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  • How do we measure the QoS Introduction to PingER and active end-to-end measurement methodology Problem areas illustrated by results from PingER: Generally, e.g. S. America, Spain, China, Germany to .edu & .ca How do E. Europe & Russia look? How does performance affect applications Validating ping measurements and impact on FTP & Web performance Overview of impact of performance on applications including email, web, FTP, interactive apps Detailed look at bulk data transfer expectations for HENP sites Detailed look at critical performance metrics (RTT, loss, jitter, availability) and impact on VoIP What can be done to improve QoS: More bandwidth Reserved bandwidth Differentiated services
  • Need routing to get message back to origin
  • The address range from through should not be considered part of the normal Class A range. 0.x.x.x addresses serve no particular function in IP, but nodes attempting to use them will be unable to communicate properly on the Internet. loopback test mechanism of network adapters. Messages sent to do not get delivered to the network. Instead, the adapter intercepts all loopback messages and returns them to the sending application. IP applications often use this feature to test the behavior of their network interface. through reserved for loopback, 224-239 are used for multicast (see, also Google IGMP & PIM)) The range of addresses between and, inclusive, is reserved for the use of routing protocols and other low-level topology discovery or maintenance protocols, such as gateway discovery and group membership reporting. Multicast routers should not forward any multicast datagram with destination addresses in this range, regardless of its TTL. through reserved for IP broadcast
  • Class B addresses require demonstrated need: subnetting plan for > 32 subnets, > 4096 hosts 192-193 Multiregional 194-195 Europe 196-197 Others 198-199 N. America 200-201 Central/South America 202-203 Pacific Rim 204-207 Reserved APNIC=Asia pacific Network Information Center ARIN = American Registry for Internet Numbers RIPE NCC = Reseau IP Europeens
  • Must adhere to: Cannot be referenced by hosts in another organization Cannot be defined to any external router Cannot be advertised addresses, and cannot forward IP datagrams containing those address to external routers External routers will quietly discard all routing information regarding these addresses. Multicast is in the class D range to or
  • Removes the address classes A, B, C boundaries. These are called Classfull networks
  • Why restrict communication to original source: datagram only contains original source & ultimate destination, does not contain complete travel itinerary of route taken. Since routing dynamic cannot know path has or will use.
  • Use the Internet to find out what PING stands for.
  • Low overhead since: no set up or tear down, deals with only one datagram at a time
  • Tcpip

    1. 1. How the TCP/IP Protocol Works Les Cottrell – SLACLecture # 1 presented at the 26th International Nathiagali Summer College on Physics and Contemporary Needs, 25th June – 14th July, Nathiagali, Pakistan Partially funded by DOE/MICS Field Work Proposal on Internet End-to-end Performance Monitoring (IEPM), also supported by IUPAP 1
    2. 2. Overview• This is not a lecture on how to program TCP/IP, rather an introduction to how major portions works• IP• Addressing: IP addresses, ARP, routing• ICMP• UDP• TCP: flow control, error recovery, establishment, diconnect• References: – “Internetworking with TCP/IP, volume I, principles, protocols & Architecture”, by Douglas Comer – “TCP/IP Illustrated: the protocols”, by W. Richard Stevens – Most information also available free via Web searches 2
    3. 3. Internet Protocol (IP RFC-791)TCP/IP Internet provides 3 layers of service Application services Transport Services Connectionless packet delivery service•Layering allows one to replace one service without affectingothers•IP layer (basic unit of transfer in TCP/IP) provides: •Best-effort (does not discard capriciously), unreliable (no guarantees) •Packet may be lost, duplicated, out-of-order with no notification •Connectionless (each packet treated independently) •IP software provides routing 3
