Sports and fitness

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Sports and fitness

  1. 1. QwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzSports/fitness TherapySubmitted by: Ayesha Mehboob &Sumera Mumtaz05-Jun-13Submitted to : Mam SaimaAhsanHOD APFOUNDATION UNIVERSITY
  2. 2. Sports/fitness Therapy1Sport and Health/ fitness therapySport and fitness psychology focuses on research, theory, and practice intended to improveperformance in sport and exercise settings. Researchers in the field attempt to understand howpsychological factors affect motor performance and how participation in physical activity affectspsychological development. Practitioners are concerned with the effects of social andpsychological interventions on the well–being of athletes, teams, coaches, parents, spectators,trainers, exercisers, and participants engaged in physical activities.Issues Sports Psychology Focus On:General areas of interest include peak performance, managing stress and anxiety, managingmood, rehabilitation from injury, exercise adherence, and health promotion. Areas of scientificinquiry include understanding the psychological motivation to attain a goal and endure;psychological ramifications as a result of injuries; counseling techniques with athletes; assessingtalent; exercise adherence and well-being; one‟s one view of achieving; expertise in sport; youthsport; coaching technique; and methods that increase performance and techniques for self-regulating.History of Sports / Fitness PsychologySport and fitness psychology dates back more than 100 years. Coleman Griffith, in his era (1921-1938), was the first American to specialize in the discipline. The academic discipline of sportpsychology began to be established in the time frame 1966-1977, within physical educationdepartments. From 1978-2000, there was tremendous growth in the field as it became moreknown and respected by the public. Since 2000, the field has grown worldwide, research hasgrown in diversity, and application and consulting have flourished. It used to be the perceptionthat only elite and Olympic athletes utilized the services of sport psychologists. Today, eliteathletes, college and high school athletes, and coaches utilize the services of sport psychologistsin order to increase enjoyment and improve performance. Fitness and exercise psychology iswidely applied in physical activity settings by fitness specialists and trainers.Training and Practice of Sports PsychologySport psychologists are competent in promoting best practices in mental training techniques.They have knowledge of psychology and exercise and sport science. Clinical sport psychologistsare trained to address clinical issues such as mood disorders, substance abuse, and disorderedeating. Educational sport psychology specialists have training that allows them to deliverknowledge of mental skills, but they do not treat emotional disorders.What is Sports Therapy?
  3. 3. Sports/fitness Therapy2Sports Therapy is an aspect of healthcare that is specifically concerned with the prevention ofinjury and the rehabilitation of the patient back to optimum levels of functional, occupational andsports specific fitness, regardless of age and ability.It utilizes the principles of sport and exercise sciences incorporating physiological andpathological processes to prepare the participant for training, competition and where applicable,work.What is a Sports Therapist?A Sports Therapist is a practitioner who:• Has the knowledge and ability to provide first aid and attend to injuries in a recreational,training and competitive environment.• Has the knowledge and ability to assess and, where appropriate, refer on for specialist adviceand intervention.• Has the knowledge and ability to provide sports massage pre and post activity.• Has the knowledge and ability to implement appropriate rehabilitation programs.• Has the knowledge to utilize sports and exercise principles to optimize preparation and injuryprevention programs.In sport, a Sports Therapist helps injured athletes return to full performance, after injury. Injurytreatment varies according to the sport or activity involved. A qualified Sports Therapist adviseson prevention of injuries and can examine, assess and treat those that do occur, as well as helpingwith the rehabilitation process.What Techniques do Sports Therapists Use?Techniques which are often used in treatment include:Sports MassageElectrotherapy (Ultrasound/Interferential/TENS)Taping (Strapping)Muscle stretching techniques (including muscle energy techniques)Muscle strengtheningCore stability trainingProprioception training
  4. 4. Sports/fitness Therapy3Health, Sport & Well-beingDuring recent decades, there has been a progressive decline in the level of physical activity inpeoples daily lives in developed countries. For a majority of people, little physical effort isinvolved any more in their work, domestic chores, transportation and leisure. Whilst specifichealth risks differ between countries and regions, the fact remains that physical inactivity is amajor risk factor for most common non-communicable diseases and physical activity cancounteract many of the ill effects of inactivity.Defining HealthOne of the most widely-used definitions of health is that of the WHO, which defines healthas: “a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absenceof disease or infirmity”. This definition goes well beyond a condition of physical health butincludes mental health and general well-being.Physical Activity and HealthSport and physical activity has long been used as a tool to improve mental, physical and socialwell-being. Physical inactivity is a major risk factor associated with a large number of lifestylediseases such as cardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetes and obesity. Sport projects thatspecifically focus on health outcomes generally emphasize:The promotion of healthy lifestyle choices among children and young people as well asadults to combat inactivity;The use of sport as a tool to raise awareness on communicable diseases in developingcountries, for example, through district or national health campaigns supported byathletes and sports competitions;The use of sport as a didactical tool to communicate vital health-related information to„at risk‟ groups;The use of sport to mobilize hard-to-reach groups as part of large-scale healthcampaigns, including for example, communities with low population density;Sport is considered to contribute to achieving mental health objectives, includingaddressing depression and stress-related disorders.
