policy and factors shaped Pakistan’s foreign policy
during Bhutto era.
Islamic world and Bhutto’s policy
Miss Zubaida Yahya
foreign policy and Non Muslim countries
Political Implications Of Bhutto’s Foreign Relation
policy is the totality of its dealing
with the external environment.“
“ADEL ford AND Lincolin”
policy is the content or a substance of a nation's
efforts to promote its interests with other Nations”
of the confidence of friendly countries
and rebuilding the Morale of the people
of the consequences of 1971 war.
Restoration of ties and contacts with the authorities
and people of Bangladesh.
lost prestige of Pakistan in foreign
countries specially with Western countries.
of foreign aids for immediate and future
from the Commonwealth. (Jan 1972)
of East Germany, Democratic
Republics of Korea and Vietnam, and East Germany
Withdrawal from SEATO (Feb 1972)
attended the Non-aligned Summit as an
observer in 1976
the restructuring of the international
economic order to make it more responsive to the
needs and aspirations of the developing world
was one of the strongest supporters of Pakistan during
Pakistan's wars with India, especially opposing the creation of
Bangladesh from Pakistan's eastern wing in 1971.
“take what you want, just leave what is necessary for our own needs.”
established diplomatic relation with Bangladesh after
Pakistan held 2nd OIC with collaboration with Saudi Arabia
cashed the popularity of Shah Faisal of Saudi Arabia and
Mamar Qaddafi in masses to establish diplomatic ties with
major Pakistani city of Lyallpur was also renamed Faisalabad
in honor of King Faisal in 1977
is also speculated that Saudi Arabia secretly funded Pakistan's
nuclear program and seeks to purchase atomic weapons from
Pakistan to enable it to counteract possible threats from arsenals of
the weapons of mass destruction possessed by Iran, Iraq and Israel.
In case of Pakistan-Afghan relations Lord Curzon's (former
Viceroy of India) saying,
„”frontiers are indeed the razor's edge on which hang
suspended the modern issues of war and peace, of life
or death to nations' seems proving to be correct.”
“political dispute” with Pakistan
Bhutto presidency King Zahir Shah exercised a moderate
infulenc3 in the Afghan government
assured Pakistan that Afghanistan would not do any thing to
hamper Pakistan‟s recovery from its recent war with India
Bhutto‟s government created the “Afghan Cell” within
Pakistan‟s foreign office and assigned it a policy that included
strengthening ties with and empowering Islamists in exile in
Pakistan, and improving Pakistan‟s influence over governments in
July 1973, Sardar Dauod, an ardent champion of Pukhtoonistan
issue, deposed King Zahir Shah while on visit to Europe with the
help of leftist forces and in connivance with Soviet.
President Dauod came to Rawalpindi and agreed to
abide by the Banduing principles of peaceful co-existence and avoid
interference in each other‟s domestic affairs
Dr Babar Shah opines in his article
'Pakistan's Afghanistan policy: An Evaluation '
“ Bhutto agreed to release the National Awami Party (NAP)
leaders accused of supporting the Pukhtoonistan demand, while
Dauod agreed to recognize the Durand Line as the frontier
between Pakistan and Afghanistan”
a book, The Frontiers of Pakistan, written by Iranian scholar dr.
Mujtaba Razvi, noted that,
"almost without exception, Pakistan has enjoyed very cordial
relations with Iran since its inception on 14 August 1947”
the armed insurgency widely spread out in the Baluchistan
Province of Pakistan, petrified Iran who feared the insurgency
might spilled over to its Baluchistan Province. Iran came to great
aid to Pakistan when it provided military support to help Pakistan
to tackle its insurgency.
relationship further strengthened in the 1970s to suppress
a rebel movement in Pakistan's Baluchistan province, across
provinces of Iranian Baluchistan, Afghan Baluchistan.
Problems arose in 1974 with Bhutto, when Mohammad Reza
Pahlavi did not attend the Islamic Conference in Lahore
because Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi was invited to it despite
the known hostility of the Shah for Gaddafi.
Iran's reaction was muted after the surprise nuclear
test detonation Smiling Buddha by India in 1974.
1976, Iran again played a vital and influential role by facilitating
Pakistan with Afghanistan for rapprochement in 1976.
the state visit to Iran in 1977, Bhutto persuaded Pahlavi to
win his support for the financial support over its large-scale but
clandestine atomic bomb project in 1970s
a gesture of good will Pakistan released Sheikh MujiburRehman on 8 January 1972, who had been in Pakistan‟s detention
since March 1971.
in 1774, when Bhutto called OIC at Lahore, then there
Mujibur-Rehman arrived as head of the Bangladesh delegating to
the OIC Summit Conference.
June 1974, Pakistani Prime Minister Zulfiqar Ali
Bhutto visited Bangladesh and paid homage to Bangladesh's war
memorial at Savar Upazila
nations discussed an agreement in 1975 in which
Bangladesh agreed to take up half of Pakistan's pre-1971 external
debt provided Bangladesh received half of the country's pre-1971
assets and credit went unresolved.
