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10/1/2009<br />1<br />ENA    PROJECT<br />
10/1/2009<br />2<br />PRESENTED  BY -;<br />VIRALI SHAH<br />STD – 10TH<br />ROLL NO-27<br />
10/1/2009<br />3<br />AGENDA<br /><ul><li>Introduction of modern technology
scope
limitation
acknoleghment
BIBLOGRAPHY</li></li></ul><li>10/1/2009<br />4<br />Introduction       Of     Technology<br />The late twentieth century i...
10/1/2009<br />5<br />
10/1/2009<br />6<br />Scope of technology<br />Research at Bayer Technology Services<br />All Bayer subgroups work closely...
10/1/2009<br />7<br />Scope & Limitation Of Modern Technology<br />
23/10/09<br />CONTINUE…………………………………………………………………….<br />3<br />COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY<br />
computer is a machine that manipulates data according to a set of instructions.<br />Although mechanical examples of compu...
Scope of  Computer technology<br />10/1/2009<br />10<br />COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY<br />Personal computers in their various for...
 the latest  &    modern   Technology<br />10/1/2009<br />11<br />1ST                       TYPE OF MORDERN TECHNOLOGY<br ...
10/1/2009<br />12<br />Scope:  <br /><ul><li>Scalability
Support discrimination of advanced threats
Resistance to countermeasures
Full field of view operation
Transportability</li></li></ul><li>Scope of radar<br />10/1/2009<br />13<br />Since the key to achieving these attributes ...
10/1/2009<br />This time the Anara Tower is expected to be a building that might actually prove to be one of the  wonders ...
10/1/2009<br />15<br />
10/1/2009<br />16<br />
10/1/2009<br />17<br />Modern Wireless Technologies Based On Decades Of Work                                              ...
Bluetooth 3.0 Scheduled For Release On April 21<br />                                     Bluetooth 3.0<br />With the most...
                              One can hardly imagine what it must have been like living in Egypt in the Ancient times? Wha...
Solar table producing electricity for all Day<br />Now you can buy a table where you can sit together with family and in t...
10/1/2009<br />21<br />
Latest Computer Technology<br />First is the Power Supply. The power supply is used to provide electricity to all of the c...
10/1/2009<br />23<br />These portable storage devices make it convenient for us to backup important computer files and to ...
The fifth component is the Hard drive. This is where you can store everything. Our material on the hard drive includes the...
Japanese miracle: 145 inch plasma with 1mm thick<br />The Japanese do not cease to amaze us with their modern technology a...
Advanced Web Hosting Which Is Kindeher To Environment<br />“Modern technology, owes ecology, an apology” is a very famous ...
10/1/2009<br />27<br />
10/1/2009<br />28<br />. <br />[]3MONOPULSE RADAR / RANGE TRACKING / PULSE DETECTION.1<br />* The schemes for angle tracki...
Green Energy For Green Technology<br />Making use of green energy is the only solution to make the web hosting solutions b...
10/1/2009<br />30<br /><ul><li>This method of green hosting is more eco-friendly as they don’t need any power backup. Many...
. Some of the very best green web hosting service providers makes use of the solar power and wind power to generate the el...
the green web hosting methods, the use of alternate energy sources is slowly gaining popularity. Because of the reason tha...
10/1/2009<br />32<br />The complete Gen-H fuel system delivers increased fuel economy between 10% and 50% and significantl...
MODERN TECH SYSTEMS WATERPROOFING<br />Modern Tech Systems Basement Waterproofing was started in Feb of 1996, by owner Ant...
         <br />10/1/2009<br />34<br />Modern Tech Systems Basement Waterproofing is a Company associated with honesty, int...
10/1/2009<br />35<br />             <br />The NV MT 3 (4 x 50) units's impressive magnification and light gathering capabi...
  <br />Yukon Nv Mt 3 Night Vision Monocular<br /> Night Vision 4 Less has a wide range of products but unfortunately the ...
Modern Technology and its Impact on Day-to-Day Life<br />“Modern Technology and its Impact on Day-to-Day life”<br />The ro...
10/1/2009<br />38<br />Modern Technology changed people’s lifestyle and the way they live. For example, now it’s possible ...
10/1/2009<br />39<br />Limitations Of Modern Technology<br />
40<br />LIMITATION OF TECHNOLOGY<br />Technology is a wonderful thing. I am glad to be alive in this age and have access t...
What is the limitation of technology??<br />10/1/2009<br />41<br />After reading the article, "Aftershock Alert Spreads Pa...
Roles alimitations of ICT nd based media for biotechnology firms' innovation<br />10/1/2009<br />42<br />Innovation in ter...
10/1/2009<br />43<br />BIOTECHNOLOGY<br />
10/1/2009<br />44<br />The various chapters in this book document these points very convincingly and relatively exhaustive...
10/1/2009<br />45<br />Limitation of biotechnology transformation<br />1. Techniques for protoplast isolation, culture and...
46<br />New Synthetic Molecules Trigger Immune Response to HIV and Prostate Cancer<br />molecules — called “antibody-recru...
10/1/2009<br />47<br />Limitations of Micropropagation<br />- 1. High production cost has limited the application of this ...
10/1/2009<br />48<br />  <br />Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles<br />Fuel for our gas- or diesel-powered vehicles costs mu...
10/1/2009<br />49<br />Probably the biggest challenge plug-in hybrids have is the cost and weight of batteries. NREL is ex...
10/1/2009<br />50<br />Limitation of computer technology….<br />
10/1/2009<br />51<br />[Improve]<br />[1] Like all machines, a computer needs to be directed and controlled in order to pe...
10/1/2009<br />52<br />[4] Thirdly, computers may be programmed to calculate answers to whatever level of accuracy is spec...
10/1/2009<br />53<br />LIMITATION  OF AGRICULTURAL   TECNOLOGY     <br />
10/1/2009<br />54<br />PROSPECTS AND LIMITATIONS OF AGRICULTURAL BIOTECHNOLOGIES : AN UPDATE 1. INTRODUCTORY REMARKS : BY ...
10/1/2009<br />55<br />Why are we seeing these trends...<br /><ul><li>Land Suitability for SSSG - improving under climate ...
10/1/2009<br />56<br />Percent changein Class 1 - 3 land from 1971 - 2000 to 2040 - 2069 for spring seeded small grains<br />
10/1/2009<br />57<br />progress in our knowledge of plant sciences, including those relevant to agriculture and breeding, ...
10/1/2009<br />58<br />Economic trade-offs to limit nonpoint sources of agricultural pollution e<br />A national model has...
