Developing a quality culture presentation [autosaved]
Quality culture is the pattern of human habits,beliefs, values and behavior concerningquality.By Dr/ Fadila Amer Dr/ Youmna Motea
Technology and culture An organization is the integration of two major systems:1-TheTechnical system (touches the head)2-The Social system ( touches the heart)So to become superior in quality, we must pursue two courses of action :1-Develop technologies that meets customer needs2-stimulate a ‘culture’ throughout the organization that continually viewsquality as a primary goal.Wouldn’t it be great if we could Identify techniques for creating a qualityculture?
Theories of Motivation (cont’)Two types of motivation have been identified:Extrinsic motivation .The satisfaction of either material or psychological needs that are applied byothers or the organization through pre- action incentive or post- actionreward.Intrinsic motivation.the qualities of work’ itself or the relationships, events, or situations thatsatisfy basic situational needs ( achievement, power, affiliation,autonomy, responsibility , creativity, and self- actualization) in a self-rewarding process.
Management Theories , Styles and ToolsTheories of Motivation (cont’)How Human behavior respond to various stimuli ?Behavioral theory is the background of Motivation theories :Two landmark theories related to the motivation are:1- MASLOW Hierarchy of Human needs. By Ibraham Maslow.2- Two factor theory ( satisfaction and dissatisfaction) by Frederick herzberg 1959
Motivation is the drive to achieve a goal or follow a particularcourse of action. Unmotivated employees will most likely notperform as well as motivated employees. The hierarchy-of-needstheory is the theory of motivation that hold people are motivated bya hierarchical series of unmet needs
Two factor theory ( satisfaction and dissatisfaction)by Frederick herzberg 1959It indicates that satisfaction and dissatisfaction are not oppositeJob dissatisfaction is a result of specific dislikes :Example: the pay is low, the working condition is poor (hygienic factor)it’s possible to eliminate these dislikes-raise the pay, change the workingcondition.In contrast job satisfaction depends on the what the work does ,Satisfaction comes from doing – Motivation comes from factors such asjob challenges , opportunities for creativity .To illustrate: -- An assembly line worker -- Research way
Behavioral Theory( theory X versus theory y)by Douglas McGregor,1985Controversy about whether the change is in the worker or in the work ?Theory X is a negative view of human nature, assuming that most employeesare lazy, uncooperative therefore, managers should motivate them throughskillful use of incentives and penalties.Theory y is a positive view,There has been no change in human nature . What has changed is the way inwhich work is organized( create a new job conditions )Believing that employees want to work and will seek responsibilities that cansolve organizational problems and personal growth.It is common to find, even within the same organization some managers whosupport theory X and others who support theory y.
Theory z by william ouchi’sJapanese style of managementCharacterized by long- term employment, slow promotions, considerable jobrotation, consensus-style decision making, and concern for the employee as awhole.Theory Z organizations have consistent cultures in which relationships areegalitarian and based on trust ,organizational goals, are obvious and areintegrated into individuals’ belief system, so self-direction is dominant
Theories of Motivation (cont’)Motivational theories related to rewards:Equity theory. (McCelland) Job motivation depends on how equitable theperson believes the rewards( or punishment) to be.Expectancy theory. ( Victor Vroom) What people do is based on what theyexpect to gain from the activity.Reinforcement theory( B.F. Skinner) What people do depends on whattriggers a behavior initially( the antecedent) and the consequences that have inpast resulted from such behavior, or the consequences the performer believeswill happen as a result of a behavior.
Kurt lewin model for understanding change unfreezing movement freezingTypical reasons for resistance Future Changes process state -Like the current -don’t like change -future states condition. -poorly comm- Unknown. -indicates time Unicated. -Fair of failure. Is wrong. -wrong people, -additional -poor history Method,timing. Workload. of change.
Does the design of the organization have an impacton culture ? Juran lists five steps for changing to a quality culture : 1-Create and maintain an awareness of quality 2-Provide evidence of management leadership on quality 3-Provide for self development and empowerment 4-Provide participation as a means of inspiring action 5-Provide recognition and rewards
Corporate Cultures Corporate culture is the way people do things in an organisation. It is a set of norms comprising of beliefs, attitudes, core values and behavioural patterns shared by people in an organisation It is these shared beliefs, core values and patterns of behaviour which influence the performance of an organisation. Beliefs are the assumptions or perceptions about things, which people and the organisation as a whole take as true or valid. For example, an organisation may have a shared belief about the great potential of its people. Core values are the primary or dominant values that are accepted throughout the organisation, e.g. the core value of respect. A pattern of behaviour is the way people act towards one another. For instance, an organisation that has the belief in the potential of its people and has the core value of respect will have the desired pattern of behaviour of treating people well.
Corporate CulturesMiletich 1997 describes how honey well space systemsidentified 7 dimensions of organizational culture and thendeveloped a process for changing the culture.The 7 dimensions of culture are: •• Risk orientation• Relationship of people• Information• Leadership• organizational structure• organizational focus• motivation
Organizational change curveAccelerating change and increasing its likelihoodof success
The Change Curve model describes the four stages most people go through asthey adjust to change.
With knowledge of the Change Curve, you can plan how youll minimize thenegative impact of the change and help people adapt more quickly to it. Youaim is to make the curve shallower and narrower,
Quality culture is an integral part of corporate culture. There are two different quality culture: 1.Negative quality culture(hide the scaro scenario 2.Positive quality culture(climb the ladder scenario) knowing the quality culture enables us to implement a strategy in away that encourages people to embrace the quality strategy and make it successful.
