Tsunami warning system

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tsunami warning system is a system which is used to detect tsunami and issue a warning which is used to prevent loss of life and property.

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Tsunami warning system

  1. 1. A SEMINAR PRESENTATION ON “tsunami warning system” 2013-2014 SUBMITTED TO: SUBMITTED BY: Mr. Amit Kumar Prajapati Mr. Rajveer Marwal Seminar Coordinators (Sec B) Vibhor Rathi 4th Year, 8th Sem. EC/10/148 DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING POORNIMA COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, JAIPUR 1
  2. 2. CONTENTS  Tsunami  Tsunami Warning System  Detecting Tsunami  Seismometers  Tidal Gauge  DART Buoys  Digiquartz Broadband Depth Sensor  Acoustic Transducer  Acoustic Link  DART I & II System  Advantages & Disadvantages  Future Scope 2
  3. 3. TSUNAMI It is a series of wave with long wavelength and long wave period. Apart from seismic activity, there are many other factors responsible for Tsunami. These gigantic waves are probably one of the most powerful and destructive forces of nature. 3
  4. 4. TSUNAMI WARNING SYSTEM TWS is a system which detects tsunami and issue a warning to prevent loss of life and property. This system consist of two main parts: TWS Network of sensors Communication Infrastructure 4
  5. 5. WORKING OF TWS Network of seismic monitoring station at sea floor detects presence of earthquake. Seismic monitoring station determines location and depth of earthquake having potential to cause tsunami. Any resulting tsunami are verified by sea level monitoring station such as DART buoys, tidal gauge. 5
  6. 6. TYPES OF TWS There are two distinct types of TWS: TWS International Warning System National Warning System 6
  7. 7. INTERNATIONAL WARNING SYSTEM This system uses both data like seismic and water level data from coastal buoys. Tsunami travel at 500-1000 km/hr, while seismic wave travel at 14,400 km/hr. This give sufficient time for tsunami forecast to be made. It is commonly used in Pacific ocean and Indian ocean. 7
  8. 8. NATIONAL WARNING SYSTEM This system use seismic data about nearby recent earthquake. This system is unable to predict which earthquake will produce significant tsunami. NWS Tsunami Watches Tsunami Warning 8
  9. 9. TSUNAMI WATCH Watch is issued based on seismic information. Watch is issued without confirmation that destructive tsunami is underway. Tsunami watch is issued to officials which may later impact the watch area. 9
  10. 10. TSUNAMI WARNING Tsunami warning is issued when potential tsunami is expected. It alert officials to take action for entire tsunami hazard zone. Warning is issued automatically if an earthquake powerful enough to create tsunami occur nearby. 10
  11. 11. DETECTION METHOD PHASE 1 GEOLOGICAL ACTIVITY PHASE 2 WAVE ACTIVITY PHASE 3 COASTLINE ACTIVITY 11
  12. 12. DETECTING TSUNAMI Three types of technologies are used for detecting tsunami: 1 2 3 • SEISMOMETERS • COAST TIDAL GAUGES • DART BUOYS 12
  13. 13. SEISMOMETERS Information available about source of tsunami is based on seismic information. Earthquake are measured based on its magnitude recorded by its seismograph. 13
  14. 14. DRAWBACK OF SEISMOMETERS Data are indirect and interpretation is difficult. It involve poor understanding of seismic coupling. 14
  15. 15. TIDAL GAUGE Measure sea level near coastal area. Continuously monitors and confirms tsunami waves following an earthquake. If tsunami occurred other than earthquake we depend solely on data of tidal gauge. 15
  16. 16. DRAWBACK OF TIDAL GAUGE May not survive impact of tsunami. Cannot provide data that are especially important to operational hazard assessment directly. 16
  17. 17. DART BUOYS Report to tsunami warning centre, when tsunami occur. Information are processed to produce a new and more refined estimate of tsunami source. Result is an accurate forecast of tsunami. 17
  18. 18. ADVANTAGE OF DART BUOYS Seismometer do not measure tsunami. Tidal gauge do not provide direct measurement of deep ocean tsunami energy propagating. DART overcomes drawback of both. 18
