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Common human disease1 2

about human disease

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Common human disease1 2

  1. 1. Made By : Manglam soni ISC 2015-16
  2. 2. Some important terms 1) Disease: When the functioning of one or more organs or systems of the body is adversely affected, characterised by various signs and symptoms, we say that we are not healthy, i.e., we have a disease. 2) Communicable disease: Diseases which are easily transmitted from one person to another, are called infectious diseases or Communicable disease. Ex.- bacteria disease, viruses disease, protozoa's disease. 3) Non-communicable disease: The non-communicable disease remain confined to the person who suffer from them. Ex.- cancer, genetic ,disorder . 4) Bacterial disease : Bacteria are microscopic single-celled organism at least 1 micron long. Body tissues and system can be damaged by pathogenic in two ways- true infections and effects of toxins
  3. 3. Continues…… 5) Viruses disease: viruses are very small micro-organism within living cells. They differ from bacteria in having only one kind of nucleic acid, either DNA or RNA. They cause many acute disease in human beings. 6) Protozoans disease: protozoans are diverse group of eukaryotic, unicellular organism. 7) HELMINTHS disease: The parasitic of helminths are mainly endoparasites of the guts and the blood in human beings and they cause disease collectively known as ‘helminthiasis’. 8) FUNGI DISEASE: fungal disease as the name implies are cause by fungi. The fungal disease of man are either mycoses(caused by infection of fungi) or toxicoses(caused by toxic fungal metabolites).
  4. 4. COMMUNICABLE DISEASE → BACTERIAL DISEASE ― TYPHOID ― PNEUMONIA → VIRUSES DISEASE ― COMMON COLD ― SWINE FLU ― DENGUE FEVER → PROTOZOA ― MALARIA ― Amoebiasis → HELMINTHS ― ASCARIASIS ― ELEPHANTIASIS(FILARIA) → FUNGI DISEASE ― RINGWORM NONCOMMUNICABLE DISEASE → CANCER SEXUALITY TRANSMITIED DISEASE (STD) → GONORRHOEA → SYPHILIS HUMAN GENETICS DISORDER → HAEMOPHILIA AUTOSOMAL ABNORMALITIES → DOWN’S SYNDROME SEX CHROMOSOME ABNORMALITIES → KLINEFELTER’S SYNDROME → TURNERS SYNDROME
  5. 5.  Typhoid :  Typhoid is a common bacterial disease caused by rod like bacterium. Salmonella typhi , which is commonly found in the intestine of man.  Certain human function as carriers without suffering from it. Marry Mallon, called Typhoid Mary was such a case. She was a cook and typhoid carrier, who continued to spread continued to spread the disease for several years through her food preparation. BACTERIA
  6. 6. Continues…… . Modes of transmission:  Incubation period varies from 1-3 weeks, average 2 weeks.  Typhoid spreads through food and water contaminated with faeces of the patient. House flies may carry the pathogens from the faeces to the food , milk and water.  Symptoms  this disease is characterize by the inflammation of ileum and colon, liver and spleen also because enlarged, abdominal pain, constant fever, extreme weakness, vomiting and sore throat.  Typhoid is diagnosed by Widal Test.
  7. 7. Continues…….  Preventions/Treatrment:  Any patient with typhoid requires the highest standard of nursing together with isolation and hygienic disposal of faeces.  Contamination of food can be reduced by personal hygiene and control of flies.  Antibiotics like Ampicillin and Chloramphenicol are used to treat typhoid.  TAB Vaccine provided immunity for about 3 years.
  8. 8.  Pneumonia:  Pneumonia is a serious disease of lungs characterized by accumulation of fluid in alveoli and bronchioles to that extent that breathing becomes difficult.  It is caused by Streptococcus pneumonia or Diplococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae.  Modes of transmission:  A healthy person acquires the infection bi inhaling the droplets/aerosol released by an infected person or even by sharing glasses and utensils with an infected person.
  9. 9. Continues……  Symptoms:  The onset of Pneumonia is usually sudden with a single shaking chill, followed by fever, pain with breathing on the side of lungs involved, increasing pulse and respiratory rates and cough.  In several cases the color of lips and nails gets changed to grey.  Prevention/Treatment:  The patients should be isolated and healthy persons should not share their belongings.  Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine(PCV13) is available.  Drugs against pneumonia are erythromycin, tetracycline and sulphonamide.  If treated it can leads to death.
