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Can computers replace teachers?

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Can	computers	replace	
teachers?
Cesare	Miglioli
Research	Center	for	Statistics	– GSEM	– Université	de	Genève
Ignacio	Mong...

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Plan
A. Review	of	studies	about	the	impact	of	
digital	technologies	on	learning	(Cesare)
B. Some	reflections	from	differen...

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Can Computers Replace Teachers ?
Cesare Miglioli
University of Geneva
IIS Netherhall House
5 January, 2019
Cesare Miglioli...

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Can computers replace teachers?

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The presentation has two parts. In the first one, we review a series of studies that compare the efficacy of learning with "digital teachers" as opposed to learning with normal teachers. In the second part, we make several considerations from different points of view that may be helpful to answer the question.

The presentation has two parts. In the first one, we review a series of studies that compare the efficacy of learning with "digital teachers" as opposed to learning with normal teachers. In the second part, we make several considerations from different points of view that may be helpful to answer the question.

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Can computers replace teachers?

  1. 1. Can computers replace teachers? Cesare Miglioli Research Center for Statistics – GSEM – Université de Genève Ignacio Monge Sciences de l'éducation – Université de Genève 21st International Interdisciplinary Seminar Netherhall House London, January 5th 2019
  2. 2. Plan A. Review of studies about the impact of digital technologies on learning (Cesare) B. Some reflections from different points of view related to the question whether computers can replace teachers (Ignacio)
  3. 3. Can Computers Replace Teachers ? Cesare Miglioli University of Geneva IIS Netherhall House 5 January, 2019 Cesare Miglioli (University of Geneva) Can Computers Replace Teachers ? Netherhall, 5 Jan 2019 1 / 8
  4. 4. Overview 1 AI vs Teachers Evidences Remarks 2 Social Context for AI Pedagogical Agents MOOC Dropouts Cesare Miglioli (University of Geneva) Can Computers Replace Teachers ? Netherhall, 5 Jan 2019 2 / 8
  5. 5. AI vs Teachers (du Boulay, 2016) Meta-Reviews Comparison Studies MES SE VanLehn (2011) Step based vs 1to1 HT 10 -0.21 0.19 Ma (2014) Step based vs 1to1 HT 5 -0.11 0.10 Step based vs Class 66 0.44 0.05 Nesbit (2014) Step based vs Class 11 0.67 0.09 Kulik (2016) Sub/Step based vs Class 63 0.65 0.07 Hu (2013) Step/answer based vs Class 26 0.09 0.01 Hu (2014) Step based vs 1to1 HT 3 -0.25 0.24 Step based vs Class 16 0.37 0.07 Cesare Miglioli (University of Geneva) Can Computers Replace Teachers ? Netherhall, 5 Jan 2019 3 / 8
  6. 6. Remarks Findings: Class < AI Step < 1to1 HT Statistical significance vs Scientific significance (moderate MES) Domain of AI in education: STEM Current formula: AI cognitive tutors + normal teaching Applied nowadays in 3000 US schools for 0.5 million students (Koedinger et al., 2016) Cesare Miglioli (University of Geneva) Can Computers Replace Teachers ? Netherhall, 5 Jan 2019 4 / 8
  7. 7. Pedagogical Agents (Schroeder et al., 2013) Overview: 43 studies and 3088 participants Pedagogical agent based systems are more effective than non-agent based (MES = 0.19) with respect to learning outcomes. Text beats narration while animation is always a plus Pedagogical agents are more effective for younger students (4-7 grade) with respect to older students Cesare Miglioli (University of Geneva) Can Computers Replace Teachers ? Netherhall, 5 Jan 2019 5 / 8
  8. 8. MOOC Dropouts (Onah et al., 2014) Overview: MOOCs average completion rate is lower than 13% Main dropout factors: no intention to complete, lack of time, course difficulty, no support, lack of digital/learning skill, peer review, starting late and false expectations. University of Warwick course on Python: Tutor supported MOOC (16.7% ) vs Traditional MOOC (2.5% ). Participation in both MOOC is constantly decreasing as the course advance. Message: MOOC can not be presented as a potential teacher replacement! Cesare Miglioli (University of Geneva) Can Computers Replace Teachers ? Netherhall, 5 Jan 2019 6 / 8
  9. 9. B. Can computers replace teachers? Some reflections 1. Different visions of the aim of (higher) education 2. Understanding teaching-learning as a didactic contract 3. What makes the difference between persons and computers?
  10. 10. B. Can computers replace teachers? Some reflections 1. Different visions of the aim of (higher) education 2. Understanding teaching-learning as a contract 3. What makes the difference between persons and computers?
  11. 11. 1. Different visions of the aim of (higher) education (1) Taken from Prof. Antonio Loprieno's talk (President of the swiss academy of arts and sciences) in the Swiss Inter- and Transdisciplonary Day - Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne - November 15th 2018
