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  1. 1. PHYSICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION ( PVD)<br />By: Ellen kay R. Cacatian<br />
  2. 2. Physical Vapor deposition<br />is a variety of vacuum deposition & is a general term used to describe any of a variety of methods to deposit thin films.<br />condensation of a vaporized form of the material onto various surfaces (semiconductorwafers).<br />Films deposited commonly directional rather than conformal.<br />The coating method involves purely physical processes such as high temperature vacuum evaporation or plasma sputter bombardment rather than involving a chemical reaction.<br />
  3. 3. Physical Vapor Deposition<br />coating technique, involving transfer of material on an atomic level. <br />It is an alternative process to electroplating.<br />Thin film processes<br />nanometers to thousands of nanometers, used to form multilayer coatings, graded composition deposits.<br />
  4. 4. Physical Vapor Deposition<br />The process is similar to (CVD) <br />Except that the raw materials/precursors of the material that is going to be deposited starts out in solid form.<br />
  5. 5. Types of Deposition:<br />Cathodic Arc Deposition: <br /> In which a high power arc discharged at the target material blasts away some into highly ionized vapor.<br />Electron beam deposition: <br /> In which the material to be deposited is heated to a high vapor pressure by electron bombardment in "high" vacuum.<br />
  6. 6. Types of Deposition:<br />Evaporative deposition:<br /> In which the material to be deposited is heated to a high vapor pressure by electrically resistive heating in "low" vacuum.<br />
  7. 7. Types of Deposition<br />Pulsed laser deposition:<br /> In which a high power laser ablates material from the target into a vapor<br />
  8. 8. Types of Deposition:<br />Sputter deposition: <br /> In which a glow plasma discharge (usually localized around the "target" by a magnet) bombards the material sputtering some away as a vapor. Here is an animation of a generic PVD sputter tool.<br />Ion beam and reactive<br />
  9. 9. How Does Physical Vapor Deposition Work?<br />Evaporation<br />Transportation <br />Reaction<br />Deposition<br />
  10. 10. Evaporation<br />During this stage, a target consisting of the material to be deposited is bombarded by a high energy source such as a beam of electrons or ions. ‘vaporizing’ them.<br />Evaporation involves two basic processes: <br />evaporates ( Evaporation)<br />Condenses (Condensation)<br />
  11. 11. Evaporation Deposition Steps:<br />Load the source material-to-be-deposited (evaporant) into the container (crucible) <br />Heat the source to high temperature<br />Source material evaporates<br />Evaporantvapor transports to and Impinges on the surface of the substrate <br />
  12. 12. Evaporation:<br />Evaporant condenses on and is adsorbed by the surface<br />Any evaporation system includes a vacuum pump. It also includes an energy source that evaporates the material to be deposited<br />
  13. 13. Transport<br />This process simply consists of the movement of ‘vaporized’ atoms from the target to the substrate to be coated and will generally be a straight line affair<br />
  14. 14. Reaction<br />In some cases coatings will consist of metal oxides, nitrides, carbides and other such materials. In these cases, the target will consist of the metal.<br /> The atoms of metal will then react with the appropriate gas during the transport stage. the reactive gases are:<br />oxygen, nitrogen and methane.<br />In instances where the coating consists of the target material alone, this step would not be part of the process.<br />
  15. 15. Deposition<br />This is the process of coating build up on the substrate surface.<br />Depending on the actual process, some reactions between target materials and the reactive gases may also take place at the substrate surface simultaneously with the deposition process.<br />
  16. 16. What is PVD Coatings Used For?<br /><ul><li>Improved hardness and wear resistance
  17. 17. Reduced friction
  18. 18. Improved oxidation resistance</li></li></ul><li> Advantages of the (PVD)<br /><ul><li>Materials can be deposited with improved properties.
  19. 19. Almost any type of inorganic material can be used as well as some kinds of organic materials.
  20. 20. The process is more environmentally friendly.</li></li></ul><li>Disadvantages of the (PVD)<br /><ul><li>It is a line of sight technique meaning that it is extremely difficult to coat undercuts and similar surface features
  21. 21. Some processes operate at high vacuums and temperatures requiring skilled operators.
  22. 22. Processes requiring large amounts of heat require appropriate cooling systems.