  10. 10.  Common cold:  Common cold is caused by around 200 virus strains, out of which the rhinoviruses are the most common.  Modes of transmission:  It can be transmitted through handshakes, shared objects.  It can also through when infected person touches the eyes, mouth or inside of the nose and spred the virus throug the hand. VIRUS
  11. 11. CONTINUES……  Symptoms:  Irritation in the nose and throat, then nasal congestion, sore throat, sneezing, coughing and runny nose.  Headache, body pain and malaise (a filling of sick/ill) but fever is rare.  These symptoms will occurs after 4-5 days.  Prevention:  Good hygiene is the best defense for all the disease.  Inhale steam.  Take painkillers in recommended doses.  Common cold is not yet treated successfully because there is no medicine to kill the rhinovirus.
  12. 12.  Swine flu  Swine flu is a infectious by any one type of swine which is infects the flu is influenza viruses (H1N1, H1N2, H3N1, H3N2 and H2N3). This flu was found in pigs.  It attacks the upper respiratory tract and spread fast air from person to person.  Modes of transmission:  It mainly spread through sneezing, coughing.  Some times it may be transmitted through the touching the infected things.  Influenza viruses are found in a number of species including birds, humans, swine, horses and dogs.
  13. 13. CONTINUES……  Prevention/Treatment:  prevention is hand washing and avoiding close contact with sick.  Adequate liquid intake and rest to reduce symptoms.  Use of anti-viral, such as Tamixlu, Relenza.  Dengue fever:  Dengue fever, also know as break bone fever, is an acute communicable disease caused by virus.  There are 4 strain of viruses, which are called serotypes and referred as DE NV-1, DE NV-2, DE NV-3, DE NV-4.  They all infects the disease by infections.  It is primarily transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes.
  14. 14. CONTINUES……  Modes of transmission:  A healthy person gets the disease when he is bitten by an infected mosquito. The virus enters his blood from the mosquito’s saliva.  Prevention:  It can be prevented by eliminating mosquito breeding places by covering small containers, water tanks, changing the water of coolers every weeks, and apply mosquito repellants.  No vaccine for dengue fever is available.
  15. 15.  Malaria  Malaria is caused by a digenetic(have two host to complete is life cycle) protozoan parasite known as Plasmodium.  The primary host is Anopheles mosquito and secondary is man.  Modes of transmission:  The malarial parasites, Plasmodium enters the human body as sporozoites(infectious form) through the bites of infects Anopheles mosquito. PROTOZOA
  16. 16.  Plasmodium: life cycle  Prevention:  Spraying areas with DDT and other insecticides will kill the mosquito. Introducing Utricularia duck which can eat the developing mosquito in the ponds.  Fitting doors and window with nets, using mosquito nets while sleeping, applying mosquito repellants ant night, taking smaller prophylactic dose of antimalarial drugs weekly intervals during malarial season can prevent from infection of malaria.
  17. 17.  Amoebiasis (Amoeboic dysentery):  Amorbiasisis a protozoan infestation of upper part of large intestine which cause by monogenetic protozoan(having one host i.e. man) known as Entamoebe histolytica.  Modes of transmission:  The infection occurs by the cysts of Entamoebe present in the stool of infected person.  Houseflies act as mechanical carriers and serve to transmit the parasite from faeces of infected person to food and food products, thereby contaminating them. Drinking water and foodcontaminated by the faecal matter are the main source of infection.
  18. 18. Continues…..  Preventions:  To prevent the infection, the sanitary disposal of faecal matter and cleanliness in the preparation of food should be carefully done.  Adequate rest and replacement of lost fluid.  Ring worm:  This is caused by Trichophyton, Epidermophyton and Microsporum are responsible for ringworm in man.  Modes of transmission:  The infection is generally acquired from soil or by using towel, clothes or even the comb of infected persons  Prevention:  Maintain sanitation and hygiene are the best method for these disease. FUNGI