10/1/2009<br />59<br />Photosynthesis Limitations of Grapevine after Treatment with the Fungicide Fludioxonil<br />The aim...
10/1/2009<br />60<br />Profiling the Monascuspilosus Proteome during Nitrogen Limitation<br />Monascus species have the un...
10/1/2009<br />61<br />Scope of biotechnoloy<br />
10/1/2009<br />62<br />.<br />The Scope of Biotechnology: the Indian Advantage<br />Biotechnology may be as old as human c...
10/1/2009<br />63<br />molecular microbiologycal scope<br />We are entering a new and exciting era of microbiological stud...
10/1/2009<br />64<br /><ul><li>of science with amalgamates biology and technology in order to derive productive results fr...
Bioremediation
Gene Therapy
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  1. 1. 10/1/2009<br />1<br />ENA PROJECT<br />
  2. 2. 10/1/2009<br />2<br />PRESENTED BY -;<br />VIRALI SHAH<br />STD – 10TH<br />ROLL NO-27<br />
  3. 3. 10/1/2009<br />3<br />AGENDA<br /><ul><li>Introduction of modern technology
  4. 4. scope
  5. 5. limitation
  6. 6. acknoleghment
  7. 7. BIBLOGRAPHY</li></li></ul><li>10/1/2009<br />4<br />Introduction Of Technology<br />The late twentieth century is undoubtedly the age of technology. Each technological development leads to more sophisticated devices and further scientific advances. Because of the pace of change, it is difficult to obtain a broad overview of the way fundamental science is linked to its everyday applications. Principles of Modern Technology describes<br /> the physical principles on which modern technology is based. Four primary areas have been singled out: computers and microelectronics, communications, nuclear energy and space flight. Each topic is treated in a way that gives the reader an insight into the underlying physics which makes the technology possible as well as the orders of magnitude involved. Based on a course taught at the University of Rochester, the book will be useful both as a textbook for courses in applied physics and engineering and as a reference book. It will be of interest to undergraduates taking introductory physics courses and anyone interested in modern technology<br />
  8. 8. 10/1/2009<br />5<br />
  9. 9. 10/1/2009<br />6<br />Scope of technology<br />Research at Bayer Technology Services<br />All Bayer subgroups work closely with Bayer Technology Services worldwide on of new products, system solutions and production processes in the subgroups technology solutions, particularly in the fields of process technology, plant engineering, automation and product development. This service company evolves innovative technology platforms to speed up development work and support the realization <br />
  10. 10. 10/1/2009<br />7<br />Scope & Limitation Of Modern Technology<br />
  11. 11. 23/10/09<br />CONTINUE…………………………………………………………………….<br />3<br />COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY<br />
  12. 12. computer is a machine that manipulates data according to a set of instructions.<br />Although mechanical examples of computers have existed through much of recorded human history, the first electronic computers were developed in the mid-20th century (1940–1945). These were the size of a large room, consuming as much power as several hundred modern personal computers (PCs).[1] Modern computers based on integrated circuits are millions to billions of times more capable than the early machines, and occupy a fraction of the space.[2] Simple computers are small enough to fit into a wristwatch, and can be powered by a watch battery..<br />10/1/2009<br />9<br />                                    <br />  .<br />Computer technology<br />
  13. 13. Scope of Computer technology<br />10/1/2009<br />10<br />COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY<br />Personal computers in their various forms are icons of the Information Age and are what most people think of as "computers". The embedded computers found in many devices from MP3 players to fighter aircraft and from toys to industrial robots are however the most numerous.<br />The ability to store and execute lists of instructions called programs makes computers extremely versatile, distinguishing them from calculators. The Church–Turing thesis is a mathematical statement of this versatility: any computer with a certain minimum capability is, in principle, capable of performing the same tasks that any other computer can perform. Therefore computers ranging from a mobile phone to a supercomputer are all able to perform the same computational tasks, given enough time and storage capacity<br />
  14. 14. the latest & modern Technology<br />10/1/2009<br />11<br />1ST TYPE OF MORDERN TECHNOLOGY<br />BIOTECHNOLOGY<br />
  15. 15. 10/1/2009<br />12<br />Scope: <br /><ul><li>Scalability
  16. 16. Support discrimination of advanced threats
  17. 17. Resistance to countermeasures
  18. 18. Full field of view operation
  19. 19. Transportability</li></li></ul><li>Scope of radar<br />10/1/2009<br />13<br />Since the key to achieving these attributes is predominantly determined by antenna architecture and technology, the Radar Systems Technology program is focused on high performance architectures and technologies that provide the requisite antenna capabilities at an affordable cost.<br />
  20. 20. 10/1/2009<br />This time the Anara Tower is expected to be a building that might actually prove to be one of the  wonders of the modern world. The Anara tower is 2150 ft tall and its construction will start next year. Even though it will not be the tallest in the world, this construction will be just less than 500 ft shorter than the Burj Dubai, which is located just a few miles away from Anara, and it will be truly massive and amazing.<br />14<br />
  21. 21. 10/1/2009<br />15<br />
  22. 22. 10/1/2009<br />16<br />
  23. 23. 10/1/2009<br />17<br />Modern Wireless Technologies Based On Decades Of Work                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    <br />
  24. 24. Bluetooth 3.0 Scheduled For Release On April 21<br />                                     Bluetooth 3.0<br />With the most popular Bluetooth 2.0 technology that has already taken a toll on all the devices from laptops to mobiles, the advent of the next version is the talk of the town. So what’s new in the 3.0 version? Will it have better speed? Will it have enhanced security options? Will it be very much customizable and user friendly? We need to wait and watch that before we can have our assumptions. This article throws some light on the emerging Bluetooth 3.0 version.<br />The official release of short range Bluetooth 3,.0 for wireless devices is set on April 21. The design and development team has announced that it would release this version and also the specs of the Bluetooth SIG 3.0 version.<br />10/1/2009<br />Continuation………………………………………..<br />18<br />
  25. 25.                               One can hardly imagine what it must have been like living in Egypt in the Ancient times? What did the streets look like, and what the crowd sounded like along with the essence? For over centuries, virtual reality has given us the hope that some day, one may practically be able to tour such places and periods of time as a virtual tourists.<br />Till date none of the virtual reality devices designed yet have been able to stimulate these five senses to a much high degree of reality.<br />The Engineering and Physical Research Council or better abbreviated as EPSRC funding programs has enabled an umber of scientists from the Universities of York and Warwick to believe in the fact it is indeed possible to pinpoint all the necessary expertise to make this a reality in a project that is called by them as ‘Towards Real Virtuality’.<br />The term virtual reality is simply framed by the team of professionals to highlight their aim that they can actually provide a real like experience in which all of the senses may in fact be stimulated in such a pattern that the user may have a fully immersive experience which may create such an environment for them that they can hardly differentiate between reality and virtuality.<br />The teams at York and Warwick are aiming to line up with other experts from Universities of Bradford, Brighton and Bangor in order to develop the device known as the Virtual Cocoon which is also one of the most newly developed real Virtuality device that can actually help stimulating all the five senses in a much more realistic pattern as compared to any other device of present day.<br />10/1/2009<br />Continue……..<br />19<br />