  12. 12. • If the final aim of (higher) education is to achieve"Bildung" or "good citizenship", can computers teach (lead to) this? • The question seems to be deeply related to ETHICS 1. Different visions of the aim of (higher) education (2) Adapted from Prof. Antonio Loprieno's talk Humboldt's model Emphasizes the importance of the different fields of knowledge => an achieved education, Bildung in german, is entailed by the disciplinary education Newman's model General education gradually introduces students to social, professional or scientific activities => general education precedes professional specialization
  13. 13. B. Can computers replace teachers? Some reflections 1. Different visions of the aim of (higher) education 2. Understanding teaching-learning as a didactic contract 3. What makes the difference between persons and computers?
  14. 14. • The theory of joint action in didactics (théorie de l'action conjointe en didactique) says that there is a didactic contract between the teacher and the student(s) => there are reciprocal expectations between them (Brousseau 1986) • The idea of a contract may be seen as an entry point into a hot issue in the field of didactics for the last decades, namely: guided versus non-guided teaching approaches (Kirschner et al. 2007) 2. Understanding teaching-learning as a contract (1)
  15. 15. • Theory of knowledge (Epistemology): Through inductivism scientists come to general natural principles starting from repeated observations • Inductivism is a long and laborious process carried out by well-formed adults with a rich long-term memory • Non-guided or less guided teaching approaches advocate for an inductivist kind of approach in learning: Ø Inquiry learning Ø Problem-based learning Ø Discovery learning Ø Constructivist learning • Is inductivism really possible for students? Can students discover alone the different science principles if you give them the raw data? (see Kirschner et al. 2006) 2. Understanding teaching-learning as a contract (2)
  16. 16. Exemple: • A teacher is trying to get the students to the concept of boiling point of water (at 100oC, the temperature does not increase anymore and all the energy supplied to the system serves to bring water from the liquid to the gas state) • Students heat water, measure its temperature, observe and plot temperature over time. • Conclusions from our observations of two classes (french and english speaking teachers): Ø it is not evident at all that students will be able to deduce alone the meaning of the boiling point Ø Students need teacher guidance 2. Understanding teaching-learning as a contract (3)
  17. 17. From the point of view of teaching and learning, the existance of a didactic contract implicitly shows that guidance is something fundamental when learning => one person, the teacher, guides one or several other persons and tells them: "THIS IS IMPORTANT, CRUCIAL, KEY…" (for exemple, if we consider again the boiling point, when the teacher insists on the importance of observing everything that happens at 100oC) 2. Understanding teaching-learning as a contract (4)
  18. 18. • Leaving alone students to learn with computers may lead to superficial learning, through adaptation to the computer actions and reactions, but without fully and truly understanding concepts, meanings and sense • The developed concept of a didactic contract is not usable as it is for learning with computers • is a didactic contract possible between a person and a computer? • a contract is only possible between two persons or group of persons? 2. Understanding teaching-learning as a contract (5)
  19. 19. B. Can computers replace teachers? Some reflections 1. Different visions of the aim of (higher) education 2. Understanding teaching-learning as a contract 3. What makes the difference between persons and computers?
  20. 20. • The meanings that a person can transmit are far from being only cognitive, they are associated or marked with Ø emotions Ø attitudes Ø motivations Ø intentions Ø … ? • Only another person can truly elevate the students by fostering socio- emotional skills that will contribute to thier personal develoment as a human being • Only a person can bring other human beings to think out of the box ("out of the programme") or to creativity (what is creativity?) 3. What makes the difference between persons and computers?
  21. 21. Bibliographie Brousseau, Guy (1986). Fondements et méthodes en didachque des mathématiques. Recherches en didac@ques des mathématiques, 7(2), 33- 115. Kirschner Paul , Sweller John & Clark Richard E. (2006). Why Minimal Guidance During Instruction Does Not Work: An Analysis of the Failure of Constructivist, Discovery, Problem-Based, Experiential, and Inquiry-Based Teaching, Educational Psychologist, 41:2, 75-86.
  22. 22. Questions? Open Discussion Cesare Miglioli (University of Geneva) Can Computers Replace Teachers ? Netherhall, 5 Jan 2019 8 / 8

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