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End of Regions (friday fink)


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End of Regions (friday fink)

  1. 1. The End of Regions? What new role for cities?:the recent case of England Kevin Richardson
  2. 2. Regions?Cities?
  3. 3. Its not newIts not only happening here in EnglandIts not a party political thing
  4. 4. EU Context• EU Parliament / Committee of Regions; but what real power in TFEU compared to Member States?• Only very few examples of significant regional government (AU, DE, BE?); exceptions often based on identity (Scotland, Cataluña etc) Cities generally ignored.• Few (if any) examples of genuine functioning regional economies• Institutional capacity within Brussels to ‘manage’ growing number and widening characteristics of regions?
  5. 5. 271 NUT2 Regions
  6. 6. New ‘regions?’Experiments with‘macro’ and crossborder ‘regions’
  7. 7. Regions inEngland
  8. 8. Bonfire of the Regions May 2010 (Con / Liberal)• Regional Development Agencies• Regional Spatial Strategies (inc. housing & transport)• Regional offices of Central Government• Regional Business Link (enterprise agencies)• Regional Funding Allocations• Regional Tourism Boards• Nationalisation of Employment Programmes and Inward Investment• Nationalisation of all funding for technology and regeneration, including European Social Fund
  9. 9. History: Regional Government in England• ‘14 – administrative / ‘military’ regions• ’79 – (CON) neo-liberalism, end of spatial strategies• ’94 – (CON) Government Offices for the Regions (GOs)• ’97 onwards – (LAB), formal regional government for Scotland, N Ireland (& Wales?); and indirectly (unelected) Regional Assemblies & many new regional strategies & institutions (including RDAs) in England• ’04 North East referendum farce (78% ‘No’; all 25 districts reject proposal for formal regional government, including Newcastle as a the Core City)
  10. 10. OECD Review of Newcastle in the North East (2006)• central government is the ‘dominant actor’ in regional development / no national spatial strategy for either regions or cities• only a small number of central departments engaged in regional development / funds for regional economic development tiny when compared to other mainstream budgets• sub national agencies with only very limited authority & autonomy• existing artificial boundaries of institutions increasingly not reflective of functioning economic areas (at all levels of geography)• “governance arrangements at a metropolitan or functional urban level make sense for issues such as housing, transport, economic development, culture, organisation of retail, environment, universities, and land use planning”• (but) public identities rooted much more in parochialism
  11. 11. Post 2004 Confusion•Core Cities•City-Regions•Sub Regions Ref. CURDS, Newcastle University
  12. 12. What new role for Cities?
  13. 13. A (part-time)Ministerfor ‘cities’‘This will start initially byfocusing on the Core Cities andtheir surrounding areas, with aview to expanding to a broadergroup and identifying issuesrelevant to a wide range ofcities’
  14. 14. Informalpartnerships?What genuinepolitical interest inhard administrative/ boundary reform?(at all levels)
  15. 15. Understanding‘trade offs’betweensupportingagglomerationand high speedrail (betweencities) and (fornow) local costair travel Tomaney at el (2011) Evidence to House of Commons Transport Select Committee
  16. 16. Citiesaregreener
  17. 17. • Understanding the real relationship between the urban core and surrounding places (polycentricity)• Why facilitate travel to work by car?
  18. 18. Planning to build the ‘urban core’
  19. 19. Risk basedinvestmentfinancefavourscities
  20. 20. SMARTstrategies forgrowth alsodependent oncities (and theiruniversities) McCann and Ortega-Argilés(2011) Smart Specialisation, Regional Growth and Applications to EU Cohesion Policy
  21. 21. Migrants areattracted tocities (andvice versa)
  22. 22. Does it Matter?New EconomicGeography tells usthat growth and themarket drives and isincreasinglydependent on cities(see Krugman et al)
  23. 23. A false dichotomybetween nationaland local levels(towards shareddesign,management &delivery)?Or towards acontractualrelationship basedon evidence / results/ rewardsBarca (2009)