Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Systematic Review

A systematic review uses systematic and explicit methods to identify, select, critically appraise, and extract and analyze data from relevant research [Higgins & Green 2011].

Related Books

Free with a 30 day trial from Scribd

See all
  • Be the first to comment

Systematic Review

  1. 1. Search Strategy SYSTEMATIC REVIEWS: INFORMATION SKILLS COURSE
  2. 2. Outline / content 1) Introduction 2) Planning The Search Process - Sources of Systematic Review 3) Constructing the Search Strategies - Structure of the Search Strategy 4) Managing Your Search Result 5) Demonstration/Practical (How to Search Systematic Reviews in The Cochrane Library, EBSCOhost & OVID)
  3. 3. Learning Outcomes / Objectives : At the end of this session, you will be able to: • Describe the purpose of a systematic review • Select databases that can be used to do comprehensive searching using Boolean and truncation searching • Use PICOS technique to develop literature search strategies • Manage the searching results using Reference Manager
  4. 4. 1. Introduction Definition of Systematic Review: Cochrane Collaboration definition: A systematic review uses systematic and explicit methods to identify, select, critically appraise, and extract and analyze data from relevant research [Higgins & Green 2011]. They involve a systematic search process to locate studies which address a particular research question, as well as a systematic presentation and synthesis of the characteristics and findings of the results of this search.
  5. 5. Why we need systematic reviews • Minimise the impact of bias/errors • Can help to end confusion • Highlight where there is not sufficient evidence • Combining findings from different studies can highlight new findings • Can mitigate the need for further trials
  6. 6. Sources of Systematic Review 1. Bibliographic databases Type of database Description Database 1. Bibliographic Databases A database of bibliographic records, an organized digital collection of references to published literature, including journal and newspaper articles, conference proceedings, reports, government and legal publications, patents, books, etc. CENTRAL (Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials) MEDLINE EMBASE Trip Database Scopus Web of Science 2. Other sources Subject specific databases/ Evidence- based database CINAHL PsycINFO UpToDate 3. Unpublished and ongoing studies Unpublished works are those which have not been distributed in any manner. ClinicalTrials.gov, WHO ICTRP (International Clinical Trials Registry Platform)
  7. 7. Sources of Systematic Review 1. Bibliographic databases Database URL Topic Coverage Pubmed http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed Biology, Medical & Health Sciences MEDLINE PubMed/OVID/EBSCOhost Access via PPUKM Library Portal http://lib.hukm.ukm.my Biology, Medical & Health Sciences The Cochrane Library (CENTRAL) http://www.cochranelibrary.com Databases of systematic reviews & other evidence synthesis. Trip Database http://www.tripdatabase.com Evidence-based healthcare resources
  8. 8. Database URL Topic Coverage Scopus www.scopus.com/scopus/home .url Life Sciences ; health Sciences Web of Sciences isiknowledge.com Science Citations Index EMBASE http://www.embase.com Biomedical ; emphases on drugs and pharmaceutical. Health sciences database with a slightly European perspective but overlaps with PubMed. Especially strong for drug information Sources of Systematic Review 1. Bibliographic databases
  9. 9. Sources of Systematic Review 2. Other sources Database URL Topic Coverage UpToDate https://www.uptodate.com/ (UpToDate Anywhere. Apps is available for Android and iOS) Access via PPUKM Library Portal http://lib.hukm.ukm.my Evidence-based point of care BMJ Best Practice http://bestpractice.bmj.com/ Clinical decision support CINAHL EBSCOhost Medical (http://search.ebscohost.com) Nursing & Allied Health Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature. PsycINFO EBSCOhost Medical (http://search.ebscohost.com) Psychological literature Mental health citation database.
  10. 10. Sources of Systematic Review OTHER BIBLIOGRAPHIC DATABASES:  national and regional databases eg: KoreaMed, LILACS  subject specific databases eg: AMED, PsyINFO  dissertation databases eg: Dissertations & Theses  grey literature databases eg: openGrey, NTIS
  11. 11. Sources of Systematic Review UNPUBLISHED AND ONGOING STUDIES:  very important to minimise bias  trials registers  national and international - ClinicalTrials.gov, WHO ICTRP  subject-specific  Pharmaceutical industry  Regulatory agencies (eg: FDA, EMA)  contact colleagues, organisations, other known researchers