    4. 4. Internet datagram• Basic transfer unit Datagram header Datagram data area• Format of Internet datagram 0 4 8 16 19 24 31 Vers Hlen Type of serv. Total length Identification Flags Fragment offset TTL Protocol Header Checksum Source IP address Destination IP address IP Options (if any) Padding Data … 4
    5. 5. IP datagram format (cont.)• Vers (4 bits): version of IP protocol (IPv4=4)• Hlen (4 bits): Header length in 32 bit words, without options (usual case) = 20• Type of Service – TOS (8 bits): little used in past, now being used for QoS• Total length (16 bits): length of datagram in bytes, includes header and data• Time to live – TTL (8bits): specifies how long datagram is allowed to remain in internet – Routers decrement by 1 – When TTL = 0 router discards datagram – Prevents infinite loops• Protocol (8 bits): specifies the format of the data area – Protocol numbers administered by central authority to guarantee agreement, e.g. TCP=6, UDP=17 … 5
    6. 6. IP Datagram format (cont.)• Source & destination IP address (32 bits each): contain IP address of sender and intended recipient• Options (variable length): Mainly used to record a route, or timestamps, or specify routing 6
    7. 7. IP Fragmentation• How do we send a datagram of say 1400 bytes through a link that has a Maximum Transfer Unit (MTU) of say 620 bytes?• Answer the datagram is broken into fragments Net 1 Net 3 Net 2 MTU=1500 MTU=1500 MTU=620 – Router fragments 1400 byte datagrams • Into 600 bytes, 600 bytes, 200bytes (note 20 bytes for IP header) • Routers do NOT reassemble, up to end host 7
    8. 8. Fragmentation Control• Identification: copied into fragment, allows destination to know which fragments belong to which datagram• Fragment Offset (12 bits): specifies the offset in the original datagram of the data being carried in the fragment – Measured in units of 8 bytes starting at 0• Flags (3 bits): control fragmentation – Reserved (0-th bit) – Don’t Fragment – DF (1st bit): • useful for simple (computer bootstrap) application that can’t handle • also used for MTU discovery (see later) • if need to fragment and can’t router discards & sends error to source – More Fragments (least sig bit): tells receiver it has got last fragment• TCP traffic is hardly ever fragmented (due to use of MTU discovery). About 0.5% - 0.1% of TCP packets are fragmented . 8
    9. 9. Fragment series composition Offset=0 Offset=1480 Offset=2960 Offset=3440 More frags More frags More frags Last fragNB. If data segment contains its own header that is notreplicated 9
    10. 10. Internet Addressing• IP address is a 32 bit integer – Refers to interface rather than host – Consists of network and host portions • Enables routers to keep 1 entry/network instead of 1/host – Class A, B, C for unicast – Class D for multicast – Class E reserved – Classless addresses• Written as 4 octets/bytes in decimal format – E.g., 10
    11. 11. Internet Class-based addresses• Class A: large number of hosts, few networks – 0nnnnnnn hhhhhhhh hhhhhhhh hhhhhhhh • 7 network bits (0 and 127 reserved, so 126 networks), 24 host bits (> 16M hosts/net) • Initial byte 1-127 (decimal)• Class B: medium number of hosts and networks – 10nnnnnn nnnnnnnn hhhhhhhh hhhhhhhh • 16,384 class B networks, 65,534 hosts/network • Initial byte 128-191 (decimal)• Class C: large number of small networks – 110nnnnn nnnnnnnn nnnnnnnn hhhhhhhh • 2,097,152 networks, 254 hosts/network • Initial byte 192-223 (decimal)• Class D: 224-239 (decimal) Multicast [RFC1112]• Class E: 240-255 (decimal) Reserved 11
    12. 12. Subnets• A subnet mask is applied to the host bits to determine how the network is subnetted, e.g. if the host is:, and the subnet mask is then the right hand 8 bits are for the host (255 is decimal for all bits set in an octet)• Host addresses of all bits set or no bits set, indicate a broadcast, i.e. the packet is sent to all hosts. 12
    13. 13. Prefix Subnet Mask Conversions Prefix Subnet Mask Subnet MaskLength Length/1 /17 /18 /19 Decimal Octet Binary Number /20 /21 /22 128 1000 0000/7 /23 192 1100 0000/8 /24 224 1110 0000/9 /25 240 1111 0000/10 /26 248 1111 1000/11 /27 252 1111 1100/12 /28 254 1111 1110/13 /29 255 1111 1111/14 /30 /31 /32 13
    14. 14. Address depletion• In 1991 IAB identified 3 dangers – Running out of class B addresses – Increase in nets has resulted in routing table explosion – Increase in net/hosts exhausting 32 bit address space• Four strategies to address – Creative address space allocation {RFC 2050} – Private addresses {RFC 1918}, Network Address Translation (NAT) {RFC 1631} – Classless InterDomain Routing (CIDR) {RFC 1519} – IP version 6 (IPv6) {RFC 1883} 14