  26. 26. Solar table producing electricity for all Day<br />Now you can buy a table where you can sit together with family and in the same time this table can bring you gain. Probably you are wondering how can be this possible? Simple, this is a solar table who is producing electricity for all day. This solar table is priced at 2200$.<br />10/1/2009<br />20<br />
  27. 27. 10/1/2009<br />21<br />
  28. 28. Latest Computer Technology<br />First is the Power Supply. The power supply is used to provide electricity to all of the components in your computer. It is usually a rectangular box and is usually positioned in one of the corners of the computer. To find it for sure, look to see where the power cable plugs into the back of the computer and you have found the power supply. Most power supplies today are calculatedin wattage and come in 50 watt increments (500 watt, 550, 600, etc<br />Second is the Motherboard. Yes it holds the brain and helps it act together with all the other components of the machine.<br />The third and a very important component of a computer is the CPU (Central Processing Unit), Known as the brain of the computer and nothing is going to happen without it. All major calculation performed by a computer are carried out inside its CPU. It is also responsible for activating and controlling the operations of other units of the system. <br />A fourth component is the RAM (Random Access Memory). RAM is used as momentary working storage for the computer. We have different types of RAM memory . The more RAM you have in your computer, the better your computer will work.. <br />10/1/2009<br />22<br />
  29. 29. 10/1/2009<br />23<br />These portable storage devices make it convenient for us to backup important computer files and to transfer data from one computer to another using USB technology. However, they also create significant security risks for government and corporate employers because proprietary and/or classified data can easily find its way onto these devices. Granted corporate and government policies many times forbid the use of these devices but are the policies followed? The insider threat is a real one concerning the unauthorized copying and storage of proprietary corporate data, e.g., client databases, bids, insider information and research and development data. Private sector government contractors typically have access to classified government data and information. Can you imagine the problems created when classified data migrates onto these portable flash memory devices? Needless to say, these new storage technologies have a high "wow" factor for those of us who live and breath computer technology. But, the same devices are causing CIO's and CSO's to rethink their internal security policies and the nature of their internal threats. <br />
  30. 30. The fifth component is the Hard drive. This is where you can store everything. Our material on the hard drive includes the operating system (Windows XP, etc), games, and different types of software, etc. over the year the capacity of the hard drive is continuously improving and in the interval of few years its capacity have gone fromaround 20MB to over 500GB and more<br />10/1/2009<br />24<br />
  31. 31. Japanese miracle: 145 inch plasma with 1mm thick<br />The Japanese do not cease to amaze us with their modern technology achievements. What we will see in Europe over many years, the PTA panels (plasma dot-matrix) were under development from 2007 in Japan. During the two years they have improved from a 43 inches diagonal , to portray a huge screen of 125 inches. You think that it stops here? Of course not.<br />These days they presented their curved plasma of exactly 145 inches (about 3.68 meters diagonally), consisting of six panels arranged in a matrix of 3 x 2 with an area of 6 square meters and with a resolution of 960 x 720 pixels. Resolution is far from being impressive,but the NIP has some qualities wich will hide this small deficit::weighs only 7.2 kg and measuring 1 mm thick.<br />According to the company producing (Shinoda), this month the 125 inch (960 x 260 pixels) will begin to be marketed widely. For the prototype of 145 inches we still don’thear about its availability. Price in both cases remains a mystery, but we expect something greatzeros.<br />.<br />10/1/2009<br />25<br />
  32. 32. Advanced Web Hosting Which Is Kindeher To Environment<br />“Modern technology, owes ecology, an apology” is a very famous old saying about the great advancements in technology that do good to the mankind but destroy the valuable natural resources. If you look around you, you can see that whenever, there is a technological advancement, there will be an ecological problem associated with. So obviously, the old saying is becoming very much true enough. Things aren’t very different in the case of the web hosting technologies. Unfortunately, technological advancements are very rapid in the case of web hosting and the damage to the environment is greatly increasing each day. Apart from the carbon footprints that the systems of web hosting emit each day, the world’s greatest natural resources abeing re exploited for web hosting today. <br />10/1/2009<br />26<br />
  33. 33. 10/1/2009<br />27<br />
  34. 34. 10/1/2009<br />28<br />. <br />[]3MONOPULSE RADAR / RANGE TRACKING / PULSE DETECTION.1<br />* The schemes for angle tracking a target discussed so far -- lobe switching and conical scan -- have a limitation. As mentioned, the RCS of a target may vary dramatically from one moment to the next. If, say, lobe switching is used by a radar tracking a target, then the radar return may change amplitude drastically from one pulse to the next. The tracking system will think it is losing track on the target when it really isn't, breaking tracking lock. <br />The answer to this difficulty is obvious in hindsight: send multiple pulses with angular offsets at the same time. Suppose a radar transmitter antenna has two feed horns, each slightly offset from the antenna boresight. This arrangement allows two pulses to be sent at the same time, with the returns from both pulses being picked up by the receiver subsystem at the same time. The radar tracking system will be handed both the sum and the difference of these two returns, and will then rotate the antenna to ensure that the sum remains at a maximum and the difference remains at a minimum. This is known as "monopulse" operation. <br />. <br />
  35. 35. Green Energy For Green Technology<br />Making use of green energy is the only solution to make the web hosting solutions become more eco-friendly. Power consumption is not the only harm that the modern web hosting poses to the environment. When compared to the power consumption all other harms such as small carbon foot prints are just negligible. Thankfully there are great alternative options to generate green energy to run the power hungry servers. Some of the very best green web hosting service providers makes use of the solar power and wind power to generate the electricity they need. This method of green hosting is more eco-friendly as they don’t need any power backup. .Many people have misconception that the green energy sources such as the solar energy and wind energy cannot produce necessary energy to run the advanced servers 24/7. The real fact is that these green energy sources can run servers which support advanced Ruby Though most of the Ruby on Rails Hosting service providers have not adopted.<br />10/1/2009<br />29<br />
  36. 36. 10/1/2009<br />30<br /><ul><li>This method of green hosting is more eco-friendly as they don’t need any power backup. Many people have misconception that the green energy sources such as the solar energy and wind energy
  37. 37. . Some of the very best green web hosting service providers makes use of the solar power and wind power to generate the electricity .
