C:\fakepath\chapter 13 explorations


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  • Nicolo- means father, Maffeo-means uncle and Marco Polo wrote “The Travels” – account of what they saw in the Chinese court of the Mongol ruler Kublai Khan. Zheng He worked for the emperor Yong Le.
  • Between 1405-1433 he did seven voyages (62 ships, largest was 440 ft., Santa Maria was only 75 ft.) His explorations were halted after Yong Le’s death due to the Confucian view that trading activities were unworthy. In 1514, a Portuguese fleet arrived off the coast of China. China was at the height of its power. Both sides benefited from this early cultural exchange. Chinese scholars marveled at their ability to read better with European eyeglasses. Christian missionaries were impressed with the teachings of Confucius, the printing and availability of books, and Chinese architecture.
  • Refugees - One who flees in search of refuge, as in times of war, political oppression, or religious persecution. Missionaries - a person sent by a church into an area to carry on evangelism or other activities, as educational or hospital work.
  • Bartolome Dias rounded the tip of Good Hope in 1488. Vasco da Gama went around the cape and cut across the Indian Ocean to the coast of India. In May of 1498, he arrived off the port of Calicut, where he took a cargo of spices, making several thousand percent profit. Came back, destroyed Muslim shipping and gained control of the spice trade, which had been controlled by Muslims. Afonso de Allbuquerque wanted control of Melaka – control would help destroy Arab control of the spice trade.
  • John Cabot explored the New England coastline of the Americas for England. Amerigo Vespucci, a Florentine, went along on several voyages and wrote letters describing the lands he saw (these letters led to the use of the name America for the new lands).
  • On 1519, Portuguese explorer, persuaded the king of Spain to finance his voyages. Reached South America, moved down the coast in search of a strait, that would take them through America. On Nov. 1520, he found the strait, named it “Strait of Magellan” Week after week, he continued until he reached the Philippines, were he was killed. Known to be the first person to sail around the world.
  • Some consequences of Spanish settlement: Spanish conquests affected not only the conquered but also the conquerors. This was specially true in the economic arena. Europeans sought gold and they found it. colonists established plantations and ranches to raise sugar, cotton, vanilla, livestock, and other products introduced to the Americas for export to Europe.
  • From this diagram what were some products sent from the Americas to Europe? Turning Point: **** International trade was crucial in creating a new age of commercial capitalism, one of the first steps in the development of the world economy.****
  • was the trade of primarily African people supplied to the colonies of the New World that occurred in and around the Atlantic Ocean. It lasted from the 16th century to the 19th century. Most slaves were shipped from West Africa and Central Africa and taken to the New World. Generally slaves were obtained through coastal trading with Africans, though some were captured by European slave traders through raids and kidnapping
  • Consequences: Led to the depopulation of some areas. Deprived many African communities of their youngest and strongest men and women. Increase warfare in Africa.
  • The Middle Passage – was the middle portion of the triangular trade route. Many slaves died on the journey.
  • Council of the Indies - the most important administrative organ of the Spanish Empire , both in the Americas and in Asia , combining legislative, executive and judicial functions. A viceroy is a royal official who governs a country or province in the name of and as representative of the monarch .
  • Spanish colonists was a priest, historian, scholar, and human rights advocate, who fought to overthrow the Encomienda system.
  • C:\fakepath\chapter 13 explorations

    1. 1. The Age of Early European Explorations & Conquests
    2. 2. Earlier Explorations <ul><li>Islam & the Spice Trade  Malacca (Melaka) </li></ul><ul><li>A New Player  Europe </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nicolo, Maffeo, & Marco Polo, 1271 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expansion becomes a state enterprise  monarchs had the authority & the resources. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Better seaworthy ships. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Chinese Admiral Zheng He & the Ming “Treasure Fleet” </li></ul>
    3. 3. Admiral Zheng He 1371-1435 <ul><ul><li>Each ship was 400’ long and 160’ wide! </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. Motives for European Exploration <ul><li>Crusades  by-pass intermediaries to get to Asia. </li></ul><ul><li>Renaissance  curiosity about other lands and peoples. </li></ul><ul><li>Reformation  refugees & missionaries. </li></ul><ul><li>Monarchs seeking new sources of revenue. </li></ul><ul><li>Technological advances. </li></ul><ul><li>Fame and fortune. </li></ul>
    5. 5. New Maritime Technologies <ul><ul><li>Hartman Astrolabe (1532) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Better Maps [Portulan] </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sextant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mariner’s Compass </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. New Weapons Technology
    7. 7. Prince Henry, the Navigator <ul><ul><li>School for Navigation, 1419 </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. Museum of Navigation in Lisbon
    9. 9. Portuguese Maritime Empire <ul><li>Exploring the west coast of Africa. </li></ul><ul><li>Bartolome Dias, 1488. </li></ul><ul><li>Vasco da Gama, 1498. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Calicut. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Admiral Alfonso de Albuquerque (Goa, 1510; Malacca, 1511). </li></ul>
    10. 10. Zheng He’s Voyages <ul><ul><li>In 1498, Da Gama reached Calcutta, China’s favorite port! </li></ul></ul>
    11. 11. Christofo Colon [1451-1506]
    12. 12. Columbus’ Four Voyages
    13. 13. Race to the Americas <ul><li>John Cabot,1500 </li></ul><ul><li>Amerigo Vespucci, </li></ul>
    14. 14. Ferdinand Magellan & the First Circumnavigation of the World: Early 16 c
    15. 15. Atlantic Explorations Looking for “El Dorado”
    16. 16. Fernando Cortez The First Spanish Conquests: The Aztecs Montezuma II vs.
