Absence or non functionality of pollen in plants(C.M.Rick,1944).
Incapability of plants to produce or release functional pollen
grains although the female gametes function normally.
J.K. Koelreuter (1763) observed anther abortion within species
and species hybrids.
Jones and Emsweller (1936) identified the male sterility first in
the onion and documented its maternal inheritance and use in
hybrid seed production (Jones and Clarke, 1943).
More recently, work on male sterility has been reviewed by
Frankel and Galun(1977) and Kaul(1988).
Hybrids are the F1 progenies obtained by crossing two
genetically dissimilar parents.
Various mechanisms for developing hybrids are as follows-
Why male sterility for the development of hybrids ?
Production of large scale of F1 seeds.
Reduced cost of hybrid seed production.
Speedup the hybridization programme.
Commercial exploitation of hybrid vigour.
Features of Male Sterility
Prevents self pollination, permits cross pollination.
Leads to heterozygosity.
Female gametes function normally.
Male sterility is assayed through staining techniques
(carmine, lactophenol or iodine), while detection of female
sterility is by the absence of seeds.
In nature, occur due to spontaneous mutations.
Can be induced artificially.
Male sterility mechanisms used for development of hybrids in vegetables
Mechanism Vegetables Remark Reference
Tomato Monogenic recessive mutant was
utilized to develop cost effective
Watermelon The utilization of monogenic recessive
mutant was proposed.
Zhang et al., 1994
Male sterile plants were identified and
utilized to develop experimental
Radish The combined use of both MS and SI
mechanisms to enhance efficiency of
hybrid seed production has been
Cho et al., 1985
A monogenic recessive mutant was
identified and proposed for
Many vegetables are at the edge of
Williams et al.,
Classification of male sterility
Genetic / Nuclear male sterility
Reported in about 175 plant species (Kaul,1988).
Controlled by pair of recessive alleles “msms”, present in the
ms alleles arise spontaneously or may be artificially induced.
Inheritance of GMS
Utilization of GMS in hybrid production
1ms ms : 1Ms ms x Ms Ms
A line C line
Environment-sensitive male sterility or
“Two Line Hybrid Breeding”
These GMS line are conditional mutants.
Sensitive to temperature (TGMS) or photoperiod (PGMS).
Reported in several vegetable crops.
Vegetables Mutants References
Cabbage TGMS,PGMS Rundfeldt,1961
Brussels sprouts TGMS Niewhof,1968
Broccoli TGMS Dickson,1970
Pepper TGMS Daskalov,1972
Carrot TGMS Kaul,1988
Tomato TGMS Rick,1948;Sawhney,1983
Limitations of GMS
Because of more tedious maintenance process and non-
availability of suitable marker gene among the vegetable crops,
GMS has been utilized commercially only in chilli and
muskmelon (Shifriss,1997 ; Kalloo et al.,1998).
Rouging of male fertile plants from the female line is time
consuming and costly as a result of which the cost of hybrid
seed is higher.
Use of temperature or photo-sensitive genetic male sterile lines
(TGMS or PGMS) eliminates this problem.
Transgenic Genetic male sterility system
Cytoplasmic male sterility
It is the result of mutation in mitochondrial genome (mtDNA).
CMS is maternally inherited trait because mt genome is responsible
for the expression of male sterility and the mitochondria are usually
excluded from the pollen during fertilization.
Can be easily transferred from strain A to a given strain B.
CMS plants have also been developed in several vegetables through
protoplast fusion ( Pelletier et al., 1995).
Three Ogura based improved CMS lines of cauliflower were
developed following seven generations of backcrossing with
Cytoplasmic genetic male sterility
Case of cytoplasmic male sterility where nuclear gene,
R for restoring fertility is known.
Fertility restorer gene should be present in
homozygous Rf/Rf state i.e. either S Rf/Rf or N Rf/Rf
where seed production is important.
The sterility factor is determined by the interaction of
nuclear genes and cytoplasm but none of them singly
can control sterility.