  38. 38. the green web hosting methods, the use of alternate energy sources is slowly gaining popularity. Because of the reason that the maintenance and running costs of green energy solutions are less when compared to the conventional sources, the web hosting service providers are happy to adopt it.</li></li></ul><li>10/1/2009<br />31<br />
  39. 39. 10/1/2009<br />32<br />The complete Gen-H fuel system delivers increased fuel economy between 10% and 50% and significantly reduces or eliminates exhaust emissions. The on-demand hydrogen system insures reliable fuel creation without the hazard of hydrogen storage. The Gen-H system creates fuel from water and delivers pure hydrogen and oxygen directly to the vehicle's engine. <br />New applications for the Gen-H water-as-fuel and hydrogen based fuel systems are under constant .<br />
  40. 40. MODERN TECH SYSTEMS WATERPROOFING<br />Modern Tech Systems Basement Waterproofing was started in Feb of 1996, by owner Anthony P. Vitarelli Jr. Tony had previously been a foreman for a nationally known waterproofing franchise since entering this field in 1989. He had discovered that although the company he worked for had a pretty good system installation available, there were many flaws and problems with it that needed to be corrected. He was a trouble-shooter for the company which had originally started way back in the 1960’s. Many jobs were actually improperly installed and he personally corrected hundreds of them.<br />When the company finally decided to relocate out of Connecticut, Tony decided it was time to apply his knowledge and expertise of waterproofing systems and direct it into his own company.<br />Therefore at the start of 1996, Modern Tech Systems Basement Waterproofing was created and immediately exploded onto the scene.<br />10/1/2009<br />33<br />
  41. 41.          <br />10/1/2009<br />34<br />Modern Tech Systems Basement Waterproofing is a Company associated with honesty, integrity, perfection and a complete knowledge of precise customized solutions for all your basement seepage problems. Our commitment to you, our valued consumer, comes with no gimmicks whatsoever, and is the definite way to correct that stress (thorn in your backside), caused by a wet basement!<br />So, for your own personal peace of mind, and for the health of your family, trust in Modern Tech Systems Waterproofing<br />
  42. 42. 10/1/2009<br />35<br />             <br />The NV MT 3 (4 x 50) units's impressive magnification and light gathering capability is great for night vision photogr - - <br />Limitation of Liability: the Carrier’s Ace in the Hole <br />by Steven W. Block November 2000 <br />Reprinted with permission from <br />Marine Digest and Transportation NeWS<br />Everyone knows shipping is a precarious business. Ownership of cargo vessels is <br />marked by huge risk amidst circumstances beyond vessel owners’ awareness, let alone control. Centuries ago, tying up major capital in property designed to brave unpredictable seas was a particularly disenchanting gamble. Especially given scantly available insurance and the absence of corporate cloaks. <br />But centuries ago, waterborne transportation was as – if not more – important to <br />commerce as it is today. So our maritime forefathers devised a system to encourage those with the means and interest to invest in cargo ships. <br />
  43. 43.   <br />Yukon Nv Mt 3 Night Vision Monocular<br /> Night Vision 4 Less has a wide range of products but unfortunately the prices are not cheap as you may hope but the Generation 1’s is considered to be the best deal.<br />For both monocular and binocular night goggles the price starts from $269 and goes up to $649.00.<br />The ATN-VIPER-1 model costs only $269.00 and offer some great photography options, high resolution, heavy coated glass lens, small size and 1x magnification. <br />The most expensive spectrum is the NOU-D-2MV and will set you back no less than $649.00 offering stereoscopic vision, binocular vision, a lightweight set-up, built-in photocell and an optional 3x magnification. <br />10/1/2009<br />36<br />
  44. 44. Modern Technology and its Impact on Day-to-Day Life<br />“Modern Technology and its Impact on Day-to-Day life”<br />The role of Modern Technology and Science is increasing and has major impact on day-to-day lives of today’s people, as it will in the future. One way or another, advancements in Science and Technology are affecting people all around the world, in New York and in an unknown place in Africa. Technology affects people’s lives by improving medicines, provides better treatment for diseases and insures a longer life. It improves transportation by helping people move from one corner of the world to other in hours by using transportation services such as Airways, Railways, or even Bus Transportation<br />10/1/2009<br />37<br />
  45. 45. 10/1/2009<br />38<br />Modern Technology changed people’s lifestyle and the way they live. For example, now it’s possible to surf Internet on TV, watch programs, pause Live TV, and even playback live shows. Internet surfing is a technology revolution. Because of that technology, a person could know what is happening on the other side of the world, chat with others about different matters and even talk using Instant Messaging Services.<br />Recent discoveries and scientific breakthroughs such as Cracking the DNA code and Mapping the Genome may completely change the way people look even before they are born<br /> Watching TV on computers too is possible. Due to Internet, it is now possible to say that the world is at your fingertips.<br />
  46. 46. 10/1/2009<br />39<br />Limitations Of Modern Technology<br />
  47. 47. 40<br />LIMITATION OF TECHNOLOGY<br />Technology is a wonderful thing. I am glad to be alive in this age and have access to the Internet, computers and all the wonders the microchip has brought to our world. The promise this technology holds for us is in many ways immeasurable. This massive computing power applied to the challenges facing our world holds out hope that solutions can be found that will improve the everyday lives of the world's poor. <br />Technology is being harnessed to prepare for a possible avian flu outbreak. A supercomputer at Los Alamos, New Mexico, is running simulations showing how fast and in what patterns an outbreak would spread. The hope is to quickly get a handle on a coming outbreak and lessen the overall impact. Can it be done? Possibly. One certainly hopes so.<br />
  48. 48. What is the limitation of technology??<br />10/1/2009<br />41<br />After reading the article, "Aftershock Alert Spreads Panic in Chinese City " http://www.nytimes.com/ 2008, I realize that Technology has its limitations. Although today's Technoloogy is very advanced, it cannot stop the tragic earthquake in China. Almost 9000 victims are dead, and many properties are demaged. Should we completely trust on Technology? What are the limitations of advanced Techno<br />logy?<br />If you want to read more about the earthquake in China, you can click on the link: <br />
  49. 49. Roles alimitations of ICT nd based media for biotechnology firms' innovation<br />10/1/2009<br />42<br />Innovation in terms of new product development (NPD) in the biotechnology industry is characterised by two salient features: teams operating in the global context and ever-shortening lead times. It is generally recognised that communication plays a key role in facilitating these. But, in recent years, new forms of information communication technology (ICT) based media have emerged to provide electronic infrastructure for e-innovation. The role of these newer media in the innovation process is not well understood. In this paper, six organisations operating in the biotechnology area based in Australia were studied. Results of in-depth interviews with senior representatives of these firms show that, in Australia, there is a need to ensure that the new forms of ICT media are effectively integrated with the traditional forms of communication, and that important issues such as physical propinquity have not been satisfactorily resolved to enable successful NPD using an e-innovation platform. The latter suggests that many issues remain unresolved. This paper attempts to articulate these succinctly<br />
