Mir gholam ghobar

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Mir gholam ghobar

  1. 1. Islamic Republic of Afghanistan Ministry Of Higher Education Balkh UniversityFaculty of Literature and Humanitarian English DepartmentMir Gholam Muhammad Ghobar Name: Said Muhammad Class: Fall 2012 Course: Literature Instructor: ReshadJamalyar
  2. 2. Table of ContentsAbstract ............................................................................................................................................... 1Introduction ......................................................................................................................................... 2Formative years................................................................................................................................... 3Position ............................................................................................................................................... 3Ghobar‟s Books .................................................................................................................................. 4Death ................................................................................................................................................... 5Finding ................................................................................................................................................ 6Suggestion ........................................................................................................................................... 7Conclusion .......................................................................................................................................... 8List of references................................................................................................................................. 9
  3. 3. “Literature is a kind of tool that helps one to: receive cultural heritages from past generation, share with present and pass through the time to next generation.” AbstractIt is important to know about the great writers of our country. We decideto introduce the great writer, Mir Gholam Muhammad Ghobar, politicianand historian of Afghanistan. Many researchers worked on this greatman of Afghan literature. He born, he lived and he died for is country.We respect him by writing about his great works he has done for hiscountry. In these pages we come up with a short biography and list ofworks of Ghobar. The material comes from both electronic and nonelectronic sources. The rich source which is more often used is officialwebsite of HashmatGhobar son of Gholam Muhammad Ghobar. 1
  4. 4. IntroductionMir Gholam Muhammad Ghobar, one of the most popular writer and politicianof Afghanistan, was born in 1898 in Kabul, Afghanistan. When he was only tenyears old a great event happened in political situation of Afghanistan.Newspapers and magazines start to establish. He was grown up in the situationthat people were going to a democracy. He ran many important positions in the regime of Amanullah khan. He wasvery important person and also that time he started to write. He was a realpatriot and he served all his life loving his country. He was thinking of a realchange in social and economic life of his people. To achieve his goals, Ghobar start writing articles which was published in amagazine. His writing was an alarm for the doctorate regime. He was forced tostop writing and even he spent some time in prison. Ghobar‟s master piece isAfghanistan at the Course of History (Afghanistan darmasir e tarikh). This bookis rich source of information about the history of Afghanistan. Finally Ghobar got stomach ache because of stresses he got from thedifficulties created by secret service agents of regime. He went to westernBerlin to treat his illness, but the illness was developed and he died in 1978. 2
  5. 5. Formative yearsMir Gholam Muhammad Ghobar was born in Kabul in 1899. He studiedhistory, literature, philosophy and social science. He got his education privately.His father Mirza Mir Mahbob facilitated the way for Ghobar to be welleducated. When Ghobar was very young, social changes started in Kabul. Manypublications started to write about democracy for people.Kakar(1995) writesthat, “As a founding member of the Fatherland Party, Ghobar had played aleading role in parliament and national politics in 1950s ….”(p.23). the result ofthese movements was a political revolution and a social change in Afghanistan.The victory of Afghanistan against Great Britain should be taken in account.However these changes last not more than one decade. These changes stronglyaffected Ghobar‟s life. In this critical situation, Ghobar decided to work for hiscountry and started to fight for democracy. PositionGhobar worked for two different regimes during his life. In Amanollah period,he started is governmental work as editor of Afghan star weekly magazine 1919and 1920. Also he worked as a public security department in 1920-1921. Hewas secretary of Afghan Embassy in Paris in 1925. In Nadershah period he wasbanned, arrested and even sent to jail for his patriotism and fighting against theruling regime to establish a real democracy but at the very ending point of hisadministrative works he was sent as secretary of Afghan embassy in berlin in1930. He stopped his governmental activities and comeback to his country toempower the movements of freedom.HashmatGhobar (2004) in his dairy, abouthis father writes “I remember those days. Those days my father was full ofangry of that tyrannical regime. He only thought how to help people to have 3
