Cargo 747 Air-Mech of U.S. ArmyM113A3 11-ton Gavin and M973 8-ton Ridgway tracked AFVs for IBCTS Special thanks to Dr. Carlo Kopp Australian Aerospace analyst for inspiration/artwork!
Line 747 Floor with 463L pallets to enable vehicles to be carried... www.adtdl.army.mil/cgi-bin/atdl.dll/fm/55-450-2/Ch4.htm463L CARGO SYSTEM. In 1957, the USAF adopted a standardized system to facilitate the rapid movement of generalcargo aboard airlift aircraft. This 463L system encompasses all phases of cargo loading including MHE, cargo loadingplatforms, restraint equipment, and in-aircraft systems. The 463L system is the Air Force standard for movement ofconcentrated cargo. The system is extremely efficient and can reduce ground times by as much as 75 percent.The 463L master pallet is made of corrosion resistant aluminum with soft wood core and is framed on all sides byaluminum rails. The rails have 22 steel tie-down rings attached in such a manner that there are six rings on each longside and five rings on each short side. The rails also have indents (notches) designed to accept the detinet locks locatedon numerous types of MHE and are found on board all airlift-capable aircraft. The overall dimensions of the 463L palletare 108 inches wide by 88 inches long and 2 1/4 inches thick. However, the usable dimensions of the upper surface are104 inches wide by 84 inches long. This allows for 2 inches around the periphery of the pallet to attach straps, nets, orother restraint devices. An empty 463L pallet weighs 290 pounds (355 pounds with nets) and has a maximum loadcapacity of 10,000 pounds. The maximum pounds per square inch (psi) for the 463L pallet is 250 pounds. Concentratedloading should not exceed 330 pounds on any one square foot. If a load exceeds this amount, then shoring must be
ASB Chairman Michael Bayer told Janes DefenseWeekly:http://ad.doubleclick.net/adi/landforces.janes.com/News;sz=125x125;tile=3;ord=021601085048?"The ASB found that providing strategic lift from thecontinental USA to intra-theatre staging grounds willcontinue to be the major bottleneck in transportation.Bayer noted that Boeing 747-style aircraft wouldprovide the greatest strategic lift potential becausethey can carry more cargo further than the U.S. AirForces future mainstay Boeing C-17 Globemaster IIItransport aircraft. Noting that because "there is a hugedemand for strategic lift", the ASB recommended thatexpeditionary units plan to send as much equipment aspossible on 747-type aircraft, freeing up scarce spaceon the C-17s."
FM 55-9 Field Manual No. 55-9HEADQUARTERSDEPARTMENT OF THE ARMYWashington, DC, 5 April 1993UNIT AIR MOVEMENT PLANNINGCHAPTER 3CIVIL RESERVE AIR FLEET AIRCRAFTwww.adtdl.army.mil/cgi-bin/atdl.dll/fm/55-9/Ch3.htm"Problems associated with loadingCRAF aircraft are not usuallyencountered in loading military aircraft.The cargo compartment of a B-747, forexample, is 16 feet above ground level(AGL). Standard military materials-handling equipment cannot be used toload the aircraft. Like the floors of theKC-10, the floors of all civilian aircraftare not strong enough to withstand theground pressure of vehicles. A subfloorof 463L pallets must be installed beforeloading any vehicles. Despitesubflooring, any vehicle heavier than a2 1/2-ton truck cannot be loaded ontomost civilian aircraft. Pallet stations mayalso have weight restrictions, andplanners must adjust loads (see AMCP55-41).""Except for some B-747 models withramps, vehicles cannot be driven ontothe aircraft as doors on the fuselagesides are relatively small."
