“We’re living in a culture of crowdsourcing, where more and more people
are willing and interested in sharing what they know through social
Joel Gurin. Founder & Editor OpenDataNow.com
Can Crowdsourcing enhance data collection,
policy making & monitoring when it comes to
the Ageing Revolution?
Discussion for Today….
An Example to Kick Start….
“Few other countries have information
which combines high quality data,
consistency, national coverage and the
ability to link data to allow patient
based analysis and follow up”
NHS Information Services Division
• Fortunate in Scotland than around 60%-70%
of health expenditure is available at patient
• All hospital based activity (emergency and
elective inpatient and day) available and
attributable to individuals.
• Prescribing (drugs) also available at individual
• Gaps including health community and primary
• A range of operational/activity statistics
produced by data service for health provider.
– Waiting times.
– Infection rates.
– Number of hospital cancellations.
– Number of beds.
– Number of prescribed items.
– Costs of running NHS.
Scotland - Balance of care (£4.5bn) for 65 plus
Institutional (hospital and care homes) and non-institutional
(community based settings) – expenditure still
predominately in institutional based care.
Scotland - Health and social care expenditure (£4.5bn latest year in
chart) for 65 plus
2010/11 – 2013/14 – emergency care (non elective) biggest
proportion of overall spend
Scotland – cohort specific analysis – dementia
Those with dementia compared to control use a greater number of
services and in one area this was predominantly care homes
Suspected prevalence underestimation based on eurocode
Cost attributable to dementia: Age specific prevalence:
Data also available showing:
• Breakdown of differences in activity between
dementia and age/sex matched non-dementia
• Crude population based forecasting
• 5% of 65+ diagnosed with dementia
• Dementia patients consume 25% total
H&SC budget for 65+
• Dementia costs - £15,610/person
• Non-dementia costs - £2,880/person
Kazakhstan: Taldau Information and
Kazakhstan: Taldau Information
and Analysis System
“A distributed problem-solving and production process that involves outsourcing tasks to a network of people, also known as the crowd". Wikipedia,
Usually applies to Big Data: ‘Big data is a hot topic these days – digging through previously inaccessible data sets is allowing companies and governments to improve operations and to discover new solutions to problems.’ http://www.crowdsourcing.org/editorial/crowdsourcing-big-data-a-roadmap/24738
Open Data Now: The Secret to Hot Startups, Smart Investing, Savvy Marketing, and Fast Innovation. Citizens are not shy about sharing. Globally, they generate 500 million tweets and 6 billion Facebook “likes” a day. https://www.informatica.com/potential-at-work/crowdsourced-data-can-you-trust-it.html#fbid=0-KB5jMLiSZ From reCAPTCHA, which allows Internet users to digitize archived copies of The New York Times, to Wikipedia’s more than 32 million pages that are written and updated by interested citizens, to apps that crowdsource real-time traffic information and restaurant recommendations from members of the public
Geo-Location: Local, Local, Local
Geolocation:The next frontier for software development may just be geolocation. Or the identification of the real-world geographic location of an object, such as a radar, mobile phone or an Internet-connected computer terminal. (November 2012) http://www.cio.com/article/721854/How_Mobile_Apps_Developers_Can_Best_Target_Geolocation
Nearly 60 percent of smartphone users employ apps that access their location data (April 2012) http://www.cio.com/article/703411/Study_Geolocation_Apps_Draw_Users_Despite_Privacy_Concerns
Local Live – ‘Whilst the internet has for years been about reaching out beyond virtual and real borders, our smartphones are the key to unlocking local opportunities, experiences and information’ - http://www.gstatic.com/ads/research/en/2011_Advanced_Global_Mobile_Trends.pdf
Data management tools have come a long way in helping crowdsourced data fit into data warehouse and business intelligence environments. Marketing efforts have shifted in parallel from attempting to harness this valuable information to assessing its quality and authenticity. , the crowdsourced business review website: When they discovered businesses were trying to hire people to write positive reviews, Yelp had employees respond to several of the ads. When the culprits were identified, Yelp placed a “Consumer Alert” icon next to each business that had offered to pay for praise.