  5. 5. Sports/fitness Therapy4The Health Benefits of Sport and Physical ActivityAlthough research interest on physical activity and health dates back to the 1950s, thebreakthrough in the scientific evidence on health benefits of physical activity largely tookplace during the 1980s and 1990s. There is an overwhelming amount of scientificevidence on the positive effects of sport and physical activity as part of a healthylifestyle. The positive, direct effects of engaging in regular physical activity areparticularly apparent in the prevention of several chronic diseases, including:cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer, hypertension, obesity, depression andosteoporosis.The Report from the United Nations Inter-Agency Task Force on Sport for Developmentand Peace states that young people can benefit from physical activity as it contributes todeveloping healthy bones, efficient heart and lung function as well as improved motorskills and cognitive function. Physical activity can help to prevent hip fractures amongwomen and reduce the effects of osteoporosis. Remaining physically active can enhancefunctional capacity among older people, and can help to maintain quality of life andindependence.Physical activity and psychosocial healthThe WHO has estimated that “one in four patients visiting a health service has at leastone mental, neurological or behavioral disorder, but most of these disorders are neitherdiagnosed nor treated”. A number of studies have shown that exercise may play atherapeutic role in addressing a number of psychological disorders. Studies alsoshow that exercise has a positive influence on depression. Physical self-worth andphysical self-perception, including body image, has been linked to improved self-esteem.The evidence relating to health benefits of physical activity predominantly focuses onintra-personal factors such as physiological, cognitive and affective benefits, however,that does not exclude the social and inter-personal benefits of sport and physical activitywhich can also produce positive health effects in individuals and communities.Sport and Physical Activity as part of a Healthy LifestyleA number of factors influence the way in which sport and physical activity impacts onhealth in different populations. Sport and physical activity in itself may not directly leadto benefits but, in combination with other factors, can promote healthy lifestyles. There isevidence to suggest that changes in the environment can have a significant impact onopportunities for participation and in addition, the conditions under which the activity istaking place can heavily impact on health outcomes. Elements that may be determinantson health include nutrition, intensity and type of physical activity, appropriate footwearand clothing, climate, injury, stress levels and sleep patterns.Sport and physical activity can make a substantial contribution to the well-being of
  6. 6. Sports/fitness Therapy5people in developing countries. Exercise, physical activity and sport have long been usedin the treatment and rehabilitation of communicable and non-communicable diseases.Physical activity for individuals is a strong means for the prevention of diseases and fornations is a cost-effective method to improve public health across populations.Sport, Physical Activity and Risk Factors for Major DiseasesCardiovascular diseasesCardiovascular diseases include coronary heart disease and stroke and are the leading causes ofdeath globally. Causes of cardiovascular disease are unhealthy diets, physical inactivity andtobacco use. Physical activity reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease by improving glucosemetabolism, reducing body fat and lowering blood pressure.DiabetesDiabetes is a disease which occurs when the body does not produce or properly use insulin andthis may result in Type I or Type II diabetes. Diabetes may be prevented, or at least delayed, byweight loss, a healthy lifestyle, in particular,regular physical activity. Diet, drug therapy andphysical activity are also major components of the treatment of diabetes.ObesityObesity is an abnormal accumulation of fat that may impair health and unlike other diseases,social and environmental factors play a significant role in defining obesity. The incidence ofobesity is a growing concern internationally with an estimated 400 million obese people in 2005.The global rise in the incidence of obesity is related to a shift in diet and decreased physicalactivity levels.CancerCancer is not a single disease with a single type of treatment and in fact, there are over 200 typesof cancer involving abnormal growth of cells in different parts of the body. It has been estimatedthat 40% of all cancers may be prevented by a healthy diet, physical activity and no tobacco use.Mental healthOne in four patients visiting a health service has at least one mental, neurological or behavioraldisorder (such as depression, anxiety or mood disorders) that may not be diagnosed or treated.There is evidence to suggest thatphysical activity can reduce the symptoms of depression and canalso be help to ameliorate mental well-being through improved mood and self-perception.