With a "sub-floor" of 463L pallets 11-ton M113A3s can be air-transported by cargo 747s; 18.8 ton LAV-IIIscannot even fit and are too axle heavy...the M113A3 weighs roughly the same as a 2.5 truck = 11 tons.How many M113A3s in a B-747?Vehicle length figures are: In Army Service: M113A3 = 208.5 inches long M973A2 (BV-206S) SUSV = 272 inches long Wiesel 1 = 137.79 inches long Army type-classified: M8 AGS = 239.4 inches long Wiesel 2 = 165.35 inches long No stuck wheels! LAV-III = 274 inches long B-747 in 33 x 463L pallet configuration (2 rows of 16 x 108" wide x 88" long pallets) = 1344 inches total length availableSo a B-747 could carry 6 x M113A3s = 1254 inches 6 M113A3 Armored Fighting Vehicles! (M113A3s likely loaded side-by-side, 3 long)So if the U.S. Army was prudent, it would base its IBCT Infantry Carriers around M113A3s so it could useCRAF and/or leased cargo 747s to guarantee in a crisis that the majority of its air-deployable forces canget to the conflict to achieve land maneuver dominance to balance out precision firepower forces soenemies can be collapsed not just attrited/annihilated. Recon Surveillance Target Acquisition (RSTA)wheeled non-amphibious, terrain-limited HMMWVs replaced by existing amphibious, helicopter-transportable 8-ton M973A2 SUSVs upgraded with BV-206S armor kits (6-8 per 747) or 4-ton trackedWiesel 2 AFVs for 16-21 per cargo 747 depending on 2-row loading with 463L flooring or 3-row loadingwithout 463Ls are used. IBCT Mobile Gun System would be tracked M8 Armored 105mm Gun Systemshoot-on-the-move light tanks which may be 747 transportable with extra plywood shoring on top of the463L pallet second floors, giving BCT surprise meeting engagement and MOUT winningfirepower/lethality. M113A3 (Gavins), BV-206S or Wiesels (Ridgways) and M8 (Bufords) would all haverubber, single-piece “band-tracks” to lighten their overall weight and reduce pressures on cargo 747 floors.
TRACKED M113A3/4 Gavins in cargo B-747 Corner Vertical Clearance 3.05 m 3.0 m Height = 2.49 m Centre Vertical Width = 2.7 m Clearance 3.12 m Length = 4.85 m M113 M113 M113 Side Cargo Door (SCD) 2.7 m 2.7 m Clearance Loading Ramp 3.4 X 3.05 (3.12) m Auxiliary Auxiliary Fuel Cells Fuel CellsBoeing KC-33A (KC-747-400F) (c) 2001, Carlo KoppM113A3 Loading Fit Check
The Freighter/Combi Nose Door allows the aircraft, with minor modifications, to carry the Boeing On Board Loader device, which is stowed in the nose of the aircraft and deployed once on the ground to provide autonomous freight handling. This device takes 30 minutes to deploy or stow, weighs 6.6 tons and can handle payloads of up to 13.6 tons. When stowed it displaces two 2.44 x 6.05 meter containers or 6.7 per cent of main deck capacity. The Boeing On Board Loader may be disconnected from the aircraft nose and used as a free standing loader. It is designed to load and unload 2.44 x 6.05 meter pallets or containers, using either the Nose Door or the Side Cargo Door. The loader is powered from the aircraft’s electrical system at either door, or by a ground based generator. This loader may not be suitable in its basic configuration for the handling of the M113A3/4s and may require some size changes to get a looser fit, though its width and length seem adequate. Nominal time to load or unload an aircraft using this device is about one hour, assuming the device is already deployed. One option is a mixed fleet with only some aircraft fitted with the Nose Door,4 whereby these are used to deploy one or more Boeing On Board Loaders into a site at the beginning of a lift. These loaders would be recovered at the end of the airlift. Other aircraft without Nose Doors would use the deployed loaders. There may be some scope for faster reconfiguration time between the airlift and troop carrying configuration, by using dedicated 2.44 x 6.05 meter pallets fitted with fixed canvas troop seats, rather than commercial Combi airliner seating. This could be implemented in a manner which saves considerable weight, against commercial seating, thereby allowing more troops and freight to be loaded into the aircraft. A simple measure of the Boeing 747-200CF/300CF/400F as an airlifter is that it provides payload range performance in the class of a C-5 Galaxy, but its freight loading door limits payload items to sizes similar to those carried by a C-130 Hercules or C-141 Starlifter. With the exception of length, the Boeing 747 SCD can handle items slightly larger than either the C-130 or C-141. Therefore any Army assets air-portable by C-130 would almost certainly be portable by 747, thereby taking a significant load off the USAF C-17/C-130 fleet.5 6
BOBL unloading a height-reduced M35 2.5 ton 6x6 truck from a cargo 747M35A2http://msnhomepages.talkcity.com/Terminus/loadwarrior/images/spdimensions.jpgWidth: 97.8 inches 2.48 metersLength: 278.3 inches 7.068 metersHeight: 112 inches 2.84 metersM113A3Width: 100 inches 2.54 metersLength: 207 inches 5.3 metersHeight: 73 inches 2 meters 2.48 meters 7 wide
M35 2.5 ton truckon sliding palletCargo on slidingpallet