Google Maps: Since 2005/6 – access to user-friendly web based spatial information portals has increased dramatically Google Earth and Google Maps is probably the most significant development in access to spatial information for the public Google Public Data Directory: This site provides a 14 page-long list that directs you to national and supranational statistics portals (e.g. UK’s Office of National Statistics, EU’s Eurostat), as well as those belonging to the international institutions like World Bank and IMF. There aren’t any links to Open Data (or public data 2.0) as we understand it for Citadel. So it’s a good place to look for global rankings and statistics on things like unemployment and green-house gas emissions, but doesn’t have location-based data like public libraries or vaccination facilities. Google Open Data ToolKit: This site provides an interesting set of tools designed primarily for organisations working in the developing countries. The basic idea behind it is to make survey data easy to collect and process. Questionnaires are completed using a mobile device and sent to a server which aggregates all of the incoming information. You can then display this data in a spreadsheet or on a map (where each marker corresponds to one form). One other interesting feature of this toolkit is that it allows users/respondents to send attachments (e.g. pictures) together with the form/questionnaire. Opendatakit outperforms Citadel in sophistication and take-up, but its raison d’etre is different from ours, so we are not competing in the same league. Open Streetmaps & Wikimapia: Wikimapia in modelled on the Wikipedia and is dedicated to describing the world Any Web user is able to focus on any part of the world at any scale using a Google Maps interface, identify a feature by outlining its footprint, and provide descriptive information that may include a name, links to other information sources, text, and imagery . Wikimapia at present provides over 12 million descriptions of features ranging from whole continents to individual houses or features
Non-geographic/spatial users supplying data Large variations in quality Greater level of subjectivity Multiple entries Possible IP issues Possible legal issues Existing data standards may need to be reviewed
The origin of today’s National Weather Service actually tracks back to a crowdsourcing project led by the Smithsonian Institution more than 150 years ago, enlisting volunteers from across the country to submit weather observations to Washington via telegraph.
Crowdsourcing roadside maintenance isn’t just cool. Increasingly, projects like Street Bump are resulting in substantial savings — and better government.
A recent Challenge led by NASA spurred over 2,000 new proposals for software algorithms to make solar panels on the International Space Station more efficient. http://www.wired.com/2014/04/people-people-crowdsourcing-improve-government/
“One government initiative that has been exploring the potential of crowds to analyze and make sense of big data is CI-BER (CyberInfrastructure for Billions of Electronic Records). The program was first started in 2010, as part of a research agreement among the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, National Archives and Records Administration, and the National Science Foundation. CI-BER proposes a process of co-creation, in which the community is actively involved in most or all steps of crowdsourcing,” she writes. “We refer to this as citizen-led crowdsourcing… Our citizen-led focus puts civically engaged community members at the forefront and indicates that the focus is on the community engaging the archive with control resting on their shoulders.” CI-BER’s citizen-led model is an interesting approach to government use of crowdsourcing. Putting projects in the hands of the crowd can be an effective way to tackle problems to which citizens feel particularly connected, as is clearly the case among Asheville’s residents. Grant writes that a community member who is helping to lead the project recognized her childhood home in one of the photographs provided in the data set – that sort of emotional bond can be a strong impetus for members of the crowd to participate. http://www.crowdsourcing.org/editorial/crowdsourcing-big-data-a-roadmap/2473
Gather data Check data Use data
The balance of care between institutional-based care, such as hospitals or care homes, and community-based, such as community nursing or home care, has remained steady between 2010/11 and 2013/14, at approximately 65% institutional : 35% community
In 2013/14 the total health and social care expenditure on people aged over 65 was £4.8bn. 50% (£2.4bn) was spent within a hospital setting, and about one third of the total (£1.45bn) was accounted for by unplanned admissions to hospital.
Working on integration of this system with National open data portal so developers can reach the data and develop interesting apps analyzing the ageing data issues