  19. 19. WORKING OF DART BUOYS DART BUOY consist of two main component: • Bottom Pressure Recorder (BPR) • Surface Buoy BPR consisting of a modem to transmit data to surface buoy. Surface buoy transmit data to warning centre via satellite communication. 19
  20. 20.  BOTTOM PRESSURE RECORDER: Digiquartz Broadband depth Sensor is the main sensing element. This sensor continuously monitors pressure and if pressure exceeds threshold value, it automatically report to warning centre.  SURFACE BUOYS: Surface buoys makes satellite communication to warning centers that evaluate the threat and issue a tsunami warning. 20
  21. 21. DIAGRAM OF DART BUOY 21
  22. 22. DIGIQUARTZ BROADBAND DEPTH SENSOR This depth sensor provide accurate & stable data. Superior performance of digiquartz instruments is achieved through use of quartz crystal. Pressure transducer employs bellows tube as pressure to load generators. Change in frequency of quartz crystal oscillator is a measure of the applied pressure. 22
  23. 23. ACOUSTIC TRANSDUCER A electrical device that converts sound wave into electrical energy. Hydrophone is used in this case. When electrical plates are exposed to sound vibration electrical energy is produced. Electrical energy is sent to amplifier and then to final destination. 23
  24. 24. ACOUSTIC LINK Acoustic communication is a technique of sending and receiving signals under water. It is done by help of acoustic modem. Modem operates at frequency of 10Hz – 1MHz. It provides an accurate and efficient method to send and receive data underwater. 24
  25. 25. NOAA AND DART STATIONS NOAA (NATIONAL OCEANIC & ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION) • Responsible for providing tsunami warning to the nation. DART (DEEP OCEAN ASSESSMENT & REPORTING OF TSUNAMI) • Station that detects tsunami. 25
  26. 26. MODES OF OPERATION DART buoy has two modes of operation: MODES STANDARD MODE EVENT MODE 26
  27. 27.  STANDARD MODE: System generally operates in standard mode. DART transmits data every six hours with recording period of 15 minutes.  EVENT MODE: When tsunami wave occur standard mode trigger to event mode. Transmit data every15 minutes at an average of 1 minute for three hours. 27
  28. 28. DIAGRAM SHOWING TSUNAMI WAVE GENERATION 28
  29. 29. SERIES OF DART SYSTEM There are two series of DART buoy system: DART I BUOY DART II BUOY SERIES 29
  30. 30. DART I SYSTEM One way communication ability. Relied solely on software’s ability to detect a tsunami and trigger to event mode. To avoid false alarm, a threshold value is set such that tsunami with low amplitude could fail to trigger the station. 30
  31. 31. DART II SYSTEM It is a two way communication Measure seal level change of less than a millimeter in the deep ocean. Two way communication allows for trouble shooting of the system. System can be switched to event mode by concerned authority for research purpose. 31
  32. 32. ADVANTAGES Deep water pressure produce low false reading. Multiple sensor can detect wave propagation. Good advance warning system. 32
  33. 33. DISADVANTAGES Expensive equipments. High maintenance cost. Require multiple communication link: • • • • • SONAR. Satellite Uplink. Satellite Downlink. Notification to authorities. Authorities notifies coastal dwellers. 33
  34. 34. FUTURE SCOPE Use of GPS to detect tsunami. Developed by NASA. GPS detects ground motion preceding tsunami. It estimate tsunami destructive potential within minutes. Estimates energy that undersea earthquake transfer to ocean. With help of these data, ocean floor displacement caused by earthquake can be inferred. 34
  35. 35. REFERENCES http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tsunami_warning_system http://seminarprojects.net/t-tsunami-warning-system http://www.authorstream.com/Presentation/aSGuest1322 68-1389817-ppt-for-seminar-tsunami-alarm http://www.tsunamiterror.info/future_proposed.html 35
  36. 36. QUERIES ? ? ? 36
  37. 37. THANK YOU 37

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