Limitations of CGMS
Non availability of CGMS in many crops and their wild
Need of fertility restorer allele in fruit producing vegetables.
Undesirable pleiotropic effect of sterile cytoplasm on
Breakdown of male sterility in particular environments.
List of gametocides found effective in vegetables
Male gametocide Vegetables on which found effective
Naphthalene Acetic Acid (NAA) Cucurbits
Gibberellins Onion, Lettuce
Maleic Hydrazide Tomato, Cucurbit, Onion
FW450 Tomato, Ground nut, Sugar beet
Ethrel Sugar beet
Prasanth, et al., 2014
Description of different male sterile mutants in tomato
GMS: More than 55 male sterile (ms) alleles
causing sporogenous, structural and functional
sterility have been reported (Kaul,1988).
Mutant Description Inheritance Governing genes
Pollen sterile Pollen abortive Monogenic recessive
monogenic dominant )
Stamenless Stamens absent Monogenic recessive sl-1, sl-2
Positional sterility Stigma exerted Monogenic recessive ps
Functional sterility Anthers do not
Monogenic recessive ps-2
There are three types of male sterility in carrot :
Brown anther (ba ) Welch and Grimbal, 1947
Petalloid (pt) Thompson, 1962
Brown anther type male sterility is due to the interaction of “sa
cytoplasm” with atleast two independent recessive nuclear
According to Morelock (1974), the pt type of male sterility is
due to interaction between “Sp cytoplasm” and two
independent dominant genes (M1 and M2).
(a) Petaloidy CMS
a) Normal (N cytoplasm)
b) Brown anther CMS (Sa)
c) Petaloid CMS (Sp)
(a) Petaloid CMS (Sp)
(b) Brown anther CMS (Sa)
For hybrid production, petaloid steriles are employed more
In India, at IARI, petaloid CGMS was transferred to nantes
type and crossed it with the indigenous variety “Pusa
yamdagini” to develop hybrid Pusa nayanjyoti in 2009.
Cytoplasmic male sterility system has been established for the
first time in tropical carrot and tropical carrot hybrid “Pusa
Vasudha” has been developed which is the first from any public
Male sterility in cole vegetables
Genetic male sterility
Reported in most of the cole vegetables (Cole, 1957).
Mostly governed by a single recessive nuclear gene, ms.
Multiplication of ms seeds and existence of SI system is
Cytoplasmic-Genetic male sterility
Firstly, developed by Pearson (1972) through interspecific
hybidization between wild mustard and broccoli.
Sources of CMS
Sterile ‘Anand’ cytoplasm from B.rapa has been transferred
to cole crops through protoplast fusion .
Ogura cytoplasm of Raphanus is a source of sterile (Ogura 1968).
Ogura cytoplasm was transferred in broccoli (McCollum,1981)
,cauliflower (Hoser-Krause and Antosik,1987), Brussels sprout
(Bannerot et al., 1974) and in cabbage (McCollum,1981, 1988).
One such CMS system 'tour' which is derived from Brassica
tournefortii, induces additional floral abnormalities and causes
chlorosis in Brassica spp.(Arumugam et al. 1996).
Ogura CMS system (Intergeneric crosses)
First documented by Martin and Grawford (1951) and first ms
plant was isolated from an Indian accession (Peterson,1958).
The mc-509 was renamed as ms-10.
This ms-509 line (bell pepper type) was introduced in India at
PAU and was introgressed in 3 chilli genotypes, Viz., MS-12,
MS-13 & MS-41 (Singh and Kaur,1986).
MS-12 line has been developed by transferring ms-10 gene
into cultivar ‘Punjab Lal’ through backcrossing (Singh and
Using MS-12 line three chilli hybrid CH-1, CH-3 and CH-27
has been released by PAU.
GMS line, “ACMS2”, having gene (acms2acms2) is reported .
The ms-3 line introduced from Hungary is maintained at
CGMS in chilli
First reported by Peterson(1958) in an introduction from India
Chilli CGMS lines (CCA-4261) introduced at the IIVR from
AVRDC are utilized to produce hybrid- Kashi Surkh (CCH-2) .
