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ASSESSING GENDER ROLES AND
ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS
DURING OIL CROP PRODUCTION
IN LARE, NAKURU, KENYA
By:
Z. Nyakwara¹; M. ...
2
Presentation Outlineo Introduction
o Statement of the Problem
o Study Objectives
o Research Questions
o Conceptual Frame...
3
Introduction
Governments’ MDGs, 2000, focused on strategies
aimed at transforming subsistence agriculture to
market-orie...
4
Statement of the problem
In collaboration, (KARI, MoA, FSK and Egerton,
1990) undertook an integrated successful pilot
p...
5
Study ObjectivesBroad Objective
 To assess gender roles and environmental impacts in
Lare, Nakuru Kenya
Specific Object...
6
Research Questions
 What roles do male and female small holder farmers play
during oil crop production?
 Do female and...
7
Figure 1: Conceptual Framework
Intervening Variables
Independent Variables
Dependent Variables
-Health (human/
farmers)
...
8
MethodologyStudy Area
 The study was conducted in Lare division, Njoro
District, Nakuru County, Kenya.
 Average annual...
9
Study Area
9
Source: KARI, 2006Figure 2: Map of Kenya and Lare Division
10
Methodology Cont’d..Study Design
− The study was done in the four sub-divisions:
Bagaria, Lare, Naishi and Gichobo betw...
11
Sample Size Calculations
Sample size of 180 HH from 330 households
`n =` N
`1+N(e²) ; where;
n` = sample size
N = popul...
12
Methodology Cont’d..
Data Collection
 Use of a structured questionnaire
 Secondary data.. Example: KARI, 2007; MOA,
2...
13
Results and Discussions Gender Labor Analysis
 180 HH surveyed: 48% (n=87) male, 52% (n=93)
female farmers.
− Women a...
15
Results and Discussions Cont’d..
Gender
Land Tenure
Frequency %
Farming
Experience and
Age cluster
Owned Hired
Male 174...
16
Results and Discussions Cont’d..
 Decision Making
 Male autonomous decision makers.
 Land, labor availability and fi...
17
Results and Discussions Cont’d.. Extension advice
 68% of the respondents sought for advice
on environmental risks in...
18
Education level by Gender
19
Comparison of Gender roles in Oil Crop & other crops
Activity
Subsistence Crops Oil Crops
Maize, Potatoes, beans Sunflo...
20
Results and Discussions Cont’d.. Access and Control of resource and
benefits
 In this study, women’s access to, and u...
21
Results and Discussion Cont’d.. Pesticide Use, potential
environmental risks and
health in oil crop
production
- Male ...
22
Results and Discussions Cont’d..Awareness on Environmental and
Gender Policies in Lare Division
Gender Aware Not Aware ...
23
Conclusions and RecommendationsConclusion
 It can be concluded that oil crop production
was a gender based enterprise....
24
Conclusion Cont’d..
 It was also concluded that both male and female
small scale farmers need individual gendered
offi...
25
Recommendations
 There is need of approaching both wo­men
differently during farming production of any
enterprises.
 ...
26
Recommendations Cont’d…
 It is critical that commodity-specific gender
analyses be carried out at the very beginning o...
27
Acknowledgement
 KARI / Egerton University (MoU)
 (KAPAP) for funding this study through
Director, (KALRO);
 Agricul...
28
THANK YOU!!
Nyakwara
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Nyakwara