    17. 17. Francisco Pizarro The First Spanish Conquests: The Incas Atahualpa vs.
    18. 18. Slaves Working in a Brazilian Sugar Mill
    19. 19. The “Columbian Exchange” <ul><li>Squash </li></ul><ul><li>Avocado </li></ul><ul><li>Peppers </li></ul><ul><li>Sweet Potatoes </li></ul><ul><li>Turkey </li></ul><ul><li>Pumpkin </li></ul><ul><li>Tobacco </li></ul><ul><li>Quinine </li></ul><ul><li>Cocoa </li></ul><ul><li>Pineapple </li></ul><ul><li>Cassava </li></ul><ul><li>POTATO </li></ul><ul><li>Peanut </li></ul><ul><li>TOMATO </li></ul><ul><li>Vanilla </li></ul><ul><li>MAIZE </li></ul><ul><li>Syphilis </li></ul><ul><li>Olive </li></ul><ul><li>COFFEE BEAN </li></ul><ul><li>Banana </li></ul><ul><li>Rice </li></ul><ul><li>Onion </li></ul><ul><li>Turnip </li></ul><ul><li>Honeybee </li></ul><ul><li>Barley </li></ul><ul><li>Grape </li></ul><ul><li>Peach </li></ul><ul><li>SUGAR CANE </li></ul><ul><li>Oats </li></ul><ul><li>Citrus Fruits </li></ul><ul><li>Pear </li></ul><ul><li>Wheat </li></ul><ul><li>HORSE </li></ul><ul><li>Cattle </li></ul><ul><li>Sheep </li></ul><ul><li>Pigs </li></ul><ul><li>Smallpox </li></ul><ul><li>Flu </li></ul><ul><li>Typhus </li></ul><ul><li>Measles </li></ul><ul><li>Malaria </li></ul><ul><li>Diptheria </li></ul><ul><li>Whooping Cough </li></ul><ul><li>Trinkets </li></ul><ul><li>Liquor </li></ul><ul><li>GUNS </li></ul>
    20. 20. Cycle of Conquest & Colonization Explorers Conquistadores Missionaries Permanent Settlers Official European Colony!
    21. 21. Mercantilism <ul><li>Set of principals that dominated economic thought in the 17 th century. </li></ul><ul><li>The prosperity of a nation depended on a large supply of bullion, or gold and silver. </li></ul><ul><li>Nations tried to have a balance of trade- which is the difference in value between what a nation imports and what it exports over time. </li></ul>
    22. 22. Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade
    23. 23. The Slave Trade <ul><li>Existed in Africa before the coming of the Europeans. </li></ul><ul><li>Portuguese replaced European slaves with Africans. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sugar cane & sugar plantations. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>First boatload of African slaves brought by the Spanish in 1518. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>275,000 enslaved Africans exported to other countries. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Between 16 c & 19 c , about 10 million Africans shipped to the Americas. </li></ul>
    24. 24. TRIANGULAR TRADE Connected Europe, Africa and Asia and the Americas.
    25. 25. Affects of African Slave Trade <ul><li>Devastating affect on some African states. </li></ul><ul><li>The case of Benin in West Africa is a good example. </li></ul><ul><li>A brilliant and creative society in the 16 th century became a corrupt and brutal place after the slave trade. </li></ul><ul><li>People of Benin lost faith in their gods, their art deteriorated, and human sacrifice was common. </li></ul>
    26. 26. Slave Ship “ Middle Passage”
    27. 27. Middle Passage – “ Coffin” Position Below Deck
    28. 28. African Captives Thrown Overboard Sharks followed the slave ships!
    29. 29. Administration of the Spanish Empire in the New World <ul><li>Encomienda or forced labor. </li></ul><ul><li>Council of the Indies. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Viceroy. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New Spain and Peru. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Papal agreement. </li></ul>
    30. 30. The Influence of the Colonial Catholic Church Guadalajara Cathedral Our Lady of Guadalupe Spanish Mission
    31. 31. The Treaty of Tordesillas, 1494 & The Pope’s Line of Demarcation (West for Spain and East for Portugal)
    32. 32. Father Bartolome de Las Casas <ul><li>New Laws  1542 </li></ul>
    33. 33. New Colonial Rivals
    34. 34. Impact of European Expansion <ul><li>Native populations ravaged by disease. </li></ul><ul><li>Influx of gold, and especially silver, into Europe created an inflationary economic climate. [ “Price Revolution” ] </li></ul><ul><li>New products introduced across the continents [“Columbian Exchange”]. </li></ul><ul><li>Deepened colonial rivalries. </li></ul>