Antioxidants by SHAKIRA SULEHRI


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Antioxidants by SHAKIRA SULEHRI

  1. 1. Antioxidants Oxidation of feed fats causes rancidity spoiling the taste and flavor of the feeds thus a process known as lipid per-oxidation or autoxidation these rained fat containing diets impart undesirable off flavor in the milk and milk products. • Oxidation also causes much loss to carotenes; vitamin A and vitamin D. • The uses of antioxidants limit this oxidative spoilage. • Oxidation negatively affects odor, taste and nutritive value of the food, as well as produces harmful by-products. • The addition of antioxidants map up the free radicals • Antioxidants may be natural and synthetic. • Natural ones are 1. Vitamin E (tocopherol) 2. Ascorbic acid. • The most common synthetic antioxidants are 1. Ethoxyquin, butyrate 2. Hydroxyanisole (BHA) 3. Butylated Hydroxytoluene (BHT). • BHT and BHA tend to be more effective in preventing oxidation of animal fats than of vegetable oils • Ethoxyguin is most effective in protecting both animal fats and vegetable oils. Mycotoxin binders: • These chemicals are harmful to animals and humans. • The major mycotoxin producing fungi are  Aspergillums,
  2. 2.  Fusarium  Penicillium • The major toxins are aflatoxins,  Zearalenone,.  Trichothecenes,  Fumonisins,  Ochratoxin A, etc. • Mycotoxin binding agents include  Activated charcoal,  Yeast cell wall products,  Synthetic zeolites  Mined mineral days such as alumino-silicates, sodium betonies. Anti-caking agents: • These are substances that can pick up moisture without themselves becoming wet. • They are added to dry mixes to prevent the particles clumping together and so hup the product free flowing. • Anti-caking agents include:  Calcium star-ate,  Calcium phosphate
  3. 3.  Ferrous ammonium citrate,  Yellow prussiate of soda,  Potassium or sodium ferrocyanide,  Magnesium oxide,  Kaolin,  Ball clay,  Sodium aluminum silicates,  Hydrated sodium calcium allumino-silicate (HSCAS),  Calcium aluminum silicate, etc. Flavoring Agents • Flavors are used to improve palatability and thus food appeal. • Palatability and FCR are interdependent. • Flavors include species and sweetness. • Taste and odor are important properties of a food or feed by which they are recognized and enjoyed. • The four basic taste qualities are salt, sour, sweet and bitter. • Commercial flavoring agents only try to influence sweetness. • Flavoring compounds are nonvolatile water soluble substances which have little or no taste of their own, but modify or potentiate the flavor of a product, • e.g.  Esters,  Alcohols,  Terpenes, etc.
  4. 4. Flavor in Poultry Feed • Chicken possess a sense of taste but a very limited ability to small. • Yet poultry accept or reject feed according to their preference. • Flavors help to improve sedimentary taste perceptions, aid in sedimentary salivary secretions, help to regulate water intake and help to overcome stress. • Hence flavors increase feed intake, improve feed efficiency and reduce mortality, e.g. monosodium glutamate (MSG) at 0.2%. • Meat, cheese, mint, anion and garlic flavors are used in feeds for pets at less than 0.1%. • Yeast products are also used at 0.25% in combination with MSG for the improvement of dry dog food. • Capsicum, red pepper, MSG, fennel, fenugreek seed, and ginger are examples of spice and seasoning. Pigments • Yolk color is improved by the addition of either dried alfalfa leaf meal at 2 to 3%, if yellow maize is not the part of the ration or synthetic carotenoid pigments. • Most yellow and red pigments synthesized in vegetable materials are a closely related group of chemical compounds known as carotenoids. • Green leafy materials are excellent sources of xanthophylls. • Alfalfa carotenoids produce yellow pigmentation of the skin and fat of chickens also. • Under normal feeding conditions, 70% of the yellow color of egg yolk is due to xanthophylls, and most of the reminder is due to zeaxanthin. • The biological availability of xanthophylls from various feed sources is variable i.e.  Corn gluten meal 47 to 89%,  Dehyhated alfalfa 37 to 65%.
  5. 5. • Xanthophylls are not stable compounds and can be lost from poultry feeds by oxidation which can be protected by adding antioxidants. Pellet binders • Lignin is the most widely used feed binder in the world today.  Advantages being  improved pellet quality,  greater pelleting efficiency,  improved press capacity and  die life,  lower power consumption,  lower production costs,  less feed rejections  Less dust in the mill. • Sodium benonite can be used @ 2.5%. • The other binders are  Molasses 5-10%,  Calcium aluminates 0.6-1%  Gnar meal 2.5-5%.
  6. 6. Buffers • Feeding high grain diets to meat the energy requirements of high yielding i.e. over 35 kg milk/h/d, cow’s leads to changes in rumen pH and rumen fermentation pattern. • Buffers are used to correct these changes. • Sodium bicarbonate @200g/cow/d or 1.5% of grain ration, as well as other buffers like  Magnesium oxide,  Calcium carbonate,  Sodium bentonite can be used. • Salt level under these conditions may be reduced to half normal. • Magnesium oxide plays a major role in the synthesis of milk fat. • Dietary requirement is = 0.23% of DM intake. • Sodium bentonite prevents milk fat depression when fed @5% of the grain ration. • However, bentonite reduces availability of other minerals in the rumen and also increases rate of passage. Sodium bicarbonate for poultry • It is being used to improve weight gain, FCR, live ability and processing yields under stressful conditions.
  7. 7.  For broilers used @ 1.8-2.7 kg/ton continuously.  For layers @ 1 to 1.8 kg/ton. • In layers it improves shell quality and better litter conditions. • During heat stress the dose is 3.6 to 4.5 kg/ton. • Part of sodium bicarbonate can be given via water. Emulsifiers • A substance which aids in the formation of a stable mixture of two otherwise immiscible substances (e.g. fat and water) is called an emulsifier. • It should have one group with and affinity for water and another with an affinity for fat e.g.  Lecithin,  Glycosides esterifies with acetic acid, lactic acid, citric acid,  Glycerol monostearate,  Propylene glycol monostearate. Methane Inhibitors • Methane production could be inhibited by fatty acids, particularly unsaturated FAs. • Other methane inhibitors are  Chloroform,  Carbon tetrachloride,  Chloral hydrate,  Sulphites and nitrites, etc Defaunating agents  Copper sulphate,  Sodium lauryl diethoxy sulphate,  Sodium lauryl sulphate,  Oil rich in pufas  Dioctyl sodium sulpho-succinate Keratosis controlling agents  Sodium propionate,  propylene glycol
  8. 8. Black controlling compounds  Poloxalene (blast gnard) @10-20g/day Microbial growth factors  Niacin,  Thiamin,  Branched chain fatty acids (isobutyric acid, 2-methyl butyric acid, and isovaleric acid)  Straight chain fatty acids (n-valeric acid). Sweetening agent  Molasses,  dextrin,  Sugar Tranquilizers  Hydrozyzine hydrochloride- 1-2 mgs/d,  Reserpine- 5-10 gm/d mi Preservatives: The aim of preservatives is to prevent microbial spoilage. e.g.  Nisin,  Benzoic acid,  Methyl-4-hydroxybenzoate,  Cthyl-4-nitrate,  Prop-ionic acid,  Sorbic acid  Sulphur dioxide. Antifungal agents:  Sodium propionate,  Sodium benzoate,  Nystatin, etc