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Nyakwara

  1. 1. 1 ASSESSING GENDER ROLES AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS DURING OIL CROP PRODUCTION IN LARE, NAKURU, KENYA By: Z. Nyakwara¹; M. Mokua²; W. Moturi ² & G. Macharia¹ ¹ KALRO Njoro, P.O Private Bag, Njoro- 20107 ² Egerton University, P.O Box 536-20115, Egerton
  2. 2. 2 Presentation Outlineo Introduction o Statement of the Problem o Study Objectives o Research Questions o Conceptual Framework o Methodology o Study Results and Discussion o Conclusion and Recommendations o Acknowledgement 2
  3. 3. 3 Introduction Governments’ MDGs, 2000, focused on strategies aimed at transforming subsistence agriculture to market-oriented farming Oil crop sector identified as the entry point (MDG- 2001).. Oilseed contributed to food security- (KARI, 2008). Sunflower and Soya bean are widely adapted in Kenya, but with many challenges:  Socio- economic and cultural issues, lack of extension services, poor pesticide usage, and climatic changes (Okoko et al, 1998) 3
  4. 4. 4 Statement of the problem In collaboration, (KARI, MoA, FSK and Egerton, 1990) undertook an integrated successful pilot project on Soya beans and Sunflower production project; to address food security and income generation. Project soon fizzled out.. Why? Need to do…  gender disaggregated data- social- cultural…  environmental effects…  availability of policy awareness… 4
  5. 5. 5 Study ObjectivesBroad Objective  To assess gender roles and environmental impacts in Lare, Nakuru Kenya Specific Objective  To identify the gender activities carried out by small holder farmers in oil crop production.  To identify and compare the potential environmental risks by gender of cultivating oil crop  To establish farmers awareness of environmental and gender policies in Kenya 5
  6. 6. 6 Research Questions  What roles do male and female small holder farmers play during oil crop production?  Do female and male small holder farmers make joint decision regarding oil crop production or individually ?  What is the ecological and human health risks associated with production of oil crop?  Do small holder farmers seek for extension services related to oil crop production?  Are small holder farmers aware of any environmental and gender policies regarding oil crop production?
  7. 7. 7 Figure 1: Conceptual Framework Intervening Variables Independent Variables Dependent Variables -Health (human/ farmers) -Environmental policies -Gender Policies -Knowledge
  8. 8. 8 MethodologyStudy Area  The study was conducted in Lare division, Njoro District, Nakuru County, Kenya.  Average annual rainfall ranges between 600 to 1000mm and is quite erratic and unevenly distributed.  Farmers in Lare practice subsistence farming where most of their acreage of farm holding is between 1.5 to 5 acres of land.
  9. 9. 9 Study Area 9 Source: KARI, 2006Figure 2: Map of Kenya and Lare Division
  10. 10. 10 Methodology Cont’d..Study Design − The study was done in the four sub-divisions: Bagaria, Lare, Naishi and Gichobo between July and September, 2013 − This study was designed as an ex post-facto survey which combined comparative, exploratory and descriptive research skills − The study adopted Harvard’s Analytical Framework (1980) on gender based analysis and household level.
  11. 11. 11 Sample Size Calculations Sample size of 180 HH from 330 households `n =` N `1+N(e²) ; where; n` = sample size N = population size practicing oil crops = 330 E = level of precision (Sampling error) = 5% or 0.05 n` = 330 1+330(0.05²) n` = 330 1+330(0.0025) n` = 180
  12. 12. 12 Methodology Cont’d.. Data Collection  Use of a structured questionnaire  Secondary data.. Example: KARI, 2007; MOA, 2008 Data Analysis  The baseline data was analyzed by tabulating the descriptive statistics (mean, and frequencies (percentage, minimum and maximum levels of occurrence).
  13. 13. 13 Results and Discussions Gender Labor Analysis  180 HH surveyed: 48% (n=87) male, 52% (n=93) female farmers. − Women activities: land preparation, planting, weeding, harvesting and threshing (52%) − Male activities: land clearing, land preparation, selling and supervising (48%)  Example, (Mollel, 2000), found that there are distinguished different alternative patterns of households heads- need of determining ‘on’ whose responsible for what role and why..
  14. 14. 15 Results and Discussions Cont’d.. Gender Land Tenure Frequency % Farming Experience and Age cluster Owned Hired Male 174 5 96.7% 14 Years Female 6 2 3.3% 23 Years Total N=180 - 100 Both had a cluster of 45 to 56 years
  15. 15. 16 Results and Discussions Cont’d..  Decision Making  Male autonomous decision makers.  Land, labor availability and finances main roles undertaken by male farmers. For example on labor:… - 28% of male respondents delegated duties to their spouses. - 20% men shared farm work with their spouses. - 52% of female did most of the farm work alone.
  16. 16. 17 Results and Discussions Cont’d.. Extension advice  68% of the respondents sought for advice on environmental risks individually while 32% received advice during public gatherings.
  17. 17. 18 Education level by Gender
  18. 18. 19 Comparison of Gender roles in Oil Crop & other crops Activity Subsistence Crops Oil Crops Maize, Potatoes, beans Sunflower & Soya-bean Males Females Male Female Land Clearing xx xx xx xx Land preparation x xx x xx Planting xx xx x xx Fertilizing land xx x x xx Weeding x xx 0 xx Bird scaring 0 xxC 0 xxC Harvesting x xxC 0 xx Transportation xx x xx x Threshing 0 xx 0 xxC Processing x xx 0 xx Post harvesting xx xx 0 xx Marketing xx x xx 0 x = Low participation; xx = Primary Responsibility; C = children; 0= no participation
  19. 19. 20 Results and Discussions Cont’d.. Access and Control of resource and benefits  In this study, women’s access to, and use of, natural resources differed from that of men’s, as a result of the gender division of labor and land ownership  38% men had legal tenure compared to 36% women who had authority to manage. 20
  20. 20. 21 Results and Discussion Cont’d.. Pesticide Use, potential environmental risks and health in oil crop production - Male farmers did most of the spraying - Used pesticides to control weeds but did not use protective gears and disposed off used materials to pit latrines / re-used them for Η20
  21. 21. 22 Results and Discussions Cont’d..Awareness on Environmental and Gender Policies in Lare Division Gender Aware Not Aware Trainings Male: 35% 13% 65% (males ) and 5% (female)Female: 0% None 58% Women (n-93) who were main resource users; individual judgment to protect the environment. Formal education is important to increase awareness, improve extension services, sensitize people on environmental issues and build institutional capacities( World Bank, 1991)
  22. 22. 23 Conclusions and RecommendationsConclusion  It can be concluded that oil crop production was a gender based enterprise. Production activities were determined by socio- economic factors, cultural and gender of the farmer.  Male farmers were autonomous regarding decision making while female farmers did most of the production activities
  23. 23. 24 Conclusion Cont’d..  It was also concluded that both male and female small scale farmers need individual gendered official channels to reflect their individual needs and to have a voice in environmental policy decisions thus develop a strong sense of responsibility on environmental risks and issues.
  24. 24. 25 Recommendations  There is need of approaching both wo­men differently during farming production of any enterprises.  Programs directed to reduce health risks like pesticides strategies must consider the individual human gender dimensions that can avert future farming risks.
  25. 25. 26 Recommendations Cont’d…  It is critical that commodity-specific gender analyses be carried out at the very beginning of any intervention since each commodity brings with it specific challenges and opportunities.
  26. 26. 27 Acknowledgement  KARI / Egerton University (MoU)  (KAPAP) for funding this study through Director, (KALRO);  Agricultural Extension Staff, Njoro District  Lare farmers  Colleagues 27
  27. 27. 28 THANK YOU!!

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