  19. 19. HELMINTHS  Ascariasis:  It is caused by the common round worm Ascaris lumbricoides. It is a intestinal worm, white in color with Female worm longer then in male.  Modes of transmission:  There is no causative agent, so man acquires infection by directly ingesting Ascaris eggs, with conatminated water.  A healthy person acquires this infection through contaminated water, vegetables, fruits, etc. HELMINTHIC DISEASE (PARASITICWORMS)
  20. 20. Continues…..  Prevention:  Avoiding drinking water contaminated with Cyclops is the prevented measure.  Metronidazole may be used for treatment.  Filaria(Elephantiasis):  It is caused by nematode. Wuchereria bancrofti another species is W.malayi.  The adult worms are slender and few centimeters long, male being shorter than the females.  Modes of transmission:  The pathogen spread from one human being to another through mosquitoes like Culex and to lesser extent by Anopheles and Aedes.  Prevention:  Sleep under the mosquito net, long sleeve and trousers  Use the mosquito repellent on exposed skin.
  21. 21.  Cancer is the uncontrolled growth and spread of cells that arises from a change in one single cell. The change may be started by external agents and inherited genetic factors and can affect almost any part of the body.  The transformation from a normal cell into a tumour cell is a multistage process where growths often invade surrounding tissue and can metastasize to distant sites.  Types of cancer: → Carcinomas. → Sarcomas. → Lymphoma. → Leukaemias.
  22. 22.  Causes:  Transformation of normal cells into cancerous neoplastic cells may be induced by physical, chemical or biological agents. These agents are called carcinogens  Ionising radiations like X-rays and gamma rays and non- ionizing radiations like UV cause DNA damage The chemical carcinogens present in tobacco smoke have been identified as a major cause of lung cancer. Cancer causing viruses called oncogenic viruses have genes called viral oncogenes. leading to neoplastic transformation.  Furthermore, several genes called cellular oncogenes(c- onc) or proto oncogenes have been identified in normal cells which, when activated under certain conditions, could lead to oncogenic transformation of the cells.
  23. 23.  Diagnosis :  cases. Cancer detection is based on biopsy and histopathological studies of the tissue and blood and bone marrow tests for increased cell counts in the case of leukemias.  Techniques like radiography (use of X-rays), CT (computed tomography) and MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) are very useful to detect cancers of the internal organs.  Treatment:  The common approaches for treatment of cancer are surgery, radioactive therapy, chemotherapy and immunotherapy.
  24. 24.  It is a sexually transmitted disease, is caused by a gonococcus bacterium, Neisseria gonorrhoeae.  It can affect both the male and female genitals.  Prvention:  Communicate with all sex partners regarding infection  Less is sexual activity, lower is risk of expression of gonorrhoea. Syphilis  It is caused by cork screw shaped bacterium, Treponema pallidum.  Prevention:  Refrain from sexual activity until infection is gone  Communicate with all sex partners regarding syphilis
  25. 25. Hemophilia:  Caused by the inheritance of one recessive gene on the X (males) or two recessive genes on both X’s (females).  Affects blood – blood does not clot.  Leads to severely increased risk of bleeding from common injuries.  A protein involved in the clothing of blood is affected.  It can be transmitted from generation to generation.  It is also called the Queen Victoria disease.  Diagram of hemophilia.
  26. 26. DOWN’S SYNDROME:  Caused by non-disjunction of the 21st chromosome.  This means that the individual has a trisomy (3 – 2lst chromosomes).
  27. 27. Klinefelter’s syndrome is characterized by trisomy(XXY). There are 47 chromosome instead of normal 46.  most have the cases long legs, as compare to normal legs. Arms also long as normal arms.
  28. 28. TURNERS SYNDROME  It is characterized by monosomy of X0 type.  The individual possess 45 chromosome instead of normal chromosome 46.  Females have less developed parts.
  29. 29. Now lets have some test 1. Aedes aegypti is a vector of  Dengue fever 2. Amoebiasis in human is acquired by?  Contaminated of food with cyst. 3. Ring worm is caused by?  Fungus 4. Elephantiasis is caused by?  Aschelminthes 5. What is the advantages of hemophilia persons?  Never suffer from malaria. 6. Typhoid is classified as

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    Dec. 14, 2016

about human disease

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