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Chapter 9 Motion


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Chapter 9 Motion

  1. 1. Chapter 9 Motion and Energy
  2. 2. Section 1 <ul><li>Motion -Something is in motion if its distance from another object is changing. </li></ul><ul><li>Reference Point- a place or object used for comparison to determine if something is in motion. </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Distance- the length of a path between two points </li></ul><ul><li>Displacement- the length and direction that an object has moved from its starting point. </li></ul><ul><li>Vector- a quantity that consists of both a magnitude and a direction. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Section 2 <ul><li>Speed- the distance the object travels per unit of time. </li></ul><ul><li>Average speed= distance/ time </li></ul><ul><li>Instantaneous speed- the rate at which an object is moving at a given instance in time. </li></ul><ul><li>Velocity- speed in a given direction . </li></ul>
  5. 5. Distance vs. Time <ul><li>Upward slope= moving away from starting position. </li></ul><ul><li>Downward slope= moving toward starting position. </li></ul><ul><li>Horizontal line= not moving. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Section 3 <ul><li>Acceleration - the rate at which velocity changes with time. </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing speed </li></ul><ul><li>Decreasing speed </li></ul><ul><li>Changing direction </li></ul><ul><li>= Final velocity - original velocity </li></ul><ul><li>Time </li></ul>
  7. 7. Velocity vs. Time <ul><li>Slope- the steepness of a line on a graph. </li></ul><ul><li>A steep incline is an increase in speed. </li></ul><ul><li>A steep decline is a decrease in speed. </li></ul><ul><li>A horizontal line is maintaining a constant speed. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Section 4 <ul><li>Work- when an object is caused to move a certain distance. </li></ul><ul><li>Energy- the ability to do work or cause change. </li></ul><ul><li>Kinetic energy- the energy an object has due to its motion. </li></ul><ul><li>KE= 1/2 x mass x speed 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Measured in Joules (J) </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Potential energy- stored energy that results from the position or shape of an object. </li></ul><ul><li>Gravitational potential energy- depends on its weight and on its height relative to a reference point. </li></ul><ul><li>GPE= weight x height </li></ul><ul><li>Elastic potential energy- the potential energy of objects that can be stretched or compressed. </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Mechanical energy- an object’s combined kinetic energy and potential energy. </li></ul><ul><li>ME = KE + PE </li></ul><ul><li>Law of Conservation of Energy- energy cannot be created or destroyed but transformed from one form to another. </li></ul>