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2 genre

  1. 1. Genre• An analysis of the text would need to set it in relation to the forms and conventions.• But it would not simply comprise a list of those conventions.• There are a whole host of theories of genre and writers with different approaches.Genre THEORY
  2. 2. Understanding• What is genre?• Why is it important?• What are the problems with genre?• How do readers identify genre?• Why do people want to categorise texts?• What is the commercial significance of genre? Write your ideas onto the sheet
  3. 3. • Contemporary theorists tend to describe genres in terms of family resemblances among texts (Swales 1990).Genre SWALES
  4. 4. How many different ways are there of categorising film? Create a spider diagram
  5. 5. Ways of categorising textsGrouping by period or country (American films of the 1930s),by director or star or producer or writer or studio, by LOtechnical process (CinemaScope films), by cycle (the fallenwomen films), by series (the 007 movies), by style (GermanExpressionism), by structure (narrative), by ideology(Reaganite cinema), by venue (drive-in movies), by purpose(home movies), by audience (teenpix), by subject or theme(family film, paranoid-politics movies). (Bordwell 1989, 148)While some genres are based on story content (the warfilm), other are borrowed from literature (comedy,melodrama) or from other media (the musical). Some areperformer-based (the Astaire-Rogers films) or budget-based(blockbusters), while others are based on artistic status (theart film), racial identity (Black cinema), locat[ion] (theWestern) or sexual orientation (Queer cinema). (Stam 2000,14).
  6. 6. Understanding Genre• Genres frame the reader’s interpretation of the text…but are they fixed or given?• Who is responsible for creating genre?
  7. 7. “Genres are systems of expectations and conventions that circulate between industry, text and subject.” (Neale)Genre NEALE
  8. 8. Do genres die? Become reborn? Who is responsible for this? Industry? Subject? or text?• Explain how each can be responsible for creating genre
  9. 9. • Steve Neale declares that genres are instances of repetition and difference (Neale 1980).• He adds that difference is absolutely essential to the economy of genre mere repetition would not attract an audience.Genre NEALE
  10. 10. • Christine Gledhill notes that differences between genres meant different audiences could be identified and catered to... This made it easier to standardise and stabilise production (Gledhill 1985, 58).• In relation to the mass media, genre is part of the process of targeting different market sectors.Genre GLEDHILL
  11. 11. • Embedded within texts are assumptions about the ideal reader, including their attitudes towards the subject matter and often their class, age, gender and ethnicity. Is this deliberate?
  12. 12. Genre THEORY RecapWhat is genre?• SwalesWhy do we want to categorise texts?• GledhillWho is responsible for creating genre?• Neale Genre frames how we understand texts – explain.
  13. 13. Embedded within texts are assumptions about the ideal readerWhat is the ‘ideal reader’? Target audience Genre attitudes class age gender ethnicity
  14. 14. • Contemporary theorists tend to emphasize the importance of the semiotic notion of intertextuality: seeing individual texts in relation to others.Genre CONTEMPORARY
  15. 15. • Roland Barthes (1975) argued that it is in relation to other texts within a genre rather than in relation to lived experience that we make sense of certain events within a text.Genre BARTHES
  16. 16. • Jacques Derrida proposed that a text cannot belong to no genre, it cannot be without... a genre. Every text participates in one or several genres, there is no genreless text (Derrida 1981, 61).Genre DERRIDA
  17. 17. • Referring to film, Andrew Tudor notes that a genre... defines a moral and social world (Tudor 1974).• Indeed, a genre in any medium can be seen as embodying certain values and ideological assumptions.Genre TUDOR
  18. 18. Exam Question“Genres are systems of expectations andconventions that circulate betweenindustry, text and subject.” (Neale)Discuss theories of genre in relation toone of your production pieces.
  19. 19. Assessment Criteria [25] How do you answer Explanation/analysis the question? [10 marks]• You need to state which project you are using and briefly describe it. Use of examples• You then need to analyse it [10 marks] (critical distance) using whichever concept appears in the question, making reference to relevant theory throughout. Use of terminology• Keep being specific in your use of [5 marks] examples from your project. Either apply the concept to your production or explain how the concept is not useful in relation to your product.
  20. 20. Assessment Criteria [25]Level 3 Level 4Ability to relate your on creative Clear understanding of representation outcomes to some ideas about and relevant media theory and can media representation drawn from relate concepts to the production relevant media theory. outcome, describing specific elements in relation to theoreticalSome relevant and convincing ideas. examples from the production are offered and these are handled Broad range of specific, relevant, proficiently. interesting & clear examples of how your product can be understood in relation to theories.The answers make proficient use of relevant conceptual language. The use of relevant conceptual language is excellent.
  21. 21. How do you start? Write a essay plan:Spider diagram theories/concepts Quotes/references Link theories to your production Sort them into a logical order
  22. 22. Exam Question“Genres are systems of expectations andconventions that circulate betweenindustry, text and subject.” (Neale)Discuss theories of genre in relation toone of your production pieces.