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Causality from outside Time

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Causality from outside Time
Alfred Driessen

Talk presented at the 21th International Interdisciplinary Seminar, Science and Society: Defining what is human
Netherhall House, London, 5-1-2019

Content
Introduction
Time in Relativity
Time in Quantum Mechanics
Conclusions

Conclusions from this study:
There are causes beyond the realm of science,
- they are not observable by physical or scientific means
- the effects of these causes, however, are observable by physical and scientific means.
Physics is not complete.

Published in: Science
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Causality from outside Time

  1. 1. CSR: Culture, Science and Religion Causality from outside Time pagina 1 5-1-2019 Driessen.Alfred@gmail.com
  2. 2. CSR: Culture, Science and Religion Causality from outside Time pagina 2 5-1-2019 Content Introduction Time in Relativity Time in Quantum Mechanics Conclusions
  3. 3. CSR: Culture, Science and Religion Causality from outside Time pagina 3 5-1-2019 The demon of Laplace (1794-1827) We have to consider the actual state of the universe as the effect of its previous state, and as the cause of the state that will follow. Imagine an intelligent being which, at a certain time, would know all the forces at work in nature, and the respective location of all the beings that compose it. If it were powerful enough to analyze these data, it could embrace together in the same formula the movements of the largest bodies of the universe and those of the lightest atom. Nothing would be uncertain for this intelligent being and both the future and the past would be present to its eyes. A Philosophical Essay on Probabilities, 1814
  4. 4. CSR: Culture, Science and Religion Causality from outside Time pagina 4 5-1-2019 Causality classical philosophy (Aristotle, Aquinas) whatever is moved is moved by another or whatever is changed is changed by another. principle of causality David Hume (1711-1776) cause: an object followed by another, and where all the objects similar to the first are followed by objects similar to the second. Concerning Human Understanding. Laplace (1794-1827) We have to consider the actual state of the universe as the effect of its previous state, and as the cause of the state that will follow. Stephen Hawking (1942-2018) Within the universe, you always explained one event as being caused by some earlier event. A brief history of time.
  5. 5. CSR: Culture, Science and Religion Causality from outside Time pagina 5 5-1-2019 Effect always sperated in time by cause? Stephen Hawking: Within the universe, you always explained one event as being caused by some earlier event. A brief history of time. see discussion in Driessen, Acta Philosophica, 1995, 4, 83-93 Is this true in the light of modern physics? relativity before/after not uniquely defined Eternity is no time at all, for a photon, (Penrose 2011) quantum mechanics final state symmetrical with initial state delayed choice even after billions of years (Wheeler)
  6. 6. CSR: Culture, Science and Religion Causality from outside Time pagina 6 5-1-2019 Content Introduction Time in Relativity Time in Quantum Mechanics Conclusions
  7. 7. CSR: Culture, Science and Religion Causality from outside Time pagina 7 5-1-2019 present: space-like separated from origin future/past: time-like separated from origin event at origin: -- is caused by events in the past light cone -- has causal effects on events in the future light cone Space-time diagram
  8. 8. CSR: Culture, Science and Religion Causality from outside Time pagina 8 5-1-2019 Space-time diagram (1) present: space-like separated from origin future/past: time-like separated from origin
  9. 9. CSR: Culture, Science and Religion Causality from outside Time pagina 9 5-1-2019 Special and general relativity light cone in special relativity light cone in general relativity (curved space) figures from Penrose Cycles of Time, Random House, London 2010
  10. 10. CSR: Culture, Science and Religion Causality from outside Time pagina 10 5-1-2019 Tilting of the light cone (from Penrose 2010) light cone tilted by speed of two walkers passing at event X; at Andromeda (distance 2.2 lightyears), event (B) weeks earlier than event (A) figure from Penrose, Cycles of Time, Random House, London 2010
  11. 11. CSR: Culture, Science and Religion Causality from outside Time pagina 11 5-1-2019 Tilting of the light cone by gravity Light cones tilted by a strong gravity field originating from a starting blackhole as a function of time. figure from Penrose, Cycles of Time, Random House, London 2010
