Foreign policy during bhutto era


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Foreign policy during bhutto era

  1. 1. Foreign policy and factors shaped Pakistan’s foreign policy during Bhutto era. Islamic world and Bhutto’s policy Miss Zubaida Yahya Bhutto’s foreign policy and Non Muslim countries Political Implications Of Bhutto’s Foreign Relation Conclusion Mr.Roze
  2. 2. "Foreign policy is the totality of its dealing with the external environment.“ “ADEL ford AND Lincolin” “Foreign policy is the content or a substance of a nation's efforts to promote its interests with other Nations” “Hill”
  3. 3. Restoration of the confidence of friendly countries and rebuilding the Morale of the people Elimination of the consequences of 1971 war. Restoration of ties and contacts with the authorities and people of Bangladesh.  Re-establishing lost prestige of Pakistan in foreign countries specially with Western countries. Restoration needs of foreign aids for immediate and future
  4. 4. 1972-1977
  5. 5. Withdrawal from the Commonwealth. (Jan 1972) Recognition of East Germany, Democratic Republics of Korea and Vietnam, and East Germany (Nov 1972)  Withdrawal from SEATO (Feb 1972)
  6. 6. Pakistan attended the Non-aligned Summit as an observer in 1976 Advocated the restructuring of the international economic order to make it more responsive to the needs and aspirations of the developing world
  7. 7. Saudi Arabia Afghanistan Iran Bangladesh
  8. 8. Saudi Arabia was one of the strongest supporters of Pakistan during Pakistan's wars with India, especially opposing the creation of Bangladesh from Pakistan's eastern wing in 1971. King Faisl said, “take what you want, just leave what is necessary for our own needs.” Saudis established diplomatic relation with Bangladesh after Pakistan acceptance. In1974, Pakistan held 2nd OIC with collaboration with Saudi Arabia
  9. 9. Bhutto cashed the popularity of Shah Faisal of Saudi Arabia and Mamar Qaddafi in masses to establish diplomatic ties with Bangladesh The major Pakistani city of Lyallpur was also renamed Faisalabad in honor of King Faisal in 1977 It is also speculated that Saudi Arabia secretly funded Pakistan's nuclear program and seeks to purchase atomic weapons from Pakistan to enable it to counteract possible threats from arsenals of the weapons of mass destruction possessed by Iran, Iraq and Israel.
  10. 10. In case of Pakistan-Afghan relations Lord Curzon's (former Viceroy of India) saying, „”frontiers are indeed the razor's edge on which hang suspended the modern issues of war and peace, of life or death to nations' seems proving to be correct.”
  11. 11. Traditional “political dispute” with Pakistan During Bhutto presidency King Zahir Shah exercised a moderate infulenc3 in the Afghan government He assured Pakistan that Afghanistan would not do any thing to hamper Pakistan‟s recovery from its recent war with India
  12. 12. Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto‟s government created the “Afghan Cell” within Pakistan‟s foreign office and assigned it a policy that included strengthening ties with and empowering Islamists in exile in Pakistan, and improving Pakistan‟s influence over governments in Kabul. In July 1973, Sardar Dauod, an ardent champion of Pukhtoonistan issue, deposed King Zahir Shah while on visit to Europe[33] with the help of leftist forces and in connivance with Soviet. In August1976, President Dauod came to Rawalpindi and agreed to abide by the Banduing principles of peaceful co-existence and avoid interference in each other‟s domestic affairs
  13. 13. Dr Babar Shah opines in his article 'Pakistan's Afghanistan policy: An Evaluation ' “ Bhutto agreed to release the National Awami Party (NAP) leaders accused of supporting the Pukhtoonistan demand, while Dauod agreed to recognize the Durand Line as the frontier between Pakistan and Afghanistan”
  14. 14. In a book, The Frontiers of Pakistan, written by Iranian scholar dr. Mujtaba Razvi, noted that, "almost without exception, Pakistan has enjoyed very cordial relations with Iran since its inception on 14 August 1947” When the armed insurgency widely spread out in the Baluchistan Province of Pakistan, petrified Iran who feared the insurgency might spilled over to its Baluchistan Province. Iran came to great aid to Pakistan when it provided military support to help Pakistan to tackle its insurgency. he relationship further strengthened in the 1970s to suppress a rebel movement in Pakistan's Baluchistan province, across provinces of Iranian Baluchistan, Afghan Baluchistan.
  15. 15. Problems arose in 1974 with Bhutto, when Mohammad Reza Pahlavi did not attend the Islamic Conference in Lahore because Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi was invited to it despite the known hostility of the Shah for Gaddafi.  Although, Iran's reaction was muted after the surprise nuclear test detonation Smiling Buddha by India in 1974. In 1976, Iran again played a vital and influential role by facilitating Pakistan with Afghanistan for rapprochement in 1976. During the state visit to Iran in 1977, Bhutto persuaded Pahlavi to win his support for the financial support over its large-scale but clandestine atomic bomb project in 1970s
  16. 16. As a gesture of good will Pakistan released Sheikh MujiburRehman on 8 January 1972, who had been in Pakistan‟s detention since March 1971. Later in 1774, when Bhutto called OIC at Lahore, then there Mujibur-Rehman arrived as head of the Bangladesh delegating to the OIC Summit Conference. In June 1974, Pakistani Prime Minister Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto visited Bangladesh and paid homage to Bangladesh's war memorial at Savar Upazila Both nations discussed an agreement in 1975 in which Bangladesh agreed to take up half of Pakistan's pre-1971 external debt provided Bangladesh received half of the country's pre-1971 assets and credit went unresolved.