Boeing On Board Loader (BOBL)Side CargoDoor The Boeing On Board Loader was manufactured by Boeing for the Iraqi national airline during the nineteen eighties. This device is designed to be stowed in the nose of a Boeing 747-200C/F Combi or Freighter. The nominal time to load or unload the full capacity in pallet or container freight for a 747-200C/F is about 1 hour. Loader Weight: 6.6 tons Deployment Time: 30 minutes 2.44 meters Stow Time: 30 minutes Power Supply: 747 electrical system or 115V/400 Hz ground generator Maximum Payload Mass: 13.6 tonnes Maximum Payload Size: 2.44 x 6.05 meter pallet (see left) or container or vehicle. Minor modifications are required to the Nose Door area to accommodate attachments for loader deployment and stowing. The existing loader design can be used for standard pallet and container freight, and vehicles. More than 2.2 inches for M113A3 width to fit
KC/C-25/33 RO/RO Onboard Loader• Based on proven Boeing On Board Loader (BOBL) design used on 747-200C Combis.• Stowed in the nose of the K/C-25/33.• Deployment similar to existing Boeing On Board Loader, but additional phase is required to unfold the RO/RO ramp.• May be detached and used as RO/RO ground loader for K/C-25/33,and CRAF 747- 200F/400F not so equipped.• Design target is 17-ton tracked payload (M8 AGS).
Roll-On/Roll-Off cargo 747 nose ramp?“Weve come to the conclusion that a ramp would need tobe fabricated for the purpose and weight of the vehicles. Iwould guess that some sort of folding design would bedesireable in order to slide under or next to the vehicleson the main cargo deck. Its been suggested that FMC(Food Machinery Corporation, www.fmc.com) might be agood candidate for this item.Sorry I cant be more help, but the good news is thatdevelopment of a loading ramp wouldnt be that difficultonce the dimensions are determined (based onapproach/departure angles of the vehicles, vehicle climbcapability, etc.), the stowage limitations with vehicles onboard, any folding requirements to meet stowage space,amount of manpower assumed to operate ramp versusmachinery requirements, etc. An interface between rampand airplane would be required. It would be a fun projectto work on!”Ronald E WilanderBoeing Service EngineeringPhone 425-266-5609, FAX 425-266-488440-84, Col F9
Dr. Carlo Kopp Australian Aerospaceanalyst’s RO/RO 747 Ramp for M113 Gavins
K/C-25/33 and AFVs• Nose Cargo Door (NCD) : 8ft 2in height, 8 ft 8 in upper width, lower width is determined by RO/RO loader design. Side Cargo Door (SCD): 10 ft height, 11 ft 2 in width.• RO/RO load/unload through NCD: M113A3/A4 with low-profile turret, M8 AGS light tank with low-profile turret. Standard freight 463L pallets as second floor for vehicles, offloaded using BOBL RO/RO and/or USAF Tunner transloader.• Main deck internal width and height adequate for side-by-side carriage of M113A3/A4 AFVs (paper fit checks). Floor strength increases may be required over commercial 747-400F for M8 AGS (TBD).
Built-in Airstairs to load crew/SoldiersOne problem is the absence of a door or hatch and internal ladder for crew and passenger accessto 747 aircraft at sites without appropriately sized boarding facilities for airliners. The solution is toemploy a modification used on the USAF’s Boeing E-4 NEACP airborne command post and the VC-25A VIP aircraft. These aircraft carry a deployable set of airstairs stowed in the forward lower lobecargo bay. The VC-25A and E-4B both carry internal airstairs to provide crew and passengeraccess at sites without airliner boarding facilities. The airstairs deploy from the forward cargodoor. Integration of the deployable airstairs would render some small portion of the main deckfloor above the forward lower lobe cargo bay unusable for freight, so as to provide space for ahatch to access the airstairs. Since retractable stairs should be installed to provide accessbetween the main deck and the upper deck, these should be located adjacent to the hatch to theairstairs to minimise the loss to main deck floor space. The airstairs provide the ability to load andunload passengers, as well as providing access for the crew, regardless of site facilities
C-25/33A U.S. ARMY/TRANSCOM www.defence.gov.au/aerospacecentre/publish/paper82.htmAustralian cargo/tanker 747 studyMorton, Beyer & Agnew (MBA), Future Aircraft Values, 1999 Edition, pp.56, 143-144. Freightconversions are performed by Boeing Wichita, GATX-Airlog, Pemco Aeroplex, Israel AircraftIndustries and HAECO with costs depending on the scope of the conversion package. Typicalcosts are between $12M and 20M per airframe.P. 137. Many late build 747-200 series aircraft will have acceptable fatigue life and the followinganalysis and conclusions for the 747-200/300 series would apply to these. The last -200Ffreighters were built during the early 1990s. Typically the fatigue life of older 747s can beextended through Section 41 reworks, and Pylon and D checks, with the cost of such a workpackage reaching up to USD 10M per aircraft. Engine overhauls typically cost $1.5M each atintervals of 1200 to 1500 cycles.