IIHR, Bangalore has also developed CGMS based hybrids i.e.
Arka Meghna (MSH-172), Arka Harita (MSH-149) and Arka
First ms plant (13-53) was reported in the progenies of cultivar
Italian Red (Jones and Emsweller,1936)
It is due to 2 recessive genes ms1and ms2.
Two types of sterile cytoplasm , viz., S and T are reported.
S-cytoplasm is exploited most widely (Pelletier et al., 1995).
Female to male ratio for hybrid production is 4:1 or 8:2
National Released Hybrids
Arka Kirtiman & Arka Lalima (IIHR, Bangalore)
Hybrid-63 and Hybrid-35 (IARI, New Delhi)
Genetic male sterility
Male sterile alleles identified in muskmelon are-
The ms-1 line has been used in India to develop first commercial
hybrid Punjab hybrid-1 and Punjab Anmol. in vegetable crops
through male sterility at PAU.
Kumar et al., 2008, reported that the lines ms-1 and ms-2 are
phenotypicaly unstable and this will reduce the genetic purity of
hybrid seed. It is safer to exploit ms-3, ms-4 and ms-5 genes for
developing genetically pure hybrids.
Male sterile alleles Reported by
ms-1 Bohn and Whitaker (1949)
ms-2 Bohn and Principe, 1962
ms-3 McCreight and Elmstrom, 1984
ms-5 Lecouviour et al., 1990
Time(minutes) required for crossing 50 flower buds on male fertile ‘Ms33
IPA’ (MF) and male sterile ‘ms33IPA’ (MS) plants in tomato.
Ludhiana Dhaliwal and Cheema,2008
Time (minutes) Time
n on MF
1 22.0 44.0 66.0 37.7 42.9
2 26.1 34.9 60.5 26.3 56.5
3 38.7 45.1 83.8 33.3 60.3
4 37.3 43.8 75.5 34.2 54.7
5 32.8 41.1 73.9 32.7 55.8
Mean 30.7 41.7 71.9 32.8 54.4
1.52 1.60 1.95 1.10 -
Per cent fruit set on male sterile (GMS lines) plants in chilli.
Mean percent fruit set on GMS line
Natural out crossing Hand pollination
ACMS2-1-1-1 32.64 13.82
ACMS2-1-1-4 30.22 14.08
ACMS2-5-1-1 35.99 14.82
ACMS2-5-1-5 34.39 14.00
ACMS2-6-1-1 30.68 15.34
ACMS2-6-1-3 32.82 14.60
S. Em - 0.35
Average of mean
percent fruit set on GMS
Anand Patel et al. (2001)
Fruit characteristics of different crosses in tomato.
ms33 IPA x Ms33
5.13 4.56 2.33 6.33 4.60 59.00
ms2 IPA x Ms33
5.09 4.43 2.00 6.33 4.75 62.33
ps2 L 3841 x
Functional 4.26 4.73 4.66 6.00 4.16 61.33
ps2 NS 101 x
Functional 4.40 4.36 3.00 6.00 4.60 59.33
ps2 San Pedro x
Functional 5.53 6.23 3.83 6.66 4.63 112.66
ps2 UC 82-B x
Functional 5.15 4.70 2.10 6.30 4.80 67.00
C.D. at P=0.05 - 0.34 0.29 2.82 0.82 0.25 7.19
Ludhiana Dhaliwal and Cheema (2008)
Male sterile lines: Six x Male fertile (Ms33 IPA)
Limitations of Male Sterility system
Difficult to identify line with GMS.
Unsatisfactory or poor pollination.
Unsatisfactory restoration of fertility.
Adverse effect of sterile cytoplasm on yield in some cases.
Break down of male sterility because of some reasons like,
certain environmental conditions which leads to some
pollen production by the male sterile lines and cytoplasm
contribution (though small) by the sperm in some cases.
Modifiers or modifying genes may affect cytoplasmic