  23. 23. The rate of coating deposition is usually quite slow.</li></ul> <br />
  24. 24. Applications:<br />Aerospace<br />Automotive<br />Surgical/Medical<br />Dies and moulds for all manner of material processing<br />Cutting tools<br />Fire arms<br />semiconductor devices<br />aluminized PET film<br />
  25. 25. Applications<br />
  26. 26. (PVD) technique employed<br />All equipment used for coating deposition by PVD techniques, which could be termed vapour depositors.<br />evaporative - resistance, electron, laser, arc or pulsed plasma, or sputtering - diode, triode, cathode, ion, magnetron and cyclotron)<br />
  27. 27. Parts of the Evaporators<br />vacuum chamber, of rectangular or cylindrical shape or a combination of both, usually made of stainless steel and serving to place deposition heads together with their auxiliary components.<br />depositionheads (correspondingly:evaporative or sputtering) for formation and direction, with the utilization of electric and magnetic fields of ions or atoms into the ionization and crystallization zones. The latter is situated near or at the load surface<br />
  28. 28. Evaporation is commonly used in microfabrication to deposit metal films<br />Examples of PVD Evaporation Systems<br />
  29. 29. Evaporators:<br />–systems for formation and sustaining of vacuum, comprising oil and diffusion vacuum pumps. Usually, these systems are equipped with vacuum valves and instruments to measure vacuum (vacuum gauges);<br />–systems for supply of reactive gases (cylinders, valves, pressure and flow gages);<br />electrical and possibly magnetic systems supplying the heads and auxiliary electrodes and polarizing the electrodes and load.<br />
  30. 30. Evaporators:<br />–auxiliary components, e.g., for preheating of the load or for water cooling of the radiator elements;<br />–systems for fixturing and displacement (sliding, rotation) of the load,<br />comprising one or many elements, relative to the deposition head<br />
  31. 31. Schematic diagrams designs of vapour depositors for some (PVD)<br />
  32. 32. Evaporators: from Schematic diagram<br />a) Activated Reactive Evaporation (ARE); <br />b) Reactive Ion Plating (RIP); <br />c)Reactive Arc Ion Plating (RAIP); <br />d) Simple Sputtering: 1 - coated object, 2 - coating metal, 3 - electron gun, 4 - glowing cathode, 5 - sparking electrode<br />
  33. 33. Evaporators:<br />control systems, <br />usually computerized<br />Besides the computer, they comprise the optical load observation system.<br />systems for measurement of parameters of plasma, degree of ionization, of the coating process.<br />
  34. 34. Evaporators:<br />Usually the vacuum chamber, together with its equipment, constitutes a separate design subassembly. <br />Supply and control systems constitute separate subassemblies (power supply cabinet, control console). <br />
  35. 35. Schematic diagrams: frequently used(PVD) techniques<br />designs of depositors:<br /> Bias Activated Reactive Evaporation (BARE)<br /> Hollow CathodeDischarge (HCD)<br /> Arc Evaporation (AE)<br />Magnetron Sputtering (MS)<br />
  36. 36. Schematic diagrams showing techniques of magnetron sputtering<br />different designs of<br />magnetrons:<br />a) cylindrical rod<br />b) cylindrical hollow <br />c) flat<br />d) linear<br />e) conical<br /> f) sputter gun<br />
  37. 37. Coatings deposited by PVD techniques should meet the following requirements:<br />– not impair mechanical properties of the substrate (and the entire product).<br />– improve tribological, decorative and anti-corrosion properties of the product which may be exposed to different external hazards.<br />– compressive residual stresses top revail in the coating.<br />– bonds between coating and substrate, in most cases adhesive, to be strong and the force of adhesion to compensate residual stresses in the coating<br />
  38. 38. Magnetron Sputtering -MS. (1936 ) Penning<br />Ion Sputtering -IS, Ion Beam Sputter Deposition or simply Sputter Deposition. <br />The classical form of this technique consists of depositing a coating on the load by sputtering the material of the target by an ion beam<br />generated by an ion source of any design and the reaction of sputtered atoms with ions from the beam and by ionized atoms.<br />
  39. 39. Sputtering :<br />
  40. 40. PVD by Sputtering<br /> <br />is a mechanism by which atoms are dislodged from the surface of a material as a result of collision with high-energy particles. <br /> is a term used to refer to a physical vapor deposition (PVD) technique wherein atoms or molecules are ejected from a target material by high-energy particle bombardment so that the ejected atoms or molecules can condense on a substrate as a thin film.  <br />become one of the most widely used techniques for depositing various metallic films on wafers, including aluminum, aluminum alloys, platinum, gold, TiW, and tungsten. <br />