State of America
1971 war Pakistan once again realized that US can
support India against China but can‟t support Pakistan
now strove to lessen Pakistan's dependence on the
Treaty of 1971, China-US rapprochement and
the Pakistan military‟s need for the US equipment forced
him to call for a continued alliance with USA.
withdrew from Southeast Asia Treaty
organization (SEATO) in 1972.
1976, Pakistan ran in trouble with the US over the issue of
acquisition of a nuclear processing plant. Kissinger had told Bhutto;
“If you do not cancel, modify or postpone the Processing Plant
Agreement, we will make a horrible example from you”
Pakistan‟s nuclear deal with France, the relations between
the Bhutto regime and the US deteriorated and military aid from
USA was again suspended.
1976 Pakistan was negotiating to buy 110 US A-7 fighter
bombers and they appeared to made the sale conditions upon
tried to blocked the deal by suspending of new economic
assistance and military sales and withdrawal of A-7 aircraft offer
Hamid Husain quoted in his article ;
Tale of a love affair that never was:
United States-Pakistan Defense Relations
“When differences develop, a small country should not
take on a great power head-on, it is wiser for it to
duck, detour, side-step and try to enter from the backdoor... ”
Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto
Military and economic cooperation
In 1972 Bhutto visited to Beijing
($110 million loans were write off)
May 1972 military and economic aid package from
china came to PAKISTAN.
(60MiG fighters and 100 T-54 and T-59 tanks)
Pakistan played important role in bringing America
nearer to China
Kept Bangladesh out of the UN and declined to accept
letters which Mujibur Rahman has sent to open embassy in
established diplomatic relation with Bangladesh
relations in October 1975, a year after Pakistan had recognized
did not agree to exchange of ambassadors with India
until diplomatic relations between Pakistan and India were
restored in july1976
“our friendship with China is not tainted by any form
of bargain or barter. It is steadfast amity between two
neighboring Asian States”
The Government of Pakistan, on its part, rebuffed the
Soviet Union‟s Asian Security scheme:
its diplomatic resources to bring about an
improvement of China‟s relations with Iran and some of
the Arab states.
Soviet leaders had assisted India in defeating and
dismembering Pakistan in 1971
visit to Moscow in March 1972
(normalization of relation among Pakistan, India and
December 1974, Rafi Raza went to Moscow and brought
back word of a Soviet agreement to advance 4.5 billion rupees, in
foreign exchange, to help Pakistan build a Steel Mill near
1976 a medium-wave broadcasting radio station had been
erected in the vicinities of Islamabad with the USSR assistance.
june30, 1977, the Soviet Union had, over the years,
committed a total of S517.64 million in loans to Pakistan.
USSR continued to assist in searching oil, gas and other
natural resources in the Pakistan‟s territory. It is worth
mentioning that nowadays there are quite a number of oil and
gas fields under operation discovered by Soviet geologists.
fairly warm Pak-Soviet ties under Bhutto
the countries are waterfall of the domestic reaction to their
gets the credit to reinforce the mutual distance in
both sides we find different groups opposing mutual interests or
friendly ties between Pakistan and India.
connections always get highly intensified by cultural
national level both the countries want to establish good
relations with respect to trade and commerce but due to domestic
issues or politics they always lag behind to lay a nuptial knot.
was war of 1971 which once again brought up both the
countries at the confrontation point.
military deplane in December 1971 brought an end to
the long drawn-act bloody civil strife in its eastern wing-Reselling
towards the creation of a new state.
of 1971 brought Pakistan at very difficult stage, in a sense
that Pakistan lost its eastern wing, have had to suffer military
loss and almost 19637 soldiers and civilians were taken as
prisoners of war there by India.
Gandhi summit conference, held at India‟s.
Summer report, Sinda, from 28 June to July 1972. Produced an
agreement, known as The Shimla Agreement.
agreement actually settled down emerging issues and at
last Pakistan (Bhutto) acknowledged Bangladesh as a separate
Shimla agreement was a purely blistered agreement
between Pakistan and India. Both the countries come to a
conclusion that the war is not a solution.
the national assembly on the Shimla Agreement
Bhutto declared, “If our negotiations fail, there is nothing to stop
us from the process of United Nations”.
the first time in history of the country, the relationships with
United States were at low point and severed as United States was
opposing Pakistan's nuclear deterrence programmed
leftists and Bhutto's policy towards Soviet Union was seen
sympathetic and had built a bridge for Soviet Union to have gain
access in Pakistan's warm water ports, that something both United
States and Soviet Union had lacked.
sought a peace agreement—Simla Agreement— with Indira
Gandhi, Premier of India, and brought back 93,000 P.O.Ws to Pakistan
and secured 5,000 sq mi (13,000 km2) held by India with out
compromising on Kashmir stance or recognising Bangladesh which
were the key Indian demands.
believe that history makes the man
But Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto was one such person
who made a history by challenging a world
order during his protracted struggle”
Omer Farooq Zain