Appreciative Speech in Supervision Practices

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Appreciative Speech in Supervision Practices

  1. 1. Ana  CARAS-­‐  Research  assistant  at  the  Lumen  Research  Center  in  Social  Humanis6c  Sciences,  Iasi,  PhD  candidate,  Faculty  of  Philosophy  and  Social   Poli6cs  Sciences,  Univ.  Al.  Ioan  Cuza,  Iasi,  Romania   Lumen  Research  Center  in  Social  and   1   Humanis6c  Sciences  
  2. 2.      I. Introduc6on    II. Apprecia6ve  inquiry    III. Supervision  –  review    IV. Methodology    • The  target  group  of  research• Grounded  Theory            • Addi6onal  phase  of  Grounded  Theory  -­‐  Semio6cs  grid  based  on  4D  cycle  V. Data  analysis    • Analysis  of  the  categories  constructed  aOer  the  apprecia6ve  referen6al  • Theore6cal  genera6on  by  rela6ng  the  categories    VI. Conclusions       Lumen  Research  Center  in  Social  and   2   Humanis6c  Sciences  
  3. 3. •  We  tried  to  iden6fy  elements  of  apprecia(ve  thinking,  analyzing  both  the   supervisee  speech  and  that  of  the  supervisor,  approaching  in  an   innova6ve  model  of  apprecia6ve  inquiry,  known  as  4D.    Key  ques(ons:    •  Is  the  supervisor-­‐supervisee  rela6onship  seen  in  a  posi6ve  view,  in  terms   of  apprecia6veness  by  specialists?      •  How  does  this  approach  influence  the  organiza6onal  effec6veness  and     professional  and  personal  development  of  specialists?   Lumen  Research  Center  in  Social  and   3   Humanis6c  Sciences  
  4. 4. •  Apprecia6ve  inquiry  is  presented  as  a  mode  of  ac6on-­‐research  that  meets   the  criteria  of  science  as  spelled  out  in  genera6ve-­‐theore6cal  terms,  a   coopera6ve  search  for  the  best  in  people,  their  organiza6ons,  and  the   world  around  them  (Cooperrider  and  Srivatsva,1987)  and  involves   systema6c  discover  of  what  gives  a  system  ‘life’  when  it  is  most  effec6ve   and  capable  in  economic,  ecological  and  human  terms.(Cooperrider,   Whitney,  2005).         Lumen  Research  Center  in  Social  and   4   Humanis6c  Sciences  
  5. 5. •  In  literature  there  are  many  defini6ons  of  supervision,  which  is   understood      as  an  educa6onal  process  (Robinson,  1949),  administra6ve   (Barker,  1995)  suppor6ng  the  professionals,  the  quality  of  service,  making   decisions  for  the  organiza6on,  promo6ng  direc6ons,  rules  and  values  by     guiding  employees  (Cojocaru,  2005).  From  the  perspec6ve  of  Kadushin,   supervisors  were  considered  as  trainers,  consultants,  therapists,  managers   and  even  directors  (Kadushin,  1976).       Lumen  Research  Center  in  Social  and   5   Humanis6c  Sciences  
  6. 6. •  The  target  group  of  research-­‐  the  employees  of  a  NGO  in  child  protec6on   in  the  North  East  region  of  Romania.  There  are  4  interviewees:  three   specialists  in  social  work  supervised  in  professional  ac6vity  and  the  direct     supervisor  of  the  organiza6on.                 Lumen  Research  Center  in  Social  and   6   Humanis6c  Sciences  
  7. 7.  • If  Grounded  Theory  (Strauss  and  Corbin,  1990;  2007,  Goulding,  1999)  is  characterized  by  building  categories  induc6ve  and  follows  the  gradual  construc6on  of  progressive  induc6ve  coding,  through  secondary  analysis  we  achieved  in  fact  an  addi6onal  induc6on  represented  through  apprecia6ve  discourse  analysis.    • Grounded  Theory  provides  a  systema6c  method  involving  several  stages,    which  is  used  to  generate  the  theory  or  relates  to  a  reality  of  the  phenomenon  (Scoj,  1996).       Lumen  Research  Center  in  Social  and   7   Humanis6c  Sciences  