  41. 41. Sputtering:<br />DC: Sputtering<br />Sputtering process is widely used in semicondcutor industry<br />Using target as cathode and substrate as anode, pump the vaccum to 10-3 Pa, fill argon gas.<br />
  42. 42. DC Sputtering:<br />Mainly for metal film to create or modify eletrical characteristics. In optics Industry, dielectric material film is usually required.<br />The main principle is to build a vacuum chamber and fill with Argon. By adding a high voltage, the argon will arc to plasma state. <br />The argon ion (Ar +) will toward to cathode with high speed and sputter the target material (use target as cathode). The target atom or molecular will be hit to substrate surface and condense as a film<br />
  43. 43. RF Sputtering Deposition:<br />DC systems, positive charge will accumlate on the cathode (target) and need 10-12volts to sputter insulators. <br />Radio Frequency 13.5MHz was applied in DC system. With alternative characteristic, the positive charge will stay in plasma zone and not to accumulate to cathode. <br />
  44. 44. DC Sputtering<br />With alternative characteristic, the positive charge will stay in plasma zone and not to accumulate to cathode. The cathode can sustain a high voltage difference and continue the sputtering work.<br />
  45. 45. Magnetron Sputtering Deposition:<br />By adding a megnetic field in the system, the electron will move in spiral following the megnetic lineation. This will hugely increase the ionization density of argon gas and opportunity of collision. The density will be 10 ion/cm and increase to 10 -13 ion/cm<br />Therefore, the deposition rate can be increased. This system also can be applied to DC, RF, Dual cathode Sputtering methods.<br />
  46. 46. Magnetron Sputtering Deposition:<br /> It also can be applied to some substrates which can't stand for high working temperature. Most important of all, It can join into continuous production line.<br />
  47. 47. Ion Beam Sputtering Deposition (ISBD)<br />This method is newest developed and may be most important in high class optical filters.<br />It installed a isolated Ion Source in high vacuum chamber. <br />Use ion particle knock out the atom of target and let target atom through the vacuum space and deposit on substrate surface. <br />The ion particle is heavy compare to target atom. This knock will be a powerful method and can transfer a good kinematic energy to target atom particle. <br />
  48. 48. Advantages of Sputtering:<br />Large-size targets, simplifying the deposition of thins with uniform thickness over large wafers;<br />Film thickness is controlled by fixing the operating (parameters and time)<br />Control of the alloy composition, as well as other (step coverage and grain structure) <br />Device damage from X-rays generated by electron beam evaporation is avoided.<br />
  49. 49. Examples of Sputter Systems<br />
  50. 50. Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD)<br />PLD relies on a photon interaction to create an ejected plume of material from any target. <br />The vapor (plume) is collected on a substrate placed a short distance from the target. <br />Though the actual physical processes of material removal are quite complex, one can consider the ejection of material to occur due to rapid explosion of the target surface due to superheating. <br />
  51. 51. CATHODIC ARC DEPOSITION<br />The vaporized material then condenses onto a substrate, forming a thin layer. <br />Cathodic arc deposition is used for a wide range of materials: metals, ceramics and composites. <br />It has proved effective, in particular, for the deposition of hard layers, used to protect the surfaces of cutting tools.<br /> This method is also widely used to deposit DLC (diamond-like carbon) coatings.<br />
  52. 52. Equipments:<br />Sputtering<br />Typical Applications<br />Iridium Coating Capabilities<br />Sputtering<br />SEM Sample Preparation<br />TEM Sample Preparation<br />Field Emission (FE) SEM Sample Preparation<br />Powerful Control System<br />
  53. 53. Equipments:<br />Sputtering<br />Powerful Control System<br />Typical Applications<br />Materials Research<br />Product QC & QA<br />Semiconductor Failure Analysis<br />Nanotechnology<br />Compound Semiconductors<br />
  54. 54. Equipments:<br />Powerful Control System<br />Process Development<br />Hard Coatings<br />Amorphous Si<br />Optical Interference Coatings<br />Semiconductor & MEMs Interlayer Dielectric Passivation Layers<br />
  55. 55. REFERENCES:<br />Physical Vapor Deposition Sputterin;<br /><br /> date retrived: February 28 2011<br />Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) by  Sputtering<br /> ,<br /> Date retrieved: February 29 2011<br />Answers.comPhysicalVapor Deposition <br /><br />Denta vacuum Coating Technology Redefined<br /><ul><li> Physical Deposition tool</li></ul><br />
  56. 56. REFERENCES:<br /><br />Guide to Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) Coatings Applications and Uses<br /><br />Hand book of Physical Vapor Deposition<br /><br />Cathodic Deposition<br /><br />Principle of Deposition<br /><br />