  50. 50. 10/1/2009<br />43<br />BIOTECHNOLOGY<br />
  51. 51. 10/1/2009<br />44<br />The various chapters in this book document these points very convincingly and relatively exhaustively. Thus most aspects of agriculturally relevant biotechnology are covered. Plant tissue culture techniques not only provide essential ways for the clonal propagation of many agriculturally important crops(e.g woody plants ornamentals and vegetables) but they are also the basis for the production of transgenic plants and are at the forefront of recent studies in plant physiology, developmental biology and biochemistry. Spectacular progress in our knowledge of plant sciences, including those relevant to agriculture and breeding, can be expected from the integration of more traditional sciences with molecular and cellular concepts anresearch and molecular breeding (e.g , via map based d techniques. A prime example is seen in the impact molecular genome analysis is already having on traditional breeding (via so called map-based breeding) but also on research and molecular breeding (e.g , via map based gene-cloning) <br />PROSPECTS AND LIMITATIONS OF AGRICULTURAL BIOTECHNOLOGIES<br />It is now generally that the practice of plant breeding will move forward as progress is made in knowledge and technology. <br />Breeders in the future will not only be forced to hone their traditional skills but will also have to integrate them with knowledge and experience to coincide with more recent advancements and technologies derived from cellular and molecular concepts and approaches. For worldwide crops such as potato, rice, maize and in the future wheat , as well as for high value vegetable crops, the future of breeders depends upon the use of a combination of breeding practices (traditional breeding, genetic engineering and tissue culture). In addition to an increasing reliance on breeding, agriculture will also depend on biocontrol to complement and to make possible the use of chemicals that are compatible with intelligent management of the natural resources essential for a sustainable yet highly productive agriculture. <br />The various chapters in this book document these points very convincingly and relatively exhaustively. Thus most aspects of agriculturally relevant biotechnology are covered. Plant tissue culture techniques not only provide essential ways for the clonal propagation of many agriculturally important crops(e.g woody plants ornamentals and vegetables) but they are also the basis for the production of transgenic plants and are at the forefront of recent studies in plant physiology, developmental biology and biochemistry. Spectacular progress in our knowledge of plant sciences, including those relevant to agriculture and breeding, can be expected from the integration of more traditional sciences with molecular and cellular concepts and techniques. A prime example is seen in the impact molecular genome analysis is already having on traditional breeding (via so called map-based breeding) but also on gene-cloning) <br />
  52. 52. 10/1/2009<br />45<br />Limitation of biotechnology transformation<br />1. Techniques for protoplast isolation, culture and fusion are not available for many important crop spezcies like many cereals and pulses.2. In many cases, chromosome elimination occurs from somatic hybrids leading to asymmetric hybrids. Such hybrids may be useful, but there is no control on chromosome elimination. 3. Many somatic hybrids show genetic instability, which may be an inherent feature of some species combinations.4. Many somatic hybrids either do not regenerate or give rise to sterile regenerants. Such hybrids are useless for crop improvement<br />
  53. 53. 46<br />New Synthetic Molecules Trigger Immune Response to HIV and Prostate Cancer<br />molecules — called “antibody-recruiting molecule targeting HIV” (ARM-H) and “antibody-recruiting molecule targeting prostate cancer” (ARM-P) — work by binding simultaneously to an antibody already present in the bloodstream and to proteins on HIV, HIV-infected cells and cancer cells. By coating these pathogens in antibodies, the molecules flag them as a threat and trigger the body’s own immune response. In the case of ARM-H, by binding to proteins on the outside of the virus, they also prevent healthy human cells from being infected<br />Because both HIV and cancer have methods for evading the body’s immune system, treatments and vaccinations for the two diseases have proven difficult. Current treatment options for HIV and prostate cancer — including antiviral drugs, radiation and chemotherapy — involve severe side effects and are often ineffective against advanced cases. While there are some antibody drugs available, they are difficult to produce in large quantities and are costly. They also must be injected and are accompanied by severe side effects of their own<br />
  54. 54. 10/1/2009<br />47<br />Limitations of Micropropagation<br />- 1. High production cost has limited the application of this technique to more valuable ornamental crops and some fruit trees.2. Suitable techniques of micropropagation are not available for many valuable species, e.g., mango, coconut, etc.3. Somaclonal variation may arise during in vitro culture, especially when a callus phase is involved. In some ornamentals, the variants have even been used as new varieties.4. Vitrification may be a problem in some species<br />
  55. 55. 10/1/2009<br />48<br />  <br />Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles<br />Fuel for our gas- or diesel-powered vehicles costs much more per mile than the power needed for an electric vehicle. Electric vehicles are also clean, quiet, largely independent of imported petroleum, and can be powered using wind generation or another source of renewable electricity.<br />A roadblock to success for electric vehicles has been their limited range. With hybrid-electric technology, however, that roadblock can now readily be overcome. Add extra batteries to a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) and a way to "plug them in" and you can drive most of a typical day's mileage on clean, less expensive electricity, but still have an easily refillable fuel tank for longer trips. Some HEVs have already been converted to plug-ins and Mercedes-Benz is now making limited numbers of a demonstration plug-in Sprinter van.<br />.<br />
  56. 56. 10/1/2009<br />49<br />Probably the biggest challenge plug-in hybrids have is the cost and weight of batteries. NREL is extensively researching thermal management, modeling, and systems solutions for energy storage technology. Even at today's battery costs, however, plug-ins may be able to repay their costs within a few years. NREL scientists and engineers also research improved power electronics critical to hybrid efficiency and conduct sophisticated modeling and analysis essential to showing the economic viability of plug-ins and identifying key areas for improvement<br />
  57. 57. 10/1/2009<br />50<br />Limitation of computer technology….<br />