  8. 8. •  The  apprecia6ve  speech  selected  is  iden6fied  as  the  construc6ve  terms  of   co-­‐crea(on,  co-­‐transforma(on,  vision,  focus  on  results,  development.   Apprecia6ve  discourse  analysis  aims  to  iden6fy  only  those  co-­‐transformer   elements  that  come  in  direct  contact  with  apprecia6veness,  our  lecture   being  an  apprecia6ve  one.  It  is  necessary  to  illustrate  through  en  vivo  the     difference  between  the  analysis  specific  to  the  deficiency  paradigm  and   apprecia6ve  analysis.    I  am  always  there  with  them  and  support  them,  that’s  why  I  do  not  need  to   make  many  individual  official  sessions.  They  ask  me,  I  answer  them.  Im   not  a  person  to  relate  to  them  only  through  appointments  (supervisor,   May  2011)   Lumen  Research  Center  in  Social  and   8   Humanis6c  Sciences  
  9. 9.    •  Through  the  apprecia6ve  induc6ve  analysis  established  from  following  a   secondary  analysis  of  data  used  in  Grounded  Theory,  were  constructed   categories  whose  features  folds  on  the  apprecia6ve  inquiry  stages  of   Discovery,  Dream,  Design  and  Des(ny.       Lumen  Research  Center  in  Social  and   9   Humanis6c  Sciences  
  10. 10. D  Phase     Categories    Discovery     •  Effects  of  supervision  perceived  in  terms  of  “what   works”     •  Co-­‐crea6on  of  professional  success    Dream     •  Foreshadowing  success  in  forming  of  supervisees   •  Supervision  func6ons  in  posi6ve  transforma6on  Design   •  Supervision  rela6onship  -­‐  co-­‐transforming  implica6ons     •  Qualita6ve  supervision  -­‐  factor  of  organiza6onal  co-­‐ transforma6on    Des6ny   •  Organiza6onal  development  –  construc6on  towards   success   •  Progress  through  transparency  of  services     Lumen  Research  Center  in  Social  and   10   Humanis6c  Sciences  
  11. 11.              1.  Effects  of  supervision  perceived  in  terms  of    “what  works”    Supervisor  helped  me  to  improve  my  work  in  social  services.  (Social  worker,  May  2011)  I  oDen  used  version  of  support,  encouragement  and  orientaFon  towards  result  and  less  towards  deficit  or  what  they  failed  to  do.  (Supervisor,  May,  2011)  Supervision  brings  benefits  through  the  fact  that:  Provides  planning,  a  real  contact  with  situaFon,  which  can  give  you  a  predicFon  on  the  evoluFon,  based  on  which  you  make  a  work  strategy.  (Supervisor,  May,  2011)    It  gives  you  a  certain  comfort  when  making  a  decision  regarding  a  case  consulFng  someone  who  knows  he  is  responsible  for  the  advice  he  gives  (Social  worker,  May  2011)       Lumen  Research  Center  in  Social  and   Humanis6c  Sciences   11  
  12. 12.  2.  Co-­‐crea(on  of  professional  success  If  I  need  guidance,  I  ask  for  it  and  it  is  provided  to  me.  (Social  worker,  May  2011)  At  first  I  was  offered  supervision  and  I  was  actually  formed  by  it  (Social  worker,  May,  2011)    The  greatest  progress  I  made  is  that  I  am  not  so  much  emoFonally  involved  in  cases  I  work  with,  something  I  learned  from  the  supervisor.  (Social  worker,  May  2011)    It  provides  me  a  balance,  always  guiding  me  (social  worker  ,  May  2011)  I  evolved,  I  improved  the  quality  of  services  and  work  with  beneficiaries  I  manage  to  perform  duFes  correctly  (social  worker  ,  May  2011)     Lumen  Research  Center  in  Social  and   12   Humanis6c  Sciences  
  13. 13.                1.Foreshadowing  success  in  forming  of  supervisees    I  am  always  there  with  them  and  support  them,  this  is  why  I  do  not  need  to  make  many  individual  official  sessions,  they  ask  me,  I  answer  them.  Im  not  a  person  to  relate  to  them  only  through  appointments  (Supervisor,  May,  2011)    On  long  term  the  supervisor  models  you  somehow,  makes  you  a  professional  over  Fme,  because  at  first  you  tend  to  be  very  subjecFve.  (Social  worker,  May  2011)                                                                                                                                                       Lumen  Research  Center  in  Social  and   13     Humanis6c  Sciences  