    15. 15. Creative IP address allocation• Class A addresses 64 – 127 reserved – Handle on individual basis• Class B only assigned given a demonstrated need• Class C – divided up into 8 blocks allocated to regional authorities – 208-223 remains unassigned and unallocated• Three main registries handle assignments – APNIC – Asia & Pacific – ARIN – N. & S. America, Caribbean & sub-Saharan Africa – RIPE – Europe and surrounding areas 15
    16. 16. Private IP Addresses• IP addresses that are not globally unique, but used exclusively in an organization• Three ranges: – - a single class A net – - 16 contiguous class Bs – – 256 contiguous class Cs• Connectivity provided by Network Address Translator (NAT) – translates outgoing private IP address to Internet IP address, and a return Internet IP address to a private address – Only for TCP/UDP packets 16
    17. 17. Class InterDomain Routing (CIDR)• Many organization have > 256 computers but few have more than several thousand• Instead of giving class B (16384 nets) give sufficient contiguous class C addresses to satisfy needs – < 256 addresses assign 1 class C –… – < 8192 addresses assign 32 contiguous Class C nets 17
    18. 18. CIDR & Supernetting• Since assigned contiguously, class C CIDR has same most significant bits & so only needs one routing table entry• CIDR block represented by a prefix and prefix length – Prefix = single address representing block of nets, e.g • = 11000000 00100000 10001000 00000000 while • = 11000000 00100000 10001111 00000000 21 bit prefix (2048 host addresses) – Prefix length indicates number of routing bits, e.g. means 21 bits used for routing • CIDR collects all nets in range through 143.0 into a single router entry – reduces router table entries• Removes address classes A, B & C boundaries• For more details see RFC 1519 18
    19. 19. Address Recognition Protocol (ARP)• IP address is at network layer, need to map it to the MAC (Ethernet address) link layer address• Use ARP to map 48 bit Ethernet address to 32 bit IP – IP requests MAC address for IP address from local ARP table – If not there, then an ARP request packet for IP address is sent using physical broadcast address (all FFFs) – Host with requested IP address responds with its MAC address as a unicast packet – On return, host updates ARP table and returns MAC address – ARP cache times out – ARP packets are on top of Ethernet 19
    20. 20. ARP cont.• ARP requests are local only, do not cross routers Subnet 1 Subnet 2134.79.10.17 User A User B• Compare local IP and subnet mask => local subnet• Compare local subnet to destination IP – if local, ARP for MAC address – else remote so • if ROUTE entry, ARP for router to subnet • if default route, ARP for default gateway • otherwise, drop packet & return error 20
    21. 21. Routing• Routers must select next hop for packet• Get route information from other routers via a routing protocol (RIP, OSPF, EIGRP etc.)• Note the following are non-routable: – private networks:,, – Loopback 21
    22. 22. ICMP Purpose (RFC 792)• Communicates control & error information – Between routers and hosts – Only reports to original source, suggests corrections – Error messages about error messages are not generated – Never generated due to multicasts• Packet format 0 8 16 24 31 Type Code Checksum ICMP data (depends on type/code) 22
    23. 23. Main ICMP request typesType ICMP0 Echo reply, ping3 Destination unreachable (code 1 host, code 3 port) DF and must fragment (code 4)4 Source quench5 Redirect (change a route)8 Echo request11 Time exceeded (code 0 ttl=0, code 1 reassembly)12 Parameter problems 23
    24. 24. ICMP Echo/Ping• Very commonly used diagnostic tool• Implementations vary between OS’• Build echo request 0 8 16 24 31 Type=8 Code=0 Checksum Identifier Sequence number Optional data – Identifier used to match request to replies (e.g. pid) – Sequence number, starts at 0 increments by 1 for each ping packet • Used to detect loss, reorder, duplicates – Optional data, sent by requester, returned by replier • Usually contains a timestamp when the request was sent plus pad data 24