HOW TO CHANGE QUALITYYCULTURE????? Provide quality goals and measurements at all levels. Provide evidence of upper management leadership. Provide for self development and empowerment. Provide participation as a mean of inspiring action. Provide recognition and rewards.
provide quality goals and measurments at all levelsClear quality goals for individuals are important stimuli for inspiring superiority in quality.There are two different commitments:1.external commitment management defines the goals for employees and task required to achive those goals.2.internal commitment management and employees jointly define the goals and the employees define the task to achieve the goals.
Provide quality goals and measurments at all levels contIn this process we develop quality goals and measurements that are alignedwith mission ,critical success factors ,and quality strategy of theorganization.
Quality measurements as a continuous focus The message on quality must be sustained through continuous reinforcement .one form of reinforcement is quality measurement. Quality measurement is proposed for major functional activities i.e., product development ,purchasing , manufacturing ,marketing ,and customer service ,and administrative and support operations. These measurements become the vital signs that provide people with data not only to perform their tasks but also to maintain a continuing awareness of quality .
Quality as a continuous focus measurementsUnits of measure must be carefully defined to inspire a positive priority for quality.An example that does just the opposite is a poorly defined measure of productivity are usually a ratio of product output to input resources. Some companies calculate productivity using total output (instead of output meeting specifications)divided by input resources. Although total out put must be must be measured, a single productivity measure based only on total output sends a clear message that meeting goals and specifications is not important .Changing such deadly measures to count only good output provides continuing evidence that management sets a high priority on quality.
Provide Evidence Of Management Leadership Management commitment is necessary but it is not sufficient . Upper management must initiate and support a vision of total quality culture. An evidence of leadership is that upper management spends time on quality- related activities. Some upper management groups have chosen to be highly visible in the quality process by leading quality training. Managers at a variety of levels personally conduct some of managerial training for their subordinates. Upper Management Quality Improvement TeamIs a further form of evidence, in which each team consisting solely of upper management members, addresses a problem that requires attention at its level.
Provide for self-development and empowerment THE TAILOR SYSTEM Is based on the scientific analysis of work using knowledge and experimentation. The design of work with the concept of (self control)
HistoryFrederick W . Taylor was a mechanical engineer ,who concluded from hisexperience that the supervisors and workers lacked the education to make variousessential decisions.Taylors remedy was to separate planning from execution.Mean while, Taylors premise -lack of worker education has been made obsolete bythe remarkable rise in education at all levels including the work force.Taylor system later called( scientific management ) ,became widely used anddeeply rooted at USA.
Job characteristics Why Work Redesign Should Survive1. Changing jobs changes the basic relationship between a person and his/her work. Its a powerful point of leverage to make changes in organizations. It can help build internal motivation.2. Work redesign changes behavior, and does so directly. And behavior changes can change attitudes.3. When behavior is changed though the redesign of work, it tends to stay changed. Once on-site stimuli are changed, they are likely to stay that way.4. Work redesign offers- even forces -- numerous opportunities for initiating other organizational changes.5. Work redesign, can result in orgs that rehumanize rather than dehumanize the people who work on them.
Horizontal Job Enlargement is based on the idea that increasing job range will reduce the repetitive nature of the job and thus eliminate worker boredom Job range: the number of tasks that a jobholder performs Job extension: an approach in which several oversimplified jobs are combined into a single new job Job rotation: workers switch jobs in a structured, predefined manner
Vertical Job Enrichment is an attempt to increase job depth and is based on the work of Frederick Herzberg Job depth: amount of discretion a jobholder has to choose job activities and outcomes Herzberg found that certain characteristics of the work situation influenced employee satisfaction while others affected dissatisfaction Motivator factors Hygiene factors
Job characteristic model according to Hackman and Old man
Job characteristic model according to Hack manand Old man (cont)
Self Management TeamA special form of job enlargement is applied to a groupof workers, two elements are emphasized:1.each worker is trained to have a variety of skills, permitting rotation of tasks.2.team is given formal authority to execute job - planning and supervisory tasks
Provide For Self-Development and Empowerment (cont’) Empowerment is the process of delegating decision making authority to lower levels within the organization. but empowerment goes far beyond delegation authority, it means encouraging people to take initiative and broaden their scope. it also means being supportive if mistakes are made. the concept of empowerment applies both to individuals and groups of workers. Note ,under empowerment, how essential it is for management to provide employees with information ,feedback, and means of regulating their work(self control). Empowerment requires employees to have the capability , the authority , the desire to act.
Provide For Self-development AndEmpowerment (cont’)
Provide For Self-development And Empowerment(cont’)Performance Appraisal is the process by which the organization periodically evaluates an employees behavior and accomplishments. performance appraisal that coaches employees to a higher performance level can be helpful., appraisal that is done only to rank employees for purpose of pay and advancement can be destructive.
Provide for self-development and empowerment (cont’) Selection and training selection and training of personnel have an important influence on peoples development. some organizations are now making annual investment in training of about 2 percent of sales income. at managerial level rotational assignments help to develop the individual s concern for the company as whole.
Provide participation as a means of inspiring action It is tempting to believe that, to inspire action on quality ,we must start by changing people attitudes .So we have first change peoples behavior. By personally participating in quality activities people acquire new knowledge ,See the benefit of the quality disciplines ,and obtain a sense of accomplishment by solving the problems .This participation leads to lasting changes in behavior.
Provide recognition and rewards Recognition is public acknowledgement of superior performance of specific activities. forms of recognition range from a simple verbal message for a job well done to modest or Token awards(saving a bond ,time off ,a dinner) or intangible(sending a letter of praise ,sending an employee to a seminar or conference) Rewards are benefits e.g. salary increases ,bonuses, and promotions that are conferred for generally superior performance against goals. Forms of rewards may include changes in base pay, merit increases, skill based wages ,stock plans.