USAF Future Tanker Requirements can also be met by KC-33 variants RWR/DECMIFF Interrogator UHF Comm, IFF, GPS, Satcom AAR Receptacle 2 x Bubble Windows Side Cargo Door AMC Freighter Floor 40602 JTIDS 602 U.S. AIR FORCE Boom (KC-135R) (c) 2 001, Car lo Ko pp Nose Door Internal Loader Lower Deck Auxiliary Fuel Cells AAR Operator Station JTIDS Internal Airstairs Fuel Manifolds 2 x Hose/Drum Unit Upper Deck Stairs Fuel Pumps, Valves Single Point Receptacle AAR Formation Lighting 2 x TACAN Beacons Boeing KC-33A (KC-747-400F) Strategic Tanker/Transport
KC-25/33A Tanker/Transport• C-33A airlifter (military modified cargo B-747) with lower deck auxiliary fuel tanks (~90 klb), AAR boom and other AAR modifications as required.• Boom design tested for USAF ACTA and export KC-747-100, using 6,000 lb/min KC- 135 boom.• Optionally, KC-10A 10,000 lb/min boom could be used, at some cost in extra NRE.• Low risk adaptation of basic C-25/33A using proven and flight tested hardware.• Offload performance better or equal to existing USAF KC-10A, with 0.85 Mach cruise airframe.
Why KC-25/33A and C-25/33A?• Integral AAR (Air-Air Refueling) capability in the APAF airlift force.• KC-25/33A refuels C-25/33A, C-5A/B, C-17, C-141B and C-130X to Army VDTP helos, FTR in the same package, therefore reducing or eliminating demand for USAF AMC KC- 135R and KC-10A tankers.• If AAR receptacles fitted to USAF C-130Xs, (during upgrade to “J” propfans/engines) then all airlift assets can be refueled by the airlift force’s integral AAR capability. C-130Xs become strategic airlift assets.
The poor load-bearing capacity, lack of length/smoothness of most landing strips/runways in potential problemareas prevents the direct-insertion of troops and supplies by civilian airliners; only military transports usingparachute airdrop can seize the initial assault landing zone and then airland using their rough field landing gearand short take-off/landing features. Therefore a two-tier model, whereby the strategic heavy-lift aircraft deliver tothe nearest airfield with a 747-rated runway, and USAF C-130, Army CH-47D/Fs are employed over shorterdistances to deliver the payloads into the area of operations. Should a runway of suitable quality be available inthe immediate vicinity of the problem area, the exposure of a high-value asset such as a large transport to small-caliber ground fire, shoulder-launched SAMs or mortar attack on the ground must be avoided. Current U.S. Armythinking is to restructure its assets so that everything can be lifted into a theatre by a C-17, and then movedinside the theatre by a C-130. See Fulghum D.A., “Army Chief Stresses Agility, Firepower”, AW&ST, 18 October1999, page 36 Strategic Cargo 747s fly vehicles/men to Theater Support Base (TSB); USAF C-130Xs and Army CH-47D/Fs fly CH-47F Chinook them to the Assault Zone C-130X Hercules M113 Gavin
Just 7 x cargo 747s can move*TRANSCOM asset, a 42 xfrees USAF airlift to M113A3s orairdrop/STOL airland M973A2s!Army force-entryunits Mechanized Infantry*Can be Pre- BattalionPositioned/Loaded Combat Team* Low-Cost using or RSTA in oneexisting M113A3s, lift!M973A2s and unused 24 x 747s move747s under lease an entire* Moves BCT Brigadevehicles, supplies, Combat Team!