  14. 14.                  2.  Supervision  func(ons  in  posi(ve  transforma(on  I  oDen  used  version  of  support,  encouragement  and  orientaFon  towards  result  and  less  towards  deficit  or  what  they  failed  to  do.  (Supervisor,  May,  2011)    The  most  important  funcFon  is  the  support  and  assistance  to  achieve  the  quality  of  services  (social  worker,  May  2011)    Supervision  has  also  consulFng,  support  and  training  funcFons  over  the  social  worker.  (Social  worker  May  2011)    Supervision  funcFons  that  have  been  implemented  here  would  be  the  emoFonal  support,  technical  support,  sustentaFon  (supervisor,  May  2011)     Lumen  Research  Center  in  Social  and   Humanis6c  Sciences   14  
  15. 15.    1.  Supervision  rela(onship  -­‐  co-­‐transforming  implica(ons  In  the  individual  discussion  with  the  supervisor  all  aspects  are  clarifying:  a  performance  improvement  plan  of  the  supervisee  is  made,  supervisee  is  informed  about  the  situaFons  in  which  he  has  coped  successfully  and  the  achievements  during  the  year  are  presented  to  him  (Social  worker,  May  2011)    Supervisor  involvement  and  the  support  I  receive  can  be  more  obvious,  "work  flows"  (Social  worker,  May  2011)    Working  with  supervisor  helped  me  a  lot.  (Social  worker,  May  2011)                    I  know  which  are  the  steps  of  supervision  their  needs,  and  so  on,  and  I  adapt  them  according  to  what  everyone  has  to  do  (supervisor,  May      2011)   Lumen  Research  Center  in  Social  and   15     Humanis6c  Sciences  
  16. 16. 1.  Supervision  rela0onship  -­‐  co-­‐transforming  implica0ons  When  your  supervisor  has  a  superior  experience  certainly  he  can  offer  you  the  feedback  you  need.  (Social  worker,  May  2011)    The  compaFbility  of  supervisee  with  the  supervisor  is  oDen  a  maUer  of  morality,  and  is  given  by  their  capacity  to  adapt  in  situaFons  in  which  they  are  set.  (Social  worker,  May  2011)    Being  few,  we  communicate  very  effecFvely  and  oDen,  thus  we  manage  to  make  our  problems  or  complaints  known  in  relaFon  to  the  one  next  to  you,  professionally  speaking.  (Social  worker,  May  2011)       Lumen  Research  Center  in  Social  and   16   Humanis6c  Sciences  
  17. 17.                  2.  Qualita(ve  Supervision  -­‐  factor  of  organiza(onal  co-­‐transforma(on  I  have  always  supported  their  opening,  to  announce  in  advance  their  problem,  and  this  is  not  part  of  the  dead  line  -­‐  this  is  vital,  for  example,  discussing  the  reason  why  work  is  not  going,  in  order  to  help  him  solve  the  situaFon.  (Supervisor,  May  2011)    I  emphasized  more  appreciaFve  result  than  the  correcFve  one.  (Supervisor,  May  2011)    It  helps  to  keep  the  quality  of  services  we  offer  to  clients  (Social  worker,  May  2011)  Now,  through  the  influence  of  supervised  work,  I  became  a  professional  (social  worker,  May  2011)     Lumen  Research  Center  in  Social  and   17   Humanis6c  Sciences    
  18. 18.    1.  Organiza(onal  Development  –  construc(on  towards  success    I  evolved,  I  improved  the  quality  of  my  services  and  the  work  with  beneficiaries,  and  I  manage  to  perform  tasks  correctly  (Social  worker,  May  2011)    social  worker  must  turn  to  him  first  before  turning    and  reporFng    towards  the  client.  (Social  worker,  May  2011)    I  manage  to  perform  tasks  properly,  for  example  (Social  worker,  May,  2011)                        I  manage  to  make  the  difference  between  the  work  under  the  influence  of  personal  emoFons  and  the  professional  work.  (Social  worker,  May  2011)    The  supervisor  is  the  person  who  offers  a  unitary  character  in  the  organizaFon  work,  meaning  we  all  go  in  the  same  line,  he  draws  a  specific  direcFon  in  working  with  beneficiaries,  with  the  establishment  of  a  certain  type  of  beneficiaries  to  whom  we  provide  our  services  in  a  qualitaFve  way.  (Social  worker,  May  2011)     Lumen  Research  Center  in  Social  and   18   Humanis6c  Sciences  