  12. 12. CSR: Culture, Science and Religion Causality from outside Time pagina 12 5-1-2019 Time dilatation nearby a black hole speed of light c is constant in all coordinate systems, ==> if x becomes smaller, also t diminishes accordingly: (gravitational) time dilatation figure based on Penrose 2010 t x antconstc t x t x
  13. 13. CSR: Culture, Science and Religion Causality from outside Time pagina 13 5-1-2019 A clock visible at light-years distance nano-clock: excited atom or molecule emits radiation at a certain frequency cosmological red shift: due to time dilatation of rapidly moving objects: extreme case: background radiation gravitational red shift due to time dilatation nearby a heavy mass (curvature of space, rotation of light-cone) extreme case: horizon of black hole
  14. 14. CSR: Culture, Science and Religion Causality from outside Time pagina 14 5-1-2019 train at rest: at three different moments long train: Space-time diagram (2)
  15. 15. CSR: Culture, Science and Religion Causality from outside Time pagina 15 5-1-2019 moving train: at three different moments long train: Space-time diagram (3)
  16. 16. CSR: Culture, Science and Religion Causality from outside Time pagina 16 5-1-2019 new coordinates of the moving train Space-time diagram (4) moving train: at three different moments long train:
  17. 17. CSR: Culture, Science and Religion Causality from outside Time pagina 17 5-1-2019 <= time line of train Space-time diagram (5) consider two events 1: at origin 2: outside the light cone There is an inertial system where these are simultaneous example a traveler in an extremely long moving train needs only to ask his colleague at the wagon at event 2.
  18. 18. CSR: Culture, Science and Religion Causality from outside Time pagina 18 5-1-2019 <= time-line of the train Space-time diagram (6) consider two events 1: at origin 2: inside the light cone There is an inertial system where these are at the same place example a traveler in an extremely long moving train needs only to look out the window and wait to see the event.
  19. 19. CSR: Culture, Science and Religion Causality from outside Time pagina 19 5-1-2019 <= time line of train with speed c 011/1 22  ttct  consider two events 1: at origin 2: on the light cone There is an inertial system where these are simultaneously at the same place example as before, event at the same place, in addition: because of time contraction: interval of time is zero Space-time diagram (7)
  20. 20. CSR: Culture, Science and Religion Causality from outside Time pagina 20 5-1-2019 consequence for a photon: In the coordinate system of the photon, the event of emission and absorption is: -- instantaneously -- without distance emission absorption <= time-line of photon Space-time diagram (8)
  21. 21. CSR: Culture, Science and Religion Causality from outside Time pagina 21 5-1-2019 Penrose about photons and time lecture in University of Leiden 2011 The point is that, according to a massless particle, the passage of time is as nothing (2010). Eternity is no time at all, for a photon (2011).
  22. 22. CSR: Culture, Science and Religion Causality from outside Time pagina 22 5-1-2019 Content Introduction Time in Relativity Time in Quantum Mechanics Conclusions
  23. 23. CSR: Culture, Science and Religion Causality from outside Time pagina 23 5-1-2019 Collapse of wavefunction at double-slit Results of double-slit experiments with electrons (Dr. Tonomura) taken at four increasing sampling periods; each dot is caused by absorption of a single electron and represents a “col- lapsed” wavefunction at the detection screen. Waves (representative for wavefunction of photons, electrons, protons, atoms, etc.) at a double slit.
  24. 24. CSR: Culture, Science and Religion Causality from outside Time pagina 24 5-1-2019 Collapse of wavefunction at double-slit Experiments by Guerreiro et al. Physics Letter A 376, 2174-2177 Challenges: - if wavefunction collapses at a point, the probability at others points is immediately set zero. - where is the decision taken, - - at the source? -- at the detector? -- in-between? source: single photon BS: beamsplitter, A and B: single photon detectors Result (as expected) either detector A or B is clicking, nonlocality is confirmed see also discussion in: A. Driessen, Evidence for nonlocality and nontemporality of a single photon arXiv:1707.08034 source
  25. 25. CSR: Culture, Science and Religion Causality from outside Time pagina 25 5-1-2019 measuring individual photons from a quasar whose image has been split in two by a galaxy acting as a gravitational lens. Final state: 1) interference set-up: photon follows both paths; 2) telescope view: photon takes a unique path. delayed choice made after billions of years Wheeler's proposal, experimentally confirmed (Jacques et al. 2007) A Gedanken-experiment by Wheeler 1978
