Climate change and it's biological impacts in Nepal


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Presented by Niroj Timalsina on a seminr on "Climate change and its effect" on 5th Jun.

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Climate change and it's biological impacts in Nepal

  1. 1. Climate change “The new driver of mass extinctions”
  2. 2. Bio-Diversity Of Nepal
  3. 3. Nepal has been divided into five Physiographic Division: – Physiographic Division Of Nepal 2. High Mountain 1. High Himal 3. Middle Hills 4. Siwalik 5. Terai
  4. 4. Nepal’s Unique Features Diverse Topography (62 m– 8,848m) and 11 Bio - Climatic Zone (Tropical to Nival) 118 Ecosystems 75 Vegetation types 35 Forest types Mix Sal ForestTemperate Forest Example: Forest type Himalayan Landscape Terai Landscape Example: Landscape
  5. 5. Flora 6,500 spp. of Flowering plants 1,822 spp. Fungi 2000 spp. Lichen 687 spp. Algae 853 spp. Bryophytes 534 spp. Ferns and ferns allies Nepal’s Unique Features Kande Chyau Mikopila Phul
  6. 6. 208 spp. Mammals (5% of Total of World) 874 spp. Birds 78 spp. Reptiles 117 spp. Amphibians 185 spp. Fishes 651 spp. Butterflies 785 spp. Moths 144 spp. Spiders 5,052 spp. Insects Photo by: R. Gurung Snow Leopard Gangetic Dolphin Gharial Crocodile Fauna
  7. 7. Flora Endemic to Nepal 399 spp. Flowering Plant Fauna Endemic to Nepal 2 spp. Mammal 14 spp. Herpetofauna 6 spp. Fish 108 spp. Spiders
  8. 8. Climate Change Impact In Nepal
  9. 9. More gradual year-on-year changes in temperature have also been observed, with a 0.09ºC per year increase in recorded in the Himalayas and 0.04ºC per year increase in the Terai (with higher increases in winter). •Climate change is likely to bring particularly rapid temperature increases in Nepal – faster than their average global rate of warming. •Winter temperatures will increase more than summer temperatures. The level of winter rainfall is expected to decrease, while summer rainfall will increase. •Extreme weather events such as heat waves and very high rainfall are likely to become more frequent. •Overall, Nepal is likely to become wetter, with the east of Nepal experiencing more rain than the west. Climate Change in Nepal
  10. 10. Figure: Schematic Diagram of Impacts Caused By Global Warming
  11. 11. Biological Impact of Climate Change • Biodiversity declines • Phenology shift • Morphology change • Range shift • Change in community composition • Reduce the ecological resilience
  12. 12. Biodiversity Decline • In Nepal, grasslands are particularly under threat. • Tropical wet forest and warm temperate rain forest will disappear, and cool temperate vegetation will turn into warm temperate vegetation. • The sub-alpine and alpine regions of Nepal will be significantly changed by warming, and the altitude at which vegetation is found could rise by up to 500m. (Policy briefing , Nepal) • Wetlands of Nepal are most vulnerable toward climate change.
  13. 13. Phenology Shift • Evidence has shown that climate change has been affecting vegetation patterns such as phenology (the timing of life cycle events in plants and animals, especially in relation to climate) and distribution. • They have the potential to cause great challenges to species survival. • Eg. Gyalpo Gurung, a local resident of Humde, Manang district observed greening of pastures in high altitudes (3,000– 4,000 masl) much earlier than the normal season. (Gurung and Bhandari,2009).
  14. 14. Morphological Change • Only with best adaptation can survive.
  15. 15. Range shift • Tropical species may shift their ranges to higher elevations in pursuit of cooler temperatures. • Constraints to movements to higher elevations may increase the number of species threatened by climate change in tropical mountains. • Alpines fauna may shift to further elevations. Snow Leopard Red Panda
  16. 16. Change in community composition • Altering the food chain of ecosystem.
  17. 17. Reduce the ecological Resilience • Many plants & animals could be restricted by insect or disease. • Various plant & animal disease reproduce & spread mostly rapidly under conditions of warmth & high humidity.
  18. 18. *.Thank You.*