    25. 25. What do we learn from Ping• Host reachable – Host may respond to ping but not be running services• Round trip timing• Lost packets• Packet reordering duplicate packets• Example: 13cottrell@noric05:~>ping -c 4 PING ( from : 56(84) bytes of data. 64 bytes from ( icmp_seq=0 ttl=242 time=716.962 msec 64 bytes from ( icmp_seq=1 ttl=242 time=720.375 msec 64 bytes from ( icmp_seq=2 ttl=242 time=725.907 msec 64 bytes from ( icmp_seq=3 ttl=242 time=710.734 msec --- ping statistics --- 4 packets transmitted, 4 packets received, 0% packet loss round-trip min/avg/max/mdev = 710.734/718.494/725.907/5.566 ms 25
    26. 26. Unreachable76cottrell@flora06:~>ping 13 Unreachable from gateway for icmp from FLORA06.SLAC.Stanford.EDU ( ( does this mean, see exercise? 26
    27. 27. Time Exceeded 0 8 16 24 31 Type 11 Code Checksum Unused Internet header & 8 bytes of data• Time-to-live has expired at a router (code=0) – ttl sets bound on number routers datagram can transit • Prevents infinite routine loops • Initialized by sender, decremented by 1 each time passes router • When ttl = 0 datagram thrown away & sender notified by ICMP message• Fragment reassembly timer (code=1) 27
    28. 28. MTU Discovery• Path MTUs vary• Fragmentation is bad• Small transmission units are bad• SO need to discover optimum MTU (largest without fragmentation)• Host sends a packet with the Don’t Fragment bit set – Length is lesser of local MTU and MSS announced by remote system – If MTU between hosts requires fragmentation (e.g. at an intermediate router), then • if an ICMP DF bit set & must fragment then an ICMP message is sent back to source, saying “I can’t fragment” • try again with smaller size. 28
    29. 29. User Datagram Protocol - UDP• RFC 768, Protocol 17App. Port 1 Port 2 Port 1 Port 2 Demux on Port numberTransport TCP UDP Demux onNetwork IP IP protocol• Provides unreliable, connectionless on top of IP• Minimal overhead, high performance – No setup/teardown, 1 datagram at a time• Application responsible for reliability – Includes datagram loss, duplication, delay, out-of- sequence, multiplexing, loss of connectivity 29
    30. 30. UDP Datagram format 0 8 16 24 31 Source port Destination port UDP message len Checksum (opt.) Data …• Source/destination port: port numbers identify sending & receiving processes – Port number & IP address allow any application in any computer on Internet to be uniquely identified – Used to demultiplex datagrams to processes – Ports can be static or dynamic • Static (< 1024) assigned centrally, known as well known ports • Dynamic• Message length in bytes includes the UDP header and data 30
    31. 31. UDP applications• Message oriented, e.g. SNMP, DNS, time• File system, e.g. NFS, AFS• Lightweight file transfer, e.g. tftp, bootp 31
    32. 32. Transmission Control Protocol -TCP• RFC 768 & host requirements RFC 1122 – Reliable stream transport • Connection oriented (full duplex virtual circuit) – Conceptually place call, two ends communicate to agree on details – After agreeing application notified of connection – During transfer, ends communicate continuously to verify data received correctly – When done, ends tear down the connection – If UDP is like regular mail, TCP is like phone call • Provides buffering and flow control • Takes care of lost packets, out of order, duplicates, long delays • Isolates application program from network details • Jargon – Segment = TCP packet – Socket= source (address + port) + destination (address + port) 32
    33. 33. TCP layeringApp. Port 1 Port 2 Port 1 Port 2 Demux onTransport TCP UDP Port number IP port 6 Demux on Network IP IP protocol• To ID connection need: – Source: (address, port) AND Destination: (address, port) – Only need one port on host to allow multiple connections, since each connection will have different (host, port) at other end • E.g. single host can serve multiple telnet connections• Passive open: application contacts OS & indicates will accept incoming connection, OS assigns port and listens• Active open: application requests OS to connect to an (host, port) 33
    34. 34. TCP – providing reliability• Positive acknowledgement (ACK) with retransmission – Sender keeps record of each packet sent – Sender awaits an ACK – Sender starts timer when sends packet Sender site Receiver siteSend pkt 1 Rcv pkt 1 Time Send ACK 1Rcv ACK 1Send pkt 2 Rcv pkt 2 Send ACK 2Rcv ACK 2 Network messages 34
    35. 35. TCP – simple lost packet recovery Sender site Receiver site Send pkt 1 Loss Start timer Pkt should arriveACK normally ACK should be sentarrives Timer expiresRetransmit pkt 1 start timer Rcv pkt 1 Send ACK 1 Rcv ACK 1 Network messages 35
