natural disaster project by mirza ibrahim from greenwich academy
INTRODUCTION TO DISASTER MANAGEMENT
Disasters are as old as human history but
the dramatic increase and the damage
caused by them in the recent past have
become a cause of national and international
Over the past decade, the number
of natural and manmade disasters has
climbed inexorably. From 1994 to 1998,
reported disasters average was 428 per year
but from 1999 to 2003, this figure went up to
an average of 707 disaster events per year
showing an increase of about 60 per cent
over the previous years.
A flood is an overflow of an expanse of water
that submerges land. Flood is a temporary
covering by water of land not normally covered
by water. Flooding may result from the volume
of water within a body of water, such as a river
or lake, which overflows or breaks levees, with
the result that some of the water escapes its
Make a family disaster plan.
If you have time before evacuating,
shut down power at the main switches
in your home and disconnect any
Move valuable or essential items to
Don’t touch electrical equipment if
you’re wet or standing in water
A tornado is a violent, rotating column of air which
is in contact with both the surface of the earth
and a cumulonimbus cloud or, in rare cases, the
base of a cumulus cloud. The most intense of all
atmospheric phenomena, tornadoes come in many
shapes and sizes, but are typically in the form of a
visible condensation funnel, whose narrow end
touches the earth and is often encircled by a cloud
of debris and dust.
Make a family disaster plan.
Pick a safe place in your home.
Learn about your community’s
Keep a radio with you to listen
the further forecast.
Prepare a sufficient food
A cyclone is a storm system
characterized by a large low-pressure
numerous thunderstorms that
produce strong winds and
heavy rain. Cyclones feed on
heat released when moist air
rises, resulting in
condensation of water vapor
contained in the moist air.
Make a family disaster plan.
Keep a first aid box with you.
Stay indoor, away from window
during a cyclone.
Keep stock of dry food.
Fill several containers with
fresh water to drink.
Be with your family.
During a volcanic eruption, lava,
tempura ,ash, lapillus, solid chunks
of rock, and various gases are
expelled from a volcanic vent or
fissure. Several types of volcanic
eruptions have been distinguished
by volcanologists. These are often
named after famous volcanoes
where that type of behavior has
been observed. Some volcanoes may
exhibit only one characteristic type
of eruption during a period of
activity, while others may display an
entire sequence of type.
Leave the area immediately.
Avoid areas downwind from the
eruption if the ash is being expelled.
Protect your eyes with goggles or
Don’t inhale the harmful smoke.
Cover your face with scarf or a cloth.
Beware of flying debris.
A landslide or landslip is a
geological phenomenon which
includes a wide range of
ground movement, such as
rock falls, deep failure of slopes
and shallow debris flows,
which can occur in offshore,
coastal and onshore
Stay alert and awake.
If you live in landslide area,
it is better to leave that
If you see a crack in
ground then alert everyone
to leave the area.
Be especially alert while
Man made disaster
A man-made hazard is a threat
having an element of human intent,
negligence, or error, or involving a
failure of a man-made system.
Man-made disasters are disasters
resulting from the same factors.
Fire is the rapid oxidation of a
material in the chemical process
of combustion, releasing heat,
light, and various reaction
products. Slower oxidative
processes like rusting or digestion
are not included by this definition
Do not panic during fire.
Call fire brigade as soon as possible.
Do not use water in fire caused due
to any false electrical appliance.
Use sand or fire extinguisher.
Immediately put burned on the
wound cause due to the fire.
Industrial disasters occur
in a commercial context,
such as mining disasters.
They often have an
It mainly occur due to
the carelessness of
workers or industry
Do not panic.
Go to a safer place.
Do not go near industry
Do not inhale gas
coming out from fire.
In case of fire, call to fire
What is vulnerability ?
Vulnerability may be defined as “The
to which a community, structure,
or geographic area is likely to be
or disrupted by the impact of particular
hazard, on account of their nature,
construction and proximity to
terrains or a disaster prone area.”
This protective process embraces measures which enable
and individuals to respond rapidly to disaster situations to cope
with them effectively.
Preparedness includes the formulation of viable emergency plans,
of warning systems, the maintenance of inventories and the
training of personnel.
It may also embrace search and rescue measures as well as
evacuation plans for
areas that may be at risk from a recurring disaster.
Mitigation embraces measures taken to reduce both
the effect of the hazard and the
vulnerable conditions to it in order to reduce the scale
of a future disaster. Therefore
mitigation activities can be focused on the hazard itself
or the elements exposed to
the threat. Examples of mitigation measures which are
hazard specific include water
management in drought prone areas, relocating people
away from the hazard prone
areas and by strengthening structures to reduce
damage when a hazard occurs.
Disaster Management Cycle
Disaster Risk Management includes sum
total of all activities, programmers and
measures which can be taken up before,
during and after a disaster with the purpose
to avoid a disaster, reduce its impact or
recover from its losses. The three key stages
of activities that are taken up within disaster
risk management are:
1. Before a disaster (pre-disaster).
Activities taken to reduce human and
property losses caused by a potential
hazard. For example carrying out
campaigns, strengthening the existing
weak structures, preparation of the
management plans at household
During a disaster (disaster
Initiatives taken to ensure that the needs and
provisions of victims are met and suffering is
minimized. Activities taken under this stage
are called emergency response activities.
After a disaster (post-disaster)
Initiatives taken in response to a disaster
with a purpose to achieve early recovery and
rehabilitation of affected communities,
immediately after a disaster strikes. These are
called as response and recovery activities.