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natural disaster project by mirza ibrahim from greenwich academy


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natural disaster project by mirza ibrahim from greenwich academy

  1. 1. INTRODUCTION TO DISASTER MANAGEMENT Disasters are as old as human history but the dramatic increase and the damage caused by them in the recent past have become a cause of national and international concern. Over the past decade, the number of natural and manmade disasters has climbed inexorably. From 1994 to 1998, reported disasters average was 428 per year but from 1999 to 2003, this figure went up to an average of 707 disaster events per year showing an increase of about 60 per cent over the previous years.
  2. 2. Two types of disasters
  3. 3. NATURAL DISASTER A natural disaster is the effect of a natural hazard that affects the environment, and leads to financial, environmental and/or human losses.
  4. 4. EXAMPLES Flood Tornado CYCLONE Volcanic eruption Landslide
  5. 5. FLOOD A flood is an overflow of an expanse of water that submerges land. Flood is a temporary covering by water of land not normally covered by water. Flooding may result from the volume of water within a body of water, such as a river or lake, which overflows or breaks levees, with the result that some of the water escapes its usual boundaries.
  6. 6. MANAGEMENT Make a family disaster plan. If you have time before evacuating, shut down power at the main switches in your home and disconnect any electrical appliances. Move valuable or essential items to higher floors. Don’t touch electrical equipment if you’re wet or standing in water
  7. 7. TORNADO A tornado is a violent, rotating column of air which is in contact with both the surface of the earth and a cumulonimbus cloud or, in rare cases, the base of a cumulus cloud. The most intense of all atmospheric phenomena, tornadoes come in many shapes and sizes, but are typically in the form of a visible condensation funnel, whose narrow end touches the earth and is often encircled by a cloud of debris and dust.
  8. 8. MANAGEMENT Make a family disaster plan. Pick a safe place in your home. Learn about your community’s warning system. Keep a radio with you to listen the further forecast. Prepare a sufficient food stock.
  9. 9. CYCLONE A cyclone is a storm system characterized by a large low-pressure center and numerous thunderstorms that produce strong winds and heavy rain. Cyclones feed on heat released when moist air rises, resulting in condensation of water vapor contained in the moist air.
  10. 10. MANAGEMENT Make a family disaster plan. Keep a first aid box with you. Stay indoor, away from window during a cyclone. Keep stock of dry food. Fill several containers with fresh water to drink. Be with your family.
  11. 11. VOLCANIC ERUPTION During a volcanic eruption, lava, tempura ,ash, lapillus, solid chunks of rock, and various gases are expelled from a volcanic vent or fissure. Several types of volcanic eruptions have been distinguished by volcanologists. These are often named after famous volcanoes where that type of behavior has been observed. Some volcanoes may exhibit only one characteristic type of eruption during a period of activity, while others may display an entire sequence of type.
  12. 12. MANAGEMENT Leave the area immediately. Avoid areas downwind from the eruption if the ash is being expelled. Protect your eyes with goggles or glass. Don’t inhale the harmful smoke. Cover your face with scarf or a cloth. Beware of flying debris.
  13. 13. LANDSLIDE A landslide or landslip is a geological phenomenon which includes a wide range of ground movement, such as rock falls, deep failure of slopes and shallow debris flows, which can occur in offshore, coastal and onshore environments.
  14. 14. MANAGEMENT Stay alert and awake. If you live in landslide area, it is better to leave that area. If you see a crack in ground then alert everyone to leave the area. Be especially alert while driving.
  15. 15. Man made disaster A man-made hazard is a threat having an element of human intent, negligence, or error, or involving a failure of a man-made system. Man-made disasters are disasters resulting from the same factors.
  17. 17. FIRE Fire is the rapid oxidation of a material in the chemical process of combustion, releasing heat, light, and various reaction products. Slower oxidative processes like rusting or digestion are not included by this definition
  18. 18. MANAGEMENT Do not panic during fire. Call fire brigade as soon as possible. Do not use water in fire caused due to any false electrical appliance. Use sand or fire extinguisher. Immediately put burned on the wound cause due to the fire.
  19. 19. INDUSTRIAL HAZARD Industrial disasters occur in a commercial context, such as mining disasters. They often have an environmental impact. It mainly occur due to the carelessness of workers or industry authority.
  20. 20. MANAGEMENT Do not panic. Go to a safer place. Do not go near industry during disaster. Do not inhale gas coming out from fire. In case of fire, call to fire brigade.
  21. 21. What is vulnerability ? Vulnerability may be defined as “The extent to which a community, structure, services or geographic area is likely to be damaged or disrupted by the impact of particular hazard, on account of their nature, construction and proximity to hazardous terrains or a disaster prone area.”
  22. 22. 1. Preparedness This protective process embraces measures which enable governments, communities and individuals to respond rapidly to disaster situations to cope with them effectively. Preparedness includes the formulation of viable emergency plans, the development of warning systems, the maintenance of inventories and the training of personnel. It may also embrace search and rescue measures as well as evacuation plans for areas that may be at risk from a recurring disaster.
  23. 23. 2. Mitigation Mitigation embraces measures taken to reduce both the effect of the hazard and the vulnerable conditions to it in order to reduce the scale of a future disaster. Therefore mitigation activities can be focused on the hazard itself or the elements exposed to the threat. Examples of mitigation measures which are hazard specific include water management in drought prone areas, relocating people away from the hazard prone areas and by strengthening structures to reduce damage when a hazard occurs.
  24. 24. Disaster Management Cycle Disaster Risk Management includes sum total of all activities, programmers and measures which can be taken up before, during and after a disaster with the purpose to avoid a disaster, reduce its impact or recover from its losses. The three key stages of activities that are taken up within disaster risk management are:
  25. 25. 1. Before a disaster (pre-disaster). Activities taken to reduce human and property losses caused by a potential hazard. For example carrying out awareness campaigns, strengthening the existing weak structures, preparation of the disaster management plans at household
  26. 26. During a disaster (disaster occurrence). Initiatives taken to ensure that the needs and provisions of victims are met and suffering is minimized. Activities taken under this stage are called emergency response activities. After a disaster (post-disaster) Initiatives taken in response to a disaster with a purpose to achieve early recovery and rehabilitation of affected communities, immediately after a disaster strikes. These are called as response and recovery activities.
  27. 27. PERSENTED BY---
  28. 28. Ibrahim CLASS IX