  58. 58. 10/1/2009<br />51<br />[Improve]<br />[1] Like all machines, a computer needs to be directed and controlled in order to perform a task successfully. Until such time as a program is prepared and stored in the computer's memory, the computer "knows" absolutely nothing, not even how to accept or reject data. Even the most sophisticated computer, no matter how capable it is, must be told what to do. Until the capabilities and the limitations of a computer are recognized, its usefulness cannot be thoroughly understood. [2] In the first place, it should be recognized that computers are capable of doing repetitive operations. A computer can perform similar operations thousands of times, without becoming bored, tired, or even careless. [3] Secondly, computers can process information at extremely rapid rates. For example, modem computers can solve certain classes of arithmetic problems millions of times faster than a skilled mathematician. Speeds for performing decision-making operations are comparable to those for arithmetic operations but input-output operations, however, involve mechanical motion and hence require more time. <br />
  59. 59. 10/1/2009<br />52<br />[4] Thirdly, computers may be programmed to calculate answers to whatever level of accuracy is specified by the programmer. In spite of newspaper headlines such as 'Computer Fails', these machines are very accurate and reliable especially when the number of operations they can perform every second is considered. Because they are man-made machines, they sometimes malfunction or break down and have to be repaired. However, in most instances when the computer fails, it is due to human error and is not the fault of the computer at all. [5] In the fourth place, general-purpose computers can be programmed to solve various types of problems because of their flexibility. One of the most important reasons why computers are so widely used today is that almost every big problem can be solved by solving a number of little problems - one after another<br />
  60. 60. 10/1/2009<br />53<br />LIMITATION OF AGRICULTURAL TECNOLOGY <br />
  61. 61. 10/1/2009<br />54<br />PROSPECTS AND LIMITATIONS OF AGRICULTURAL BIOTECHNOLOGIES : AN UPDATE 1. INTRODUCTORY REMARKS : BY JEFF SCHELL <br />It is now generally that the practice of plant breeding will move forward as progress is made in knowledge and technology. <br />Breeders in the future will not only be forced to hone their traditional skills but will also have to integrate them with knowledge and experience to coincide with more recent advancements and technologies derived from cellular and molecular concepts and approaches. For worldwide crops such as potato, rice, maize and in the future wheat , as well as for high value vegetable crops, the future of breeders depends upon the use of a combination of breeding practices (traditional breeding, genetic engineering and tissue culture). In addition to an increasing reliance on breeding, agriculture will also depend on biocontrol to complement and to make possible the use of chemicals that are compatible with intelligent management of the natural resources essential for a sustainable yet highly productive agriculture. <br />The various chapters in this book document these points very convincingly and relatively exhaustively. Thus most aspects of agriculturally relevant biotechnology are covered. Plant tissue culture techniques not only provide essential ways for the clonal propagation of many agriculturally important crops(e.g woody plants ornamentals and vegetables) but they are also the basis for the production of transgenic plants and are at the forefront of recent studies in plant physiology, developmental biology and biochemistry. <br />
  62. 62. 10/1/2009<br />55<br />Why are we seeing these trends...<br /><ul><li>Land Suitability for SSSG - improving under climate change </li></ul>Crops will be seeded earlier and mature quicker with increases in temperature (21-30 days earlier by 2080s) <br />Increases in P expected in spring, followed by drier than normal conditions in summer months <br />Limitations to the findings...<br />Seasonal and inter - seasonal variability in 30 years <br />average monthly climate data was not considered <br />Precipitation will be spatially and temporally variable <br />improvements in precip modeling could be made <br />Findings do not identify trends in crop production (quantity or quality) <br />Assumptions and limitations to the LSRS <br />e.g. based on current agricultural technology and crop varieties<br />
  63. 63. 10/1/2009<br />56<br />Percent changein Class 1 - 3 land from 1971 - 2000 to 2040 - 2069 for spring seeded small grains<br />
  64. 64. 10/1/2009<br />57<br />progress in our knowledge of plant sciences, including those relevant to agriculture and breeding, can be expected from the integration of more traditional sciences with molecular and cellular concepts and techniques. A prime example is seen in the impact molecular genome analysis is already having on traditional breeding (via so called map-based breeding) but also on research and molecular breeding (e.g , via map based gene-cloning) <br />This rosy description of the future of genetic engineering is richly tempered in this book by a realistic assessment of the many problems that still need to be faced before what is predicted can be accomplished<br />UNESCO), the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the World Bank through its many international agricultural research centers, like those in Mexico and the Philippines, where Green Revolution originated, International agriculture in the latter half of the 20th century was dominated by the Green Revolution, Considering the power and potential of agricultural biotechnology, it is likely that the Gene Revolution will dominate the agriculture of the 21st century. Like the Green Revolution, it may help accelerate the rate of food productions, save lives from hunger, create livelihoods in rural households, save large tracts of land that would otherwise be needed for food production, reduce birth rates, ensure low food prices, stimulate broad-based economic growth, expand world trade, and help create a sustainable agricultural system for future generations. Finally, it should be understood that although plant breeding has long been, and will continue in the future, to be indispensable for plant improvement, it must now be complemented and supplemented by molecular breeding and genetic transformation, in order to establish a sustainable agricultural system for the 21st century<br />
  65. 65. 10/1/2009<br />58<br />Economic trade-offs to limit nonpoint sources of agricultural pollution e<br />A national model has been built which allows analysis of physical and economic trade-offs as soil loss per acre is limited to specified levels in each major land group of the nation. Crop variables with their associated conservation practices are developed for each of 1891 land groups in 223 agricultural producing regions and 51 water supply regions. The regions and soil groups are made interdependent through regional commodity demands and a transportation submodel. Hence, changes in cropping systems and erosion control practices in one region are simultaneously expressed in effects on other regions. Soil loss limits are set at 10, 5, and 3 t per acre. The 10 t limit does not have a large impact on interregional production patterns and farm comodity prices. However, the 5 and 3 t limits, either singularly or in combination with different export levels, cause rather marked increases in commodity prices. Also at limits of 5 and 3 t, considerable shifts take place among regions in the crops grown and the erosion control methods used. Regions with erosive soils sacrificed in reduced income; regions with level soils can crop more intensely and gain greater income. Conservation practices such as reduced tillage increase the amount of pesticides needed in some regions and pose special environmental problems. The South Atlantic region is affected most by soil loss limits to control nonpoint pollution. The Great Plains regions with more level land and limited rainfall are affected least<br />