  12. 12. Structure of the Search Strategy P I C O S Patient, Population or Problem Intervention or exposure Comparison Outcome Study Design What are the characteristics of the patient or population? What is the condition or disease you are interested in? What do you want to do with this patient (e.g. treat, diagnose, observe)? What is the alternative to the intervention (e.g. placebo, different drug, surgery)? What are the relevant outcomes (e.g. morbidity, death, complications)?  Meta analysis  Systematic Review  Randomized Control trials 2. Constructing the Search Strategies
  13. 13. Example of a clinical question that outlines the PICOS components: Helmets for preventing head and facial injuries in cyclists P I C O S Patient, Population or Problem Intervention or exposure Comparison Outcome Study Design ? ? ? • To find 2 or 3 most important concepts • Focus on those most likely to be found in title and abstract Structure of the Search Strategy
  14. 14. P I C O S Patient, Population or Problem Intervention or exposure Comparison Outcome Study Design Cyclists Helmets Systematic review Helmets for preventing head and facial injuries in cyclists
  15. 15. Broadening search term/keyword 1. Aim for high sensitivity - express each concept in as many way as possible - minimise the risk of missing a relevant study - will lead to lower precision – find a balance 2. Use both text words and controlled vocabulary 3. Preliminary searching may help your test strategy 4. Strategies must be translated for every database or interface
  16. 16. Text words  Words appearing in title and/or abstract of the record  Include synonyms, related terms, opposites, international terms, alternative spellings, plurals e.g. brain injury, head injury, skull fracture  Truncation and wildcards: * $ ? - protect* = protects, protective, protection - but beware: car* = cars (but also carcinoma)  Proximity operators – NEAR, NEXT, ADJ e.g. liver ADJ3 cancer = liver cancer, liver and bowel cancer  Syntax must be translated for each interface
  17. 17. Controlled vocabulary  Standardised subject terms assigned by indexes - e.g. Medline = MeSH, Embase = EMTREE - identifies relevant articles even if different terms are used for the same concept - ‘explode’ to include all narrower terms - caution – indexers may not be subject experts, and authors may not describe their study very well  Check the terms applied to relevant papers for ideas  Use database tools to map words to subject terms  Controlled vocabulary must be translated for each database
  18. 18. Controlled vocabulary
  19. 19. Controlled vocabulary MeSH Tree Structures
  20. 20. Boolean Operators OR – to expand search bicycle helmetbicycle helmet AND – to narrow search
  21. 21. Combining terms Population bicycl* OR cycling OR cyclist* OR bicycling Intervention helmet* OR Head Protective Devices Study design See Cochrane HSSS AND AND
  22. 22. Limit & restrictions  To avoid bias, do not limit by: • language – ask your research group about translation • year – unless there is a clear point of change or availability) • format – may be additional information about a study in letters
  23. 23. 4. Managing your search results  Store results from each source • download all available fields for each record • use bibliographic/reference management software - e.g. EndNote, Mendeley, ProCite, Reference Manager, RefWorks, Zotero  Collate and de-duplicate
  24. 24. 5. Demonstration/Practical (How to Search Systematic Reviews in The Cochrane Library, EBSCOhost & OVID)
  25. 25. Caffeine for daytime drowsiness
  26. 26. Searching for studies in The Cochrane Library 1. Open a web browser and go to www.thecochranelibrary.com
  27. 27. 2. Click on Advanced Search. This will open the Advanced Search page.
  28. 28. 2. Click on Advanced Search. This will open the Advanced Search page.
  29. 29. 3. The Population for this review is people with drowsiness. In the first row of the search field, enter drows*. This truncation will find words such as drowsy and drowsiness. Select Title, Abstract or Keyword Click Go
  30. 30. Medline in EBSCOhost Medical http://lib.hukm.ukm.my
  31. 31. Medline in EBSCOhost Medical MEDLINE Complete provides authoritative medical information on medicine, nursing, dentistry, veterinary medicine, the health care system, pre-clinical sciences, and much more.
  32. 32. Medline in EBSCOhost Medical
  33. 33. Medline in EBSCOhost Medical MEDLINE Complete provides authoritative medical information on medicine, nursing, dentistry, veterinary medicine, the health care system, pre-clinical sciences, and much more.
  34. 34. Medline in OVID http://lib.hukm.ukm.my
  35. 35. Medline in OVID
  36. 36. Medline in OVID
  37. 37. PubMed/Medline https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/
  38. 38. PubMed/Medline
  39. 39. PubMed/Medline
  40. 40. PubMed/Medline
  41. 41. Medline in EBSCOhost Medical
  42. 42. Topic : Effectiveness of complementary therapy in helping to stop people smoking Concepts Complimentary therapy, smoking Databases : CDSR, DARE, CENTRAL Platform : The Cochrane Library Demonstration / Practical :
  43. 43. http://lib.hukm.ukm.my Cochrane Library
  44. 44. MeSH in The Cochrane Library

×