  7. 7. Sports/fitness Therapy6Sports therapist:Job descriptionSports therapists give advice to athletes on how to train and compete safely, as well as treatinjuries and assist with rehabilitation. Their aim is to prevent injuries and to help those who areinjured to return to full fitness.Sports therapy and rehabilitation is concerned with musculoskeletal conditions arising fromsporting activity, not with general healthcare. It focuses on understanding and preventing sportsinjuries and dealing with the effects of physical and emotional trauma due to sports injuries.Sports therapists may work in sports injuries clinics or may work directly with a sports club orsportsperson, either professional or amateur. Many therapists combine working in this disciplinewith other sports-related roles. They may have a range of clients and workplaces, rather thanbeing employed by one organization.A similar job role is sports rehabilitator, as they also deal with musculoskeletal management andexercise-based rehabilitation and fitness. They are regulated by British Association of SportRehabilitators and Trainers (BASRaT) who accredit individual sports rehabilitation course. Thecourse is three years long. However, the role is graduate level and is the course is only availableat seven further education institutions.Typical work activitiesA sports therapist may be involved in any or all of the following activities:conducting an assessment of the players or athletes readiness and advising on exercisesprior to an event or fixture;testing joints for ease and range of movement;strapping, taping, offering massage and preparing players or athletes physically andmentally;providing first aid;examining and assessing injuries and determining whether the athlete can continue playingor taking part;examining and assessing injuries and dealing with traumas, e.g. cuts, bruises and blisters;treating injuries, alleviating pain, mobilising injuries, giving various types of massage;rehabilitating injuries by using manipulative techniques, apparatus and electrotherapy;designing and monitoring rehabilitation programmes appropriate to the injury and the sport;deciding whether athletes or players need extra treatments and coordinating referrals to otherpractitioners;advising players or athletes on diet and nutrition (when therapists are appropriately trained);working alone or with coaches, trainers and/or fitness advisers to implement exercise,conditioning, core stability and injury prevention programmes, so that athletes reach andmaintain peak performance;
  8. 8. Sports/fitness Therapy7liaising with other health professionals in the sports sector and in mainstream medicine.Sports therapists give advice to athletes on how to train and compete safely, as well as treatinjuries and assist with rehabilitation. Their aim is to prevent injuries and to help those who areinjured to return to full fitness.Sports therapy and rehabilitation is concerned with musculoskeletal conditions arising fromsporting activity, not with general healthcare. It focuses on understanding and preventing sportsinjuries and dealing with the effects of physical and emotional trauma due to sports injuries.Sports therapists may work in sports injuries clinics or may work directly with a sports club orsportsperson, either professional or amateur. Many therapists combine working in this disciplinewith other sports-related roles. They may have a range of clients and workplaces, rather thanbeing employed by one organization.Association for applied sports psychology provides some remedies for healthcare:Professional Resources for Sport and Exercise PsychologyProfessional development includes formal and informal means for improving current skills andacquiring new skills. It provides students and professionals increased insights into their teaching,research, consulting, and service in applied sport and exercisepsychology. Professional development should lead to professionalgrowth. It is an essential activity of professionals as well as students.AASP promotes systemic, continued growth leading to professionalexcellence.Health & Fitness ResourcesWhy don‟t people exercise when they know it‟s good for them? Why doso many people begin an exercise program, only to drop out after a fewweeks? What are the best ways to encourage people to become morephysically active?The answers to these questions are complex, but have huge implicationsfor people‟s health and well-being, particularly in a society that is aging and concerned aboutliving longer andbetter.CCs-AASP are working to better understand the factors that contribute to initial and sustainedinvolvement in physical activity across age groups, gender, ethnicity, and other individual
  9. 9. Sports/fitness Therapy8difference factors. They are also interested in exploring the positive psychological outcomesassociated with exercise and physical activity. This information is vital to designing programsthat are most likely to motivate individuals to become more physically active, and to maintainthose positive behaviors over time.Resources for AthletesYou are an athlete. You want to get the best possible performance from your talent and hardwork. You have good physical skills, impressive tactical knowledge,and excellent fitness. But have you trained your mind?CC-AASP services offers athletes at all levels of sport participationan opportunity to add mental skills to your physical ones. Forexample, you can learn to set effective goals, deal with wins andlosses, be a leader, concentrate better, be more confident,stay composed under pressure, and enjoy your experiences in sport. Such skills are trainable andcontrollable, and when executed, they can significantly increase the likelihood that yourperformance will improve.The information contained in this website will offer strategies you can use as you work towardyour sport goals. You might find that while you learn helpful strategies, additional assistancemay be needed. Working with a CC-AASP can be a fun and rewarding experience. Not only willyou learn skills to assist you in sport, they can be used in many life situations beyond sport.Injury & RehabilitationNo one wants to be injured. However, physically active peopleare likely to sustain some type of injury due to theirinvolvement. National statistics reveal that about 10% of allemergency room visits are the result of injury due to exercise orsport. In children and adolescents, sport and exercise injuriesaccount for one third to one half of all emergency room visits.The more serious the injury, the more likely that person will have strong emotional reactions tothat injury. These reactions include anger, fear, and feelings of helplessness. A CC-AASP canhelp injured exercisers and athletes adjust to their temporary reduction in physical activity. Usingskills such as goal setting and imagery can help exercisers and athletes manage pain, adhere torehabilitation protocols, and increase confidence upon return to full participation.