  66. 66. 10/1/2009<br />59<br />Photosynthesis Limitations of Grapevine after Treatment with the Fungicide Fludioxonil<br />The aim of this work was to determine the major limitations to photosynthesis induced by the fungicide fludioxonil (fdx) on nontarget grapevines using cutting as a model. The fdx treatments (1.2, 6, and 30 mM) induced a net photosynthetic rate (Pn) decrease without changes in stomatal conductance, suggesting a nonstomatal limitation. Fdx effects on Pn were related neither to photosynthetic capacity alteration in leaves nor to loss in PSII activity. The mechanism underlying photosynthesis reduction differed according to the concentration. Fdx at 6 mM led to an increase of light requirement for photosynthesis while 30 mMfdx induced an increase in the respiration rate in the light. Pn decrease after 1.2 mMfdx could rather be related to wetness caused by the spraying than to fungicide toxicity.<br />
  67. 67. 10/1/2009<br />60<br />Profiling the Monascuspilosus Proteome during Nitrogen Limitation<br />Monascus species have the unique ability to economically produce many secondary metabolites. However, the influence of nitrogen limitation on Monascus secondary metabolite production and metabolic performance remains unclear. Varying the carbon/nitrogen (C/N) ratios in the range from 20 to 60 in cultivation of Monascuspilosus by glucose nitrate medium, our resulting data showed that red pigment production was significantly suppressed and more sensitive to nitrogen limitation than cellular biomass growth at a C/N ratio of 60. Using a comparative spectrometry, proteins with modified expression in the nitrogen-limited (C/N ratio 60) Monascus filamentous cells were identified. The results revealed that the deregulated proteins identified were involved in amino acid biosynthesis, protein translation, antioxidant-related enzymes, glycolysis, and transcriptional regulation. The results suggested that, under nitrogen limitation-induced suppression of protein translation and of expression of the related energy-generating enzymes, nitrogen limitation induced a switch of metabolic flux from glycolysis to the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle for maintaining cellular energy homeostasis, resulting in repression of the metabolic shift of the polyketide biosynthesis pathway for red pigment production<br />
  68. 68. 10/1/2009<br />61<br />Scope of biotechnoloy<br />
  69. 69. 10/1/2009<br />62<br />.<br />The Scope of Biotechnology: the Indian Advantage<br />Biotechnology may be as old as human civilization but modern biotechnology is less than three decades old. Traditional Biotechnology that led to the development of processes for producing products like yogurt, Vinegar, alcohol and cheese was entirely empirical and bereft of any understanding of the mechanisms that led to the product. There was no possibility of a deliberate design to produce a desired new product.In modern biotechnology, we use the in- depth understanding we have gained in the last five decades. The mechanisms that underlie the variety of functions performed by living organisms, to produce a desired new or old product. In the case of an established product, the new biotechnological process is cheaper and better in many respects than the earlier processes.Modern biotechnology has been, infact, an historical imperative. Its emergence on the world scene was predicted at least four decades ago. The term, genetic engineering, was coined independently in 1973 by the author of an article in The Guardian in the UK, and in a syndicated article by the present author in India.<br />
  70. 70. 10/1/2009<br />63<br />molecular microbiologycal scope<br />We are entering a new and exciting era of microbiological study and application. Recent advances in the now established disciplines of genomics, proteomics and bioinformatics, together with extensive cooperation between academic and industrial concerns have brought about an integration of basic and applied microbiology as never before. The 'Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology' (JMMB) aims to reflect this development by publishing original research papers from all areas of microbiology and biotechnology. It also features written symposia on selected topics, timely reviews, minireviews, and a section devoted to correspondence and comments. Topics addressed in JMMB include microbial and human population control <br />global climatic and environmental concerns <br />basic and applied aspects of unculturable microbes <br />problems in microbial, plant, animal and human pathogenicity<br />mechanisms and consequences of intercellular communication <br />industrial applications of genetically modified microbes <br />genetic engineering for the production of man-made macromolecules <br />gene, protein, and ligand delivery systems <br />evolutionary studies of microbes and biological macromolecules and <br />the development of new microbiological technologies <br />
  71. 71. 10/1/2009<br />64<br /><ul><li>of science with amalgamates biology and technology in order to derive productive results from biological organisms through technological applications. Although modern technology is relatively a newer field of study, the element of biotechnology has been profound in many forms of traditional practices by man. This includes production of vinegar, alcoholic beverages, yogurt, cheese and many more. The understanding and application of biotechnology adds great value to various aspects of life. Biotechnology can be used as an effective tool for food production, food storing, environmental conservation and preservation, development of important life saving drugs and vaccines etc and many more. It involves production of newer and viable products or developing older products into cheaper and more effecting forms. With the value addition of biotechnology, today it engulfs many disciplines of science and technology. They include:
  72. 72. Bioremediation
  73. 73. Gene Therapy
  74. 74. Photosynthetic efficiency
  75. 75. Immuno-technologies
  76. 76. Genetic engineering</li></ul>Tissue culture <br /><ul><li>Enzyme engineering
  77. 77. Biosensor </li></li></ul><li>10/1/2009<br />65<br />SCOPE OF COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY<br />
  78. 78. 10/1/2009<br />66<br />What is the scope in computer science engineering and what will it be in four years?<br />Computer software engineers apply the principles of computer science and mathematical analysis to the design, development, testing, and evaluation of the software and systems that make computers work. The tasks performed by these workers evolve quickly, reflecting new areas of specialization or changes in technology, as well as the preferences and practices of employers. (A separate section on computer hardware engineers appears in the engineers section of the Handbook.) Software engineers can be involved in the design and development of many types of software, including computer games, word processing and business applications, operating systems and network distribution, and compilers, which convert programs to machine language for execution on a computer. <br />Computer applications software engineers analyze users' needs and design, construct, and maintain general computer applications software or specialized utility programs. These workers use different programming languages, depending on the purpose of the program. The programming languages most often used are C, C++, and Java, with Fortran and COBOL used less commonly. Some software engineers develop both packaged systems and systems software or create customized applications. <br />Computer systems software engineers coordinate the construction, maintenance, and expansion of an organization's computer systems. Working with the organization, they coordinate each department's computer needs-ordering, inventory, billing, and payroll recordkeeping, for example-and make suggestions about its technical direction. They also might set up the organization's intranets-networks that link computers within the organization and ease communication among various departments. <br />