  6. 6. their freedom.” He worked as journalist and historian under tyranny regime ofNadershah. Ghobar’s BooksThe first volume of Afghanistan in the Course of History, in 840 pages, wasfirst printed in 3000 copies by Kabul Public Printing House in 1967. Thegovernment banned the book before its publication. More than 15,000 copies ofthe book were printed outside the country. This is the first scholarly writtenhistory of Afghanistan, which starts from the beginning of the historical periodto the early second quarter of the 20th century.The second volume of Afghanistan in the Course of History was written in 1973in Kabul, but it was not possible to publish it because of M. Daud‟s suppressiveregime. In his will, Ghobar had entrusted his son (HashamatGhobar) topreserve the manuscript of the second volume and print it in an appropriatetime. The successive oppressive regimes and then the foreign aggression inAfghanistan blocked and delayed its publication. Providing funds for thepublication was another delaying factor. Finally, the original Persian text,without the slightest change, was printed in 285 pages by Speedy Printing inJune 1999 in Virginia, USA. And now the English translation of the secondvolume is published. The book covers the eventful years of the second quarterof the 20th century.Afghanistan in India, in 95 pages, is the history of the expansion ofAfghanistan‟s political influence in India. It was published in the first nineissues of Majallah-e Kabul (Kabul Magazine, 1932).Brief History of Afghanistan, in 68 illustrated pages, covers Afghanistan fromthe ancient time of Avesta to the 20th century. It was published in the first 4
  7. 7. edition of Kabul Salnameh (Year Book) in 1932 with an appendix of the ancientnames of Afghanistan and its provinces. DeathGhobar went to West Berlin for stomach treatment. On February 5, 1978, hedied in a hospital in Berlin. He died a few months before the coup of theSoviet- installed regime in Kabul. He was buried in his ancestralShohadayeSalehin cemetery in Kabul.Ghobar left behind his wife, Lady Saleha,with seven children: Maria Ghobar, Rona Ghobar, DoniaGhobar, Asad HassanGhobar, Ashraf ShahabGhobar, Ibrahim AdhamGhobar, and Hashmat KhalilGhobar. In his diary, he wrote these words about his wife: “Lady Saleha is aliterate and industrious woman, a companion of my life, a partner in all mydistressing and dangerous adventures, a woman of patience and courage, whohas raised virtuous children and endured a great deal of hardship.” 5
  8. 8. FindingLike many afghan writers, Ghobar faced difficulties. I believe that he is the onlyman who serves the afghan history the best. His master piece AFGHANISTANAT THE COURSE OF HISTORYis a rich source for both afghan and foreignerresearcher who research on Afghanistan history. I myself have read theAfghanistan at the course of history volume one and suggest that each afghanshould read this great book once. To research on this great person ofAfghanistan, there are sources available in foreign media. 6
  9. 9. Suggestion To find more on Mir Gholam Muhammad Ghobar, ministry of culture andinformation should hold on conferences. Unfortunately, there are fewerconferences on afghan famous literal and politician men. At least department ofhistory should have annual conferences on dimensions of Ghobar‟s life. Irecommend students who want to have information about this great writer, referto Habibi‟s work about new politician in Afghanistan. This book contains notonly information about Ghobar but also about many politician and writers aswell. 7
  10. 10. ConclusionTo sum up, I can say that Mr. Ghobar had a valuable life which was full ofserve and love for his country. However many of Ghobar‟s works are notpublished; the works which are published are very valuable to history andpolitic field. Ghobar fought for democracy and succeeded. He recorded what thecurl regime has done for the country. The struggle for freedom and physicalweakness lead him to stomachache disease. Finally he passed away in westernBerlin when he was in hospital fore treatment. Ghobar‟s books which waspresented to Kabul national library, serve the cultural heritage of Afghanistan. First volume of Afghanistan at the Course of Historywhich led Ghobar toprison of tyranny regime of Nadershah was continued by the second volume.The second volume was not published and was kept hidden since HashmatKhalil Ghobar went and published that in USA. This valuable book is a verydependable source for afghan and foreign researcher on history of Afghanistan. 8
  11. 11. List of references1. Habibi,Ab. (1993).Junbish_mashrutiat_dar_ Afghanistan. [Constitutional movement of Afghanistan]. Kabul:Jamal Mina. p1932. Husainzda, B. A. (2004, February). Biography of Ghobar: Rozgaran monthly magazine,10, 3.3. Husainzada, B.A. (2006). Gholam Muhammad Ghobar„s biography. Retrieved October 3, 2012, from http://bbc.co.uk/persian/afghanistan/.../080205_s- ghobar-anniv.shtml4. Syawash, K. (1997). Ghobar‟s biography. Retrieved September 28, 2012, from http://armaghanmille.wordpress.com/2008/06/05/who-is-mgm- ghobar/5. Ghobar, H. (2004). Biography of Ghobar. Retrieved September 20, 2012, from http://www.mgmgobar.com/6. Kakar, M. H. (1995). Afghanistan the soviet invasion and the Afghan response. California: university of California press. 9

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