  10. 10. Sports/fitness Therapy9Resources for CoachesSport psychology offers a new realm of discovery for coaches andathletes at all levels of sport. Coaches can apply sport psychologyprinciples to help improve team communication, cohesion, andsatisfaction. Through applying these principles, you can create anatmosphere that can enhance athletes‟ learning, build theirconfidence, and increase their motivation. Sport psychology alsooffers strategies you can use to help athletes improveconcentration and maintain their composure under pressure. Such skills are trainable andcontrollable, and when executed, they can increase the likelihood that team performance willimprove.You also can learn skills that will help you, as the coach, to manage stress, control anxiety, andmaintain your composure. Creating an optimum team climate can lead to both you and yourathletes having more fun at practices, while also having more productive practices. Theinformation contained in this website will offer strategies you can use as you work toward yourteam goals.Resources for ParentsBeing the parent of a child involved in sport participation can beexciting, challenging, and rewarding. Sometimes it can befrustrating and disappointing. How parents react during youthsport events can make a big difference in how their children feelabout sport.As a parent, you want your child to develop confidence, havefun, learn new skills, develop friendships, cope with disappointment, and learn cooperationthrough sport. You can help your child to have enjoyable and satisfying sport experiences. Thiswebsite will provide information about sport psychology that can help you reach this goal.
  11. 11. Sports/fitness Therapy10Now I would like to compare the PT education and scope of practice 10 yearsback with the current education and scope of practice:10 years back 2012Entry level education:BS,PT,not approvedcurriculum from University grantCommission/HEC and also not a uniformedcurriculum in the country, not known asprofessional education in the GOVT as well asin the private sector.Entry level Education: DPT (5 years)+1 yearhouse job approved curriculum from HEC anduniformed curriculum throughout the countryequivalency of 17 years of schooling (LikePharmD,DVM,and MBBS) and recognized asprofessional education in the GOVT as well asin private sector.Scope practice: Physical therapist has topractice under physician’s supervision, adependent practioner not practioner of choiceScope of practice: Practioner of choice, nosupervision needed, even in USA 33 statesallow direct access and very soon in Englandlimited prescription rights will be given tothem, a significant change in the scope ofpractice from dependent to independentpractice.No higher degree program in the country andno proper service structure in the hospitalsand job opportunities were only limited tohospitals. The role of physical therapist wasalso limited to few musculoskeletal andneuromuscular conditions.Higher qualification available: PostprofessionalDPT,MS,OMPT,MSPT,Mphil.PT,etcJob opportunities in hospitals, private clinics.Educational institutes, special educationcenters, sports boards and research centers.The Pakistan Navey for the first time offercommissioned to the physiotherapists,another job opportunity.In Riphah even DPT graduates can pursueM.Phil in all basic medical sciences (Anatomy,Physiology, biochemistry and pharmacology)and if the head of other institutes try they cancreate the same opportunity in theirrespective universities.Physical therapist was not capable to assessand diagnose and plan treatmentindependently because the coresubjects(differential diagnosis, pharmacologyin rehab, Evidence based practice, Radiologyand imaging ect)With the new curriculum physiotherapists arecapable to assess, diagnose and treat patientsindependently and people trust them thatthey are competent professionals. Privateindependent practice has been improvedsignificantly.2-3 institutes with limited seats but no jobsand very few departments and institutesheads were physical therapists. Majority of26 institutes with 40-50 seats and a lot of jobopportunities, administrative jobs alsoavailable in different institutes. A lot of
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