  79. 79. 10/1/2009<br />67<br />IION TECHNOLOGY , ITs scope and Its futINFORMATION TECHNOLOGY , ITs scope and Its future<br />Introduction<br />Information Technology refers to the management and use of the information using computer-based tools. It can refer to both hardware and software. Mostly, it is the term used to refer to business applications of computer technology rather than scientific applications.<br />Information Technology (IT) can be used potentially in every sector of the economy. Information Technology has been a dynamic sector in many developed economies and India has stood out a<br />s a developing country where IT sector has grown indefinitely . Information Technology jobs in India are the first choice career for the bright brains who are innovative. Hence, IT jobs in India are also booming with increasing demand for information technology professionals. <br /> <br />The IT industry has great scope for people as it provides emp<br /> <br />loyment to technical and non-technical graduates and has the capability to generate huge foreign exchange inflow for India. India exports software’s and services to approximately 95 countries in the world.<br />Many countries get benefits in terms of labor costs and<br />ure<br />Introduction<br />Information Technology refers to the management and use of the information using computer-based tools. It can refer to both hardware and software. Mostly, it is the term used to refer to business applications of computer technology rather than scientific applications.<br />Information Technology (IT) can be used potentially in every sector of the economy. Information Technology has been a dynamic sector in many developed economies and India has stood out a<br />s a developing country where IT sector has grown indefinitely . Information Technology jobs in India are the first choice career for the bright brains who are innovative. Hence, IT jobs in India are also booming with increasing demand for information technology professionals. <br /> <br />The IT industry has great scope for people as it provides emp<br /> <br />loyment to technical and non-technical graduates and has the capability to generate huge foreign exchange inflow for India. India exports software’s and services to approximately 95 countries in the world.<br />Many countries get benefits in terms of labor costs and<br />What is the scope of information technology in future?<br />We use the term information technology or IT to refer to an entire industry. In actuality, information technology is the use of computers and software to manage information. In some companies, this is referred to as Management Information Services (or MIS) or simply as Information Services (or IS). The information technology department of a large company would be responsible for storing information, protecting information, processing the information, transmitting the information as necessary, and later retrieving information as necessary<br />
  80. 80. 10/1/2009<br />68<br />Future Scope – A Networked World<br />By Stephan De Maria and Eleanor Mallory, SAP AG – 05/28/2003<br />Discovering new ways to think about and approach SAP's own product development, as well as stimulating discussion and the active exchange of innovative ideas. These are the goals of a new SAP-internal lecture series called "Future Scope." This event series is a mix of presentations, demonstrations, and workshops designed to give SAP employees the opportunity to experience the compelling technology and business innovations currently being developed by prestigious global research institutes – and discover what these new ideas could mean for SAP, its product portfolio, and software tools of tomorrow. <br />In the second lecture of the "Future Scope" series, Professor FriedemannMattern, of the Institute for Pervasive Computing at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich, and Professor Elgar Fleisch, of the Institute for Technology Management at the University of St. Gallen (HSG), were guest speakers in SAP University's Audimax auditorium. In two lively presentations, they demonstrated the direct impact that the realization of future computer technology goals will have on our daily lives. <br />
  81. 81. 10/1/2009<br />69<br />SCOPE OF AGRICULTUREAL TECHNOLOGY<br />
  82. 82. 10/1/2009<br />70<br />Scope of BiotechnologyGenetic engineering: Genetic Engineering of microbes, plants and animals (including marine animals). Genetic engineering implies conferring new capabilities on an organism by Transferring into an organism the appropriate DNA (De oxyribo Nucleic Acid, the genetic material) of another having these capabilities does this. Then ensures that these capabilities are converted into abilities. Thus the common yeast, Sacchromycescerevisciae cannot make the protein, human insulin, but we can make it to do so by introducing in it the gene for human insulin (that is, the appropriate DNA fragment coding for this protein). After integrating the insulin gene in yeast DNA, creates condition for the insulin to express itself to produce insulin through the normal process of transfer of information from DNA to protein.Genetically engineered microbes are today widely used for producing drugs and vaccines in large scale at low costs that are of great importance (human insulin, erythropoietin, and hepatitis-B vaccine). For example genetically engineered plants that make their own pesticides or are resistant to weedicides- are already in the market. Thus, over 60 percent of the acreage under soyabean in the United States have now genetically engineered soyabean that is resistant to the weedicides, Roundup. The total acreage under genetically engineered crops (for good or for bad) around the world exceeds 100 million acres today.Genetically engineering plants are also poised to produce vaccines. A few hundred acres of genetically engineered banana plantation can provide enough vaccine to immunize 120<br />
  83. 83. 10/1/2009<br />71<br />The Future of Agricultural Biotechnology<br />The application of biological sciences in agriculture has become increasingly prominent in the past decade. Genes were first inserted into corn using molecular techniques in 1989, and by the late 1990s farmers were growing millions of acres of transgenic corn. Clearly, the science of biotechnology for agriculture is in its infancy, yet it shows an influence beyond its years.<br />The previous chapters review what is known about the environmental impact of commercialized transgenic crops and approaches for monitoring that might be adapted to screen for their unanticipated effects. One key finding is that particular phenotypic characteristics of a given transgenic plant determine its likely environmental interactions; the fact that recombinant DNA methods were used in its development only indirectly affects these interactions by influencing the phenotypic characteristics of the transgenic plant. Indeed, the significance of biotechnology for environmental risk resides primarily in the fact that a much broader array of phenotypic traits can be incorporated into crop plants than was possible about a decade ago. As such, our experience with the few herbicide-tolerant and insect- and disease-resistant varieties that have been commercialized to date provides a very limited basis for predicting questions needed to be asked when future plants with very different phenotypic traits are assessed for environmental risks.<br />
  84. 84. 10/1/2009<br />72<br />END OF THE PROJECT<br />
  85. 85. 10/1/2009<br />73<br />ACKNOLEDGEMENT<br />I AM VERY THANKFUL TO MR RAJENDRA WHO GAVE ME THIS PROJECT SO I CAME TO KNOW ABOUT DIFFERENT THINGS AND HOW OUR EARTH IS ADVANCING AND ALSO HOW THIS DEVELOPMENT HAVE ADVERSE EFFECT WHICH IS CAUSED DUE TO HUMANB AGTIVITIES AND INDUSTRIALIZATION …..<br />
  86. 86. 10/1/2009<br />74<br />BIBLIOGRAPHY<br /><ul><li>WWW.GOOGLE.COM
  87. 87. WWW.ASK.COM
  88. 88. WWW.ULTRAVISTA.COM
  89. 89. WWW.YAHOO.COM</li>

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