Paper industry


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Adnan Aslam Adnan
Course: Bs.Mechanical Engineering

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Paper industry

  1. 1. What is paper: It is the material manufactured in thin sheets from the pulp of wood or other fibrous substances, used for writing, drawing, or printing on, or as wrapping material. Fridayday, November 29, 2013 (Paper industry) 2
  2. 2.  The word paper is derived from the name of a reedy plant papyrus, which grew mostly along the River Nile in Egypt around 3000B.C.  The invention of modern paper is credit to Ts’ai Lun of china Fridayday, November 29, 2013 (Paper industry) Tsai-Lun of china 3
  3. 3. Paper is formed by pulp. Pulp: A mixture of cellulose material, such as wood, paper, and rags, ground up and moistened to make paper. Fridayday, November 29, 2013 (Paper industry) 4
  4. 4.  Nonwoody raw material: Wheat straw Bagasse Bamboo Cotton linter Rice straw Cotton stalk Grasses  Woody raw material: Poplar (hard wood) Eucalyptus (hard wood) Douglas fir (soft wood) Fridayday, November 29, 2013 (Paper industry) 5
  5. 5. Kraft process (Alkaline) Sulphite (Acidic) Neutral sulphite semi-chemical process (NSSC)  In Pakistan NSSC process is mostly used for pulping. Fridayday, November 29, 2013 (Paper industry) 6
  6. 6. • Cutting of Raw material • Drying Section Screening • Material Unit • Blow Tank Wet cleaning Fridayday, November 29, 2013 • Centrifugal Screening • Washing Ready for paper making • Bleaching • Digesting Unit Thicking (Paper industry) 7
  7. 7.  I. This process utilizes sodium sulphite cooking liquor which is buffered with sodium carbonate or NaOH to neutralize the organic acid liberated from the raw materials. Cutting of raw material: The non-woody raw materials come in the precut state and cut into small chips before the further processing. Fridayday, November 29, 2013 (Paper industry) 8
  8. 8.  Dry & Wet Cleaning: Wheat straw is collected from the storage and is then sent for the dry cleaning. For this purpose air is blown into the raw material. o Dry wheat straw is then subjected to wet cleaning, which removes the remaining dust particles. o  Screening: o In most paper processes some type of screening operation is required to remove oversized and unwanted particles. Vibratory, gravity and centrifugal separators used for this process. Fridayday, November 29, 2013 (Paper industry) 9
  9. 9.  Digestion: o As the raw material enters into the digester, steam is introduced at the bottom and liquor containing sodium sulphite is injected . o It is revolved at 2.5 R.P.M and temperature of 160-180oC is maintained  Blow tank: o The cooked material from the digester is blown into a blow tank and then pumped to centrifugal screen for the separation of cooked from uncooked materials. Fridayday, November 29, 2013 (Paper industry) 10
  10. 10.  Bleaching:  In Pakistan, bleaching is done with chlorine or hydrogen peroxide. After washing, the unbleached pulp is sent to the chlorinator where chlorine at 4-5 bar pressure is injected.  After chlorination pulp is washed with hot water at 60o C and then sent to the storage tank. After drying the pulp is ready for manufacturing of paper. Fridayday, November 29, 2013 (Paper industry) 11
  11. 11.  Paper making machine  A basic fourdrinier type machine is used for paper making and a brief description of its major components is given below: Flow spreader Press suction Reel Fridayday, November 29, 2013 Head box Dryer section (Paper industry) Fourdrinier Calendar stock 12
  12. 12.  Recycling of paper: Some industry sources estimate that an ordinary sheet of paper made from cellulose fibers derived from wood can survive only four to six trips through the recycling process.  The paper is chopped and then subjected to a mixture of chemicals to remove impurities and de-inked it chemicals.  An ordinary newspaper can be recycled five (5) times. o Fridayday, November 29, 2013 (Paper industry) 13
  13. 13.  Deforestation Wood is used widely in the formation of paper which cause deforestation.  Air pollution Nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide and carbon dioxide are emitted during paper manufacturing.  Water pollution From treated water of paper industry organic matter dissolved in fresh water. Fridayday, November 29, 2013 (Paper industry) 14
  14. 14.  According to the International organization for Standardization (I.S.O) some recommended sizes are:  Legal  Letter  Tabloid  A0  A1  A2  A3  A4  B1 Fridayday, November 29, 2013 (Paper industry) 15
  15. 15.  Usage of paper (million matric tone) in Pakistan is given in the following table: S.N. Particular Time of Information 01 Country 02 Population (Million) 180.0 2012 03 Total Pulp/Paper/Paperboard Production 1.079 2010 03.1 Writing & printing 0.258 2010 03.2 Others 0.821 2010 04 Import 0.409 2010 05 Export 0.008 2010 06 Net Consumption 1.480 2010 07 Per Capita Consumption (Kg./year/person) 8.22 2010 08 No. of Pulp/Paper Mills App. 10 2010 Fridayday, November 29, 2013 Pakistan (Paper industry) 16
  16. 16. Some major paper mills (Private & public sector) names are given below:  Bulleh Shah Paper Mill,  Misk paper mills  Empire Paper & Board Mills  Fiaz Paper and Board mills  Ali Murtaza Paper Mills  Usama Paper mills  Al Aziz Paper mills Fridayday, November 29, 2013 (Paper industry) 17
  17. 17. COMPOSER: • ADNAN ASLAM • Muhammad Majid • Muhammad Maaz Akhtar REG NO: • (13-ME-008) • (13-ME-109) • (13-ME-108) Subject: • CHEMISTRY