  26. 26. CSR: Culture, Science and Religion Causality from outside Time pagina 26 5-1-2019 Gravitational lens at 9.5 light-year gravitational lens: ~1011 mass of sun at 9.5 light-year source galaxy: ~108 mass of sun at 11.5 light-year, magnified 40x, appears as ring with 4 pronounced images Van der Wel et al. 2013 (arXiv: 1309.2826v1)
  27. 27. CSR: Culture, Science and Religion Causality from outside Time pagina 27 5-1-2019 delayed choice for photon path set-up 1 set-up 2 telescope picture: interference, which-way information no which-way information decision more than 11x109 years delayed
  28. 28. CSR: Culture, Science and Religion Causality from outside Time pagina 28 5-1-2019 BS: beamsplitter; BSinput fixed; Bsoutput removable triggered by Quantum Noise after the photon entered the interferometer, switching time: 40 ns. Path 1 and Path 2: 48 m, flight duration for photon: 160 ns detectors: detection gate 40 ns; single-photon pulse: 44 ns, repetition rate 238 ns Science, Feb 2007, 315, pp. 966-968 Wheeler confirmed (Jacques et al. 2007)
  29. 29. CSR: Culture, Science and Religion Causality from outside Time pagina 29 5-1-2019 Timing of the “delayed-choice” experiment, represented as a space-time diagram Wheeler confirmed (Jacques et al. 2007)
  30. 30. CSR: Culture, Science and Religion Causality from outside Time pagina 30 5-1-2019 Result of the delayed-choice experiment: a) beamsplitter switched on b) beamsplitter switched off Wheeler confirmed (Jacques et al. 2007)
  31. 31. CSR: Culture, Science and Religion Causality from outside Time pagina 31 5-1-2019 Content Introduction Time in Relativity Time in Quantum Mechanics Conclusions
  32. 32. CSR: Culture, Science and Religion Causality from outside Time pagina 32 5-1-2019 Adriaan Fokker, 1887-1972) A. D. Fokker, Universiteit Leiden (1965) Perhaps the deepest enigma brought to light by chronogeometry is the occurrence of zero intervals, connecting events which are located by observers with spatial distance and temporal duration between them. Zero interval means no separation at all, an immediate transmission of momentum and energy, as if there were contiguity…… The mathematical formula is quite simple and plain, nevertheless it relates to one of God's secrets and implies His sempiternal ubiquitous presence. A.D. Fokker, Time and Space Weight and Inertia, Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1965
  33. 33. CSR: Culture, Science and Religion Causality from outside Time pagina 33 5-1-2019 Fermi’s Golden rule Sommerfeld 1930 (Scientia 1930 II, p 85; translation by AD) When on occasions I spoke about a new, conditioned causality, it was mathematically founded. It appears namely that we have to calculate emission by a formula, in which the initial and final condition of the atom enters equally and symmetrically. (...) By the way, this is not completely new. Aristotle considered besides the efficient cause also the final cause. taken from: Snoeks et al. PRL, 74, 13, 1995, p 2459
  34. 34. CSR: Culture, Science and Religion Causality from outside Time pagina 34 5-1-2019 problems with causality of Laplace We have to consider the actual state of the universe as the effect of its previous state, and as the cause of the state that will follow. Where could the Laplace demon be located? in relativity: there is no preferred light cone, each with a different metric for time; in QM: causal effects are not restricted to the initial state, but include also the final state (sometimes called the observer).
  35. 35. CSR: Culture, Science and Religion Causality from outside Time pagina 35 5-1-2019 Causality without referring to time In both cases: it would be advisable to broaden the concept of causality to include influences from outside space and time. Approach in classical philosophy (Aristotle, Aquinas) whatever is moved is moved by another or whatever is changed is changed by another. Conclusions from this study: There are causes beyond the realm of science, - they are not observable by physical or scientific means - the effects of these causes, however, are observable by physical and scientific means. Physics is not complete. Possible causes of that type: - First Cause - human free wil
  36. 36. CSR: Culture, Science and Religion Causality from outside Time pagina 36 5-1-2019 This talk has been presented at the 21th International Interdisciplinary Seminar Science and Society: Defining what is human Netherhall House, London, 5-1-2019

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