  19. 19.              2.  Progress  through  transparency  of  services      The  purpose  of  our  acFons  is  important  and  shows  us  that  we  operate  correctly  and  qualitaFvely.  (Social  worker,  May  2011)    Supervision  specifically  aims  as  the  social  worker  to  provide  quality  services  to  beneficiaries.  (Social  worker,  May  2011)    The  performances  of  the  organizaFon  are  in  relaFon  with  the  quality  of  supervision,  because  if  you  have  no  quality  in  supervision,  the  services  you  provide  are  not  qualitaFve  (Social  worker,  May,  2011)            Supervision  has  a  role  in  exposing  the  organizaFon  performance;  it  shows  the  level  of  structuring  and  planning.  (Supervisor,  in  May,  2011)          The  supervisor  taught  me  that  we  are  an  organizaFon  with  a  certain  status  and  a  set  of  rules  aimed  at  our  beneficiaries’  welfare  and  that  we  must  offer  qualitaFve  services  which  reflect  our  professional  skills.  (Social  worker,  May  2011)       Lumen  Research  Center  in  Social  and   19   Humanis6c  Sciences    
  20. 20.  •  There  are  Correla6ons  between  categories  within  the  same  stages  specific  to     4D  cycle  as  well  as  between  categories  of  different  stages.  In  the  apprecia6ve   speech  iden6fied,  we  no6ced  the  common  presence  of  words:  improvement,   quality,  evoluFon,  training,  support.         EvoluFon  as  a  result  of  an  effec6ve  supervision  prac6ce  is  the  connec6ng   word  between  categories  of  the  Discovery  phase  and  can  be  analyzed  from   the  perspec6ve  of  what  goes  well  in  the  organiza6on  but  also  as  co-­‐crea6ve   component  of  professional  success.       The  support  appears  in  the  speech  placed  in  categories  from  different  stages,   Discovery  and  Dream,  and  can  be  interpreted  both  as  a  func6on  in  the   desideratum  of  posi6ve  transforma6on  but  also  as  an  already  iden6fied  strong   point  of  the  organiza6on.     Lumen  Research  Center  in  Social  and   20   Humanis6c  Sciences  
  21. 21. DISCOVERY   DREAM  • Perceived  effects  of   • Foreshadowing of success insupervision  -­‐    what  works   forming the supervisees  • Co-creation of professional • Supervision functions insuccess   positive transformation  DESTINY   DESIGN  • Organizational Development - • Supervision relationship, co-construction towards success   transforming implications   • Qualitative supervision -• Progress through service organizational co-tranformationtransparency.   factor       Lumen  Research  Center  in  Social  and   21   Humanis6c  Sciences  
  22. 22.  In  analysis  of  this  model  we  iden6fied  a  set  of  features:  • Cyclical  is  characteris6c  to  apprecia6ve  discursive  model  in  supervision.  Subjects  perceive  the  process  as  developing,  expressed  in  terms  of  gradual  co-­‐transforma(on  and  co-­‐crea(on,  fact  observed  in  the  presence  of  specific  terms  within  component  categories  of  the  stages,  in  different  temporal  forms.  Common  pajern  of  stages,  the  development,  can  be  modified  depending  on  the  6me  of  its  iden6fica6on  or  awareness.  Apprecia6ve  language  exposes  the  supervision  process  as  the  catalyst  of  organiza(onal  development.    • Another  feature  of  the  model  is  the  recurrent  of  common  discursive  paKern,  namely  the  co-­‐construc(on  of  excellence  and  professional  success  through  the  supervision.    • A  central  posi(on  was  iden6fied  in  the  speech,  regarding  the  supervisor-­‐supervise  rela6onship  which  is  seen  as  a  partnership  with  co-­‐transforming  implica(ons.   Lumen  Research  Center  in  Social  and   22   Humanis6c  Sciences  
  23. 23. Please  contact  me  at  annacriss20@yahoo.com     Lumen  Research  Center  in  Social  and   23   Humanis6c  Sciences  

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