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Collecting Primary Data <ul><li>using </li></ul><ul><li>Observations </li></ul><ul><li>Interviews </li></ul><ul><li>Questi...
Primary data <ul><li>Data collected specifically for the research project being undertaken. </li></ul><ul><li>Primary data...
2. Collecting Primary data Using interviews
Research interviews <ul><li>Definition </li></ul><ul><li>‘ An interview is a purposeful discussion between two or more peo...
questions to guide their note taking <ul><li>Outline the ways in which each of the forms of qualitative interview in Fig 1...
Types of interviews <ul><li>Interviews  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interviews: a purposeful discussion between two or more peop...
non-standardised  (qualitative) research interviews <ul><li>The use of  non-standardised  (qualitative) research interview...
Research purpose and strategy (1) <ul><li>Forms of interview </li></ul><ul><li>Saunders  et al . (2009) </li></ul>Figure 1...
Research purpose and strategy (2) <ul><li>Uses of different types of interview in each of the main research categories </l...
Interviews  <ul><li>In-depth and semi-structured interviews can be used in quantitative as well as qualitative research. <...
Data quality issues to consider in semi-structured and in-depth interviews <ul><li>A number of data quality issues in rela...
Data quality issues …(2) <ul><li>The importance of preparation – the 5 Ps </li></ul><ul><li>‘ p rior  p lanning  p revents...
Interview preparation (1) <ul><li>Associated issues </li></ul><ul><li>Interviewer’s level of knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>L...
Interview preparation (2) <ul><li>Associated issues </li></ul><ul><li>Researcher’s appearance – dress code </li></ul><ul><...
Interview preparation (3) <ul><li>Associated issues </li></ul><ul><li>Appropriate interviewer behaviour- verbal and non-ve...
Interviewing competence <ul><li>Opening of the interview </li></ul><ul><li>Using appropriate language </li></ul><ul><li>Ap...
Approaches to Questioning  <ul><li>Types of question format: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Open questions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><...
Interviewing competence (2) <ul><li>Advantages and disadvantages of audio-recording interviews </li></ul><ul><li>Saunders ...
Interviewing competence (3) <ul><li>Other issues to consider </li></ul><ul><li>Dealing with difficult participants –Table ...
Interviewing competence (4) <ul><li>Additional forms of interviews: </li></ul><ul><li>Group interviews </li></ul><ul><li>F...
Interviewing competence (5) <ul><li>Forms of electronic interviews </li></ul><ul><li>Saunders  et al . (2009) </li></ul>Fi...
Summary: Chapter 10 <ul><li>Use of non-standard (qualitative) interviews should generate rich and detailed data </li></ul>...
Summary: Chapter 10 <ul><li>Using qualitative interviews is related to the research strategy and data collection questions...
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Lecture 10 primary data collection interviews

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Lecture 10 primary data collection interviews

