: Structural Geophysics Course
  13. 13. κ’ Kent Distribution (measure of clustering) b) Structural analysis: Intelligent upscaling Tom Carmichael, Monash Uni Limousin, France
  14. 14. c) Geophysical Imaging: Full Tensor Gravity Daniel Wedge, CET (Data from First Quantum) →ARC Linkage
  15. 15. Challenges Better Inputs Better use of geology during modelling & inversion Better analysis of results of modelling a) Better use of field data b) Geologically Appropriate interpolation schemes c) Integrated Inversion
  16. 16. a) Better use of field data Alsop et al., 1996 (Near Moine Thrust)
  17. 17. Structural Interpolation Geology 101 ? ? Geomodeller SKUA Leapfrog Jessell, Aillères, de Kemp & 1000 Structural geologists
  18. 18. a b bedding d c ? Geology 201 Bedding Only
  19. 19. a b d c F1 F2 Need vergence of minor folds or Sn/Sn+1 to constrain fold model F1 bedding S2 cleavage Geology 201 Bedding-Cleavage Relationships with Relative Timing S1 cleavage
  20. 20. Multiquadric RBF (stratigraphy, faults?) Michael Hillier (Geol Survey Canada) Same input data: Geologically Appropriate interpolation schemes Geology 501 RBF=Radial Basis Function
  21. 21. Geologically Appropriate interpolation schemes Gaussian RBF (salt domes?) Michael Hillier (Geol Survey Canada) Same input data: Geology 501 RBF=Radial Basis Function
  22. 22. Thin plate spline RBF (folds?) Michael Hillier (Geol Survey Canada) Same input data: Geologically Appropriate interpolation schemes Geology 501 RBF=Radial Basis Function
  23. 23. Doesn’t explain geophysical signal c) Integrated Inversion • Structures • Age Relationships • Petrology • Geophysics • Petrophysics • Prior Knowledge • • • Petrophysics • Need inversion schemes that retain geological meaning through the inversion process • So we can test the results against the original geological AND geophysical data • Currently working on speeding up inversion so that in the future we can include better geological constraints
  24. 24. Challenges Better Inputs Better use of geology during modelling & inversion Better analysis of results of modelling a) Uncertainty b) Geodiversity
  25. 25. Vary inputs: • Orientations • Position • Age relationships Original Inputs Perturbed Inputs 1 Perturbed Inputs 2 Perturbed Inputs 3 Perturbed Inputs 4 Perturbed Inputs N • • • Implicit Modelling Engine Wellman et al., 2010, 1011 Jessell et al., 2010 Lindsay et al., 2012,2013 a) Uncertainty & Simulation
  26. 26. Stratigraphic Variability = number of possible lithologies Lindsay et al., 2012 • Where do we need to collect more data? • Use variability to weight petrophysical inversions 1 Lithologies per voxel 6
  27. 27. 0 0 0.40.30.2 0.4 -0.1-0.2-0.3-0.4 -0.3 -0.4 -0.2 -0.1 0.1 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.5 -0.5 0.5-0.5 b) Geodiversity via Principal component analysis Original Model: 11th closest to barycentre Studying variation between plausible models • Initial model NOT the most representative model • Use diverse range of models to seed geophysical inversions Gippsland Basin model suite Lindsay et al., 2013 Based on multiple geological attributes: unit volume, unit depth, surface complexity, geophysical misfit… Principal Component 1 PrincipalComponent2
  28. 28. Better Inputs a) Training b) Structural analysis c) Geophysical imaging Better use of geology during modelling & inversion a) Better use of field data b) Geologically Appropriate interpolation schemes c) Integrated Inversion Better analysis of results of modelling a) Uncertainty b) Geodiversity 3D Modelling Challenges
  29. 29. ARC Linkage Submitted: Reducing 3D uncertainty via improved data interpretation methods Mark Jessell, Eun-Jung Holden, Mark Lindsay, Klaus Gessner, Jon Hronsky ARC Centre of Excellence Submitted: Computational Geoscience and Earth Modelling Multiscale Analysis & Modelling Western Australian Fellowship: WA_In3D Mark Jessell
  30. 30. The problem that emerges when a model of a phenomenon is just as hard to understand as the phenomenon that it is supposed to explain. Everything simple is false, everything complex is unusable Paul Valéry, 1937 Bonini’s Paradox The challenge we have set ourselves is to make our models (and modelling systems) less false, without becoming unuseable

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