  17. 17. United State of America China U.S.S.R India Mr.roze
  18. 18. After 1971 war Pakistan once again realized that US can support India against China but can‟t support Pakistan against India. Bhutto now strove to lessen Pakistan's dependence on the United States. Indo-Soviet Treaty of 1971, China-US rapprochement and the Pakistan military‟s need for the US equipment forced him to call for a continued alliance with USA. Pakistan withdrew from Southeast Asia Treaty organization (SEATO) in 1972.
  19. 19. In 1976, Pakistan ran in trouble with the US over the issue of acquisition of a nuclear processing plant. Kissinger had told Bhutto; “If you do not cancel, modify or postpone the Processing Plant Agreement, we will make a horrible example from you” After Pakistan‟s nuclear deal with France, the relations between the Bhutto regime and the US deteriorated and military aid from USA was again suspended. In 1976 Pakistan was negotiating to buy 110 US A-7 fighter bombers and they appeared to made the sale conditions upon Pakistan US tried to blocked the deal by suspending of new economic assistance and military sales and withdrawal of A-7 aircraft offer (1977)
  20. 20. Hamid Husain quoted in his article ; Tale of a love affair that never was: United States-Pakistan Defense Relations “When differences develop, a small country should not take on a great power head-on, it is wiser for it to duck, detour, side-step and try to enter from the backdoor... ” Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto
  21. 21. Military and economic cooperation In 1972 Bhutto visited to Beijing ($110 million loans were write off) In May 1972 military and economic aid package from china came to PAKISTAN. (60MiG fighters and 100 T-54 and T-59 tanks) Political cooperation  Pakistan played important role in bringing America nearer to China Kept Bangladesh out of the UN and declined to accept letters which Mujibur Rahman has sent to open embassy in Beijing.
  22. 22. China established diplomatic relation with Bangladesh relations in October 1975, a year after Pakistan had recognized it. China did not agree to exchange of ambassadors with India until diplomatic relations between Pakistan and India were restored in july1976 Bhutto said that; “our friendship with China is not tainted by any form of bargain or barter. It is steadfast amity between two neighboring Asian States”
  23. 23. The Government of Pakistan, on its part, rebuffed the Soviet Union‟s Asian Security scheme: Anti Chinese orientation Used its diplomatic resources to bring about an improvement of China‟s relations with Iran and some of the Arab states.
  24. 24. The Soviet leaders had assisted India in defeating and dismembering Pakistan in 1971 Bhutto‟s visit to Moscow in March 1972 (normalization of relation among Pakistan, India and Bangladesh)
  25. 25. In December 1974, Rafi Raza went to Moscow and brought back word of a Soviet agreement to advance 4.5 billion rupees, in foreign exchange, to help Pakistan build a Steel Mill near Karachi. By 1976 a medium-wave broadcasting radio station had been erected in the vicinities of Islamabad with the USSR assistance. In june30, 1977, the Soviet Union had, over the years, committed a total of S517.64 million in loans to Pakistan.
  26. 26. The USSR continued to assist in searching oil, gas and other natural resources in the Pakistan‟s territory. It is worth mentioning that nowadays there are quite a number of oil and gas fields under operation discovered by Soviet geologists. The fairly warm Pak-Soviet ties under Bhutto
  27. 27. Both the countries are waterfall of the domestic reaction to their policies. Media gets the credit to reinforce the mutual distance in between. On both sides we find different groups opposing mutual interests or friendly ties between Pakistan and India. Diplomatic disparity. On connections always get highly intensified by cultural national level both the countries want to establish good relations with respect to trade and commerce but due to domestic issues or politics they always lag behind to lay a nuptial knot.
  28. 28. It was war of 1971 which once again brought up both the countries at the confrontation point. Pakistan military deplane in December 1971 brought an end to the long drawn-act bloody civil strife in its eastern wing-Reselling towards the creation of a new state. War of 1971 brought Pakistan at very difficult stage, in a sense that Pakistan lost its eastern wing, have had to suffer military loss and almost 19637 soldiers and civilians were taken as prisoners of war there by India.
  29. 29. Bhutto-Indira Gandhi summit conference, held at India‟s. Summer report, Sinda, from 28 June to July 1972. Produced an agreement, known as The Shimla Agreement. This agreement actually settled down emerging issues and at last Pakistan (Bhutto) acknowledged Bangladesh as a separate nation. The Shimla agreement was a purely blistered agreement between Pakistan and India. Both the countries come to a conclusion that the war is not a solution. Addressing the national assembly on the Shimla Agreement Bhutto declared, “If our negotiations fail, there is nothing to stop us from the process of United Nations”.
  30. 30. For the first time in history of the country, the relationships with United States were at low point and severed as United States was opposing Pakistan's nuclear deterrence programmed The leftists and Bhutto's policy towards Soviet Union was seen sympathetic and had built a bridge for Soviet Union to have gain access in Pakistan's warm water ports, that something both United States and Soviet Union had lacked. Bhutto sought a peace agreement—Simla Agreement— with Indira Gandhi, Premier of India, and brought back 93,000 P.O.Ws to Pakistan and secured 5,000 sq mi (13,000 km2) held by India with out compromising on Kashmir stance or recognising Bangladesh which were the key Indian demands.
  31. 31. “Historians believe that history makes the man But Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto was one such person who made a history by challenging a world order during his protracted struggle” Omer Farooq Zain