  1. 1. Collecting Primary Data <ul><li>using </li></ul><ul><li>Observations </li></ul><ul><li>Interviews </li></ul><ul><li>Questionnaires </li></ul>
  2. 2. Primary data <ul><li>Data collected specifically for the research project being undertaken. </li></ul><ul><li>Primary data can be collected using: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Observations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interviews </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Questionnaires </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. 2. Collecting Primary data Using interviews
  4. 4. Research interviews <ul><li>Definition </li></ul><ul><li>‘ An interview is a purposeful discussion between two or more people’ </li></ul><ul><li>Kahn and Cannell (1957) </li></ul><ul><li>Types of interview used in research </li></ul><ul><li>Semi-structured Structured </li></ul><ul><li>In-depth Group </li></ul><ul><li>Saunders et al . (2009) </li></ul>
  5. 5. questions to guide their note taking <ul><li>Outline the ways in which each of the forms of qualitative interview in Fig 10.2 link to particular purposes of research and research strategies. </li></ul><ul><li>Which situations best favour interviews? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the key data quality issues and problems (validity and reliability) associated with using interviews? How might these be overcome? </li></ul>
  6. 6. Types of interviews <ul><li>Interviews </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interviews: a purposeful discussion between two or more people (Kahn and Cannell, 1957). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 main types: structured (standardized) and unstructured (non-standardized). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Structured personal interviews (questionnaires) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Highly formalized and structured, using standardized questions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The interviewer has a list of prescribed questions for all the interviewese or respondents. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Advantage : more interviews can be conducted. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Unstructured personal interviews </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Informal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interviews takes the form of a discussion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Excellent for exploratory and descriptive research purposes. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interviewer directs the conversation by indentifying topical issues and allowing the interviewee to talk extensively about them. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Advantage : great deal of information can be collected. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disadvantage : analysis and interpretation problems. Consume more time. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. non-standardised (qualitative) research interviews <ul><li>The use of non-standardised (qualitative) research interviews should allow the collection of a rich and detailed set of data, although there will be a need to develop a sufficient level of competence to conduct these and to be able to gain access to the type of data associated with their use. </li></ul><ul><li>Interviews can be differentiated according to the level of structure and standardisation adopted. </li></ul><ul><li>Different types of interviews are useful for different research purposes. </li></ul><ul><li>Non-standardised (qualitative) research interviews include two broad types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>in-depth or unstructured interviews and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>semi-structured interviews. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>• A research design may incorporate more than one type of interview. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Research purpose and strategy (1) <ul><li>Forms of interview </li></ul><ul><li>Saunders et al . (2009) </li></ul>Figure 10.1 Forms of interview
  9. 9. Research purpose and strategy (2) <ul><li>Uses of different types of interview in each of the main research categories </li></ul><ul><li>Saunders et al . (2009) </li></ul>Table 10.1 Uses of different types of interview in each of the main research categories
  10. 10. Interviews <ul><li>In-depth and semi-structured interviews can be used in quantitative as well as qualitative research. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Situations favouring use of non-standardised (qualitative) interviews method to collect data are related to </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Purpose of the research </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the significance of establishing personal contact, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the nature of data collection questions, and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the length of time required from those who provide data. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Data quality issues to consider in semi-structured and in-depth interviews <ul><li>A number of data quality issues in relation to semi-structured and in-depth interviews, related to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reliability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Will alternative researchers reveal similar information? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Forms of bias </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Interviewer bias </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Interviewee or response bias </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Validity and generalisability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use of case study </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Significance to theoretical propositions. Testing existing theory. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Data quality issues …(2) <ul><li>The importance of preparation – the 5 Ps </li></ul><ul><li>‘ p rior p lanning p revents p oor p erformance’ </li></ul><ul><li>Saunders et al . (2009) </li></ul>
  13. 13. Interview preparation (1) <ul><li>Associated issues </li></ul><ul><li>Interviewer’s level of knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Level of information supplied to interviewees </li></ul><ul><li>Creating an interview guide </li></ul><ul><li>Appropriateness of location </li></ul>
  14. 14. Interview preparation (2) <ul><li>Associated issues </li></ul><ul><li>Researcher’s appearance – dress code </li></ul><ul><li>Shaping the interview - opening comments </li></ul><ul><li>Approach to questioning – clarity and reducing bias </li></ul><ul><li>Use of critical incident technique </li></ul>
  15. 15. Interview preparation (3) <ul><li>Associated issues </li></ul><ul><li>Appropriate interviewer behaviour- verbal and non-verbal </li></ul><ul><li>Attentive listening skills and testing understanding </li></ul><ul><li>Approaches to data recording - notes and tape-recording </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural differences and bias </li></ul>
  16. 16. Interviewing competence <ul><li>Opening of the interview </li></ul><ul><li>Using appropriate language </li></ul><ul><li>Approaches to Questioning </li></ul><ul><li>Listening </li></ul><ul><li>Testing and summarising </li></ul><ul><li>Recognising and dealing with difficult participants. </li></ul><ul><li>Recording data </li></ul>
  17. 17. Approaches to Questioning <ul><li>Types of question format: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Open questions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Probing questions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reflection questions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Supplementary </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Specific and closed questions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t ask LEADING or PROPOSING QUESTIONS </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Interviewing competence (2) <ul><li>Advantages and disadvantages of audio-recording interviews </li></ul><ul><li>Saunders et al . (2009) </li></ul>Table 10.3 Advantages and disadvantages of audio-recording the interview
  19. 19. Interviewing competence (3) <ul><li>Other issues to consider </li></ul><ul><li>Dealing with difficult participants –Table 10.2 </li></ul><ul><li>Managing resources – logistics and time </li></ul><ul><li>Obtaining participants’ permission for interview records (written and taped) </li></ul>
  20. 20. Interviewing competence (4) <ul><li>Additional forms of interviews: </li></ul><ul><li>Group interviews </li></ul><ul><li>Focus groups </li></ul><ul><li>Telephone interviews </li></ul><ul><li>Internet and intra-net mediated interviews </li></ul>
  21. 21. Interviewing competence (5) <ul><li>Forms of electronic interviews </li></ul><ul><li>Saunders et al . (2009) </li></ul>Figure 10.2 Forms of electronic interviews
  22. 22. Summary: Chapter 10 <ul><li>Use of non-standard (qualitative) interviews should generate rich and detailed data </li></ul><ul><li>Different types of interview are useful for different research purposes </li></ul><ul><li>Qualitative interviews are generally categorised as in-depth (structured) and semi-structured </li></ul><ul><li>Research design may incorporate more than one type of interview </li></ul>
  23. 23. Summary: Chapter 10 <ul><li>Using qualitative interviews is related to the research strategy and data collection questions </li></ul><ul><li>Establishing personal contact with subjects and the length of time required are significant factors </li></ul><ul><li>Data quality issues, interviewer competence and resource management are important considerations </li></ul><ul><li>Face-to-face (individual, group and focus group) and electronic interviews can all be advantageous </li></ul>

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