    36. 36. TCP – improving performance• BUT simple ACK protocol wastes bandwidth since it must delay sending next packet until it gets ACK• Use sliding window Initial window of 4 packets Window slides 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 … 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 … Packets successfully sent Packets to be sent Packets sent, awaiting ACK• Sender can send 4 packets of data without ACK – When sender gets ACK then can send another packet – Window = unacknowledged packets/bytes 36
    37. 37. Tuning to fill pipe• Optimal window size depends on: – Bandwidth end to end, i.e. min(BWlinks) AKA bottleneck bandwidth – Round Trip Time (RTT) – For TCP keep pipe full • Window (sometime called pipe) ~ RTT*BW – Can increase bandwidth by Src Rcv orders of magnitude• Windows also used for flow control t = bits in packet/link speed ACK RTT 37
    38. 38. Implementation• Sliding window operates at byte level, NOT packet Current window 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 … Highest byte that can be sent 3 pointers Highest byte sent Bytes sent and acknowledged• Receiver keeps similar window to put stream back together• Since full duplex, altogether 4 windows & pointer sets 38
    39. 39. TCP flow control• Windows vary over time – Receiver advertises (in ACKs) how many it can receive • Based on buffers etc. available – Sender adjusts its window to match advertisement – If receiver buffers fill, it sends smaller adverts• Used to match buffer requirements of receiver• Also used to address congestion control (e.g. in intermediate routers) 39
    40. 40. TCP Segment format 0 4 8 10 16 24 31 Source port Destination port Sequence number Acknowledgement number Hlen Resv Code Window Checksum Urgent ptr Options (if any) Padding Data if any …• Source/Dest port: TCP port numbers to ID applications at both ends of connection• Sequence number: ID position in sender’s byte 40 stream
    41. 41. TCP segment format – cont.• Acknowledgement: identifies the number of the byte the sender of this segment expects to receive next• Hlen: specifies the length of the segment header in 32 bit multiples. If there are no options, the Hlen = 5 (20 bytes)• Reserved for future use, set to 0• Code: used to determine segment purpose, e.g. SYN, ACK, FIN, URG 41
    42. 42. TCP Segment format- cont• Window: Advertises how much data this station is willing to accept. Can depend on buffer space remaining.• Checksum: Verifies the integrity of the TCP header and data. It is mandatory.• Urgent pointer: used with the URG flag to indicate where the urgent data starts in the data stream. Typically used with a file transfer abort during FTP or when pressing an interrupt key in telnet.• Options: used for window scaling, SACK, timestamps, maximum segment size etc. 42
    43. 43. TCP timeout• Need a timeout estimate that will work for LANs (RTT < msec.) to satellite WANs (hundreds of msec. to secs). RTT can vary a lot with time of day, day of week, or one second to next. May 12th RTT ms. – TCP records time segment sent – and time ACK received – Then calculates RTT sample – Smooth & use to estimate timeout, e.g. Time of day • Timeout=beta * RTTs • Timeout= RTTs + eta{=4}*f(dev(RTTs)) – Needs to take account of losses, e.g. • New_timeout=gamma{2} * timeout 43
    44. 44. TCP connection establishment• 3 way handshake Site 1 Active Site 2Send SYN seq x Win Rcv SYN segment 4096, mss 1024 Passive Send SYN seq=y, ACK x+1Rcv SYN/ACK Win 40 96, mss 1024 Send ACK y+1 Rcv ACK segment• Initial sequence numbers (x, y) are chosen randomly• Guarantees both sides ready & know it, and sets initial sequence numbers, also sets window & mss• Once connection established, data can flow in both directions, equally well, there is no master or slave 44
    45. 45. TCP close connection• Modified 3 way handshake (or 4 way termination) Site 1 Site 2 (App closes) Send FIN seq=x Rcv FIN segmentRcv ACK segment Send ACK x=1 (inform app) (app closes connection)Rcv FIN + ACK seg Send FIN seq=y, ACK x+1Send ACK y+1 Receive ACK segment• App tells TCP to close, TCP sends remaining data & waits for ACK, then sends FIN• Site 2 TCP ACKs FIN, tells its application “end of data”• Site 2 sends FIN when its app closes connection (may be long delay (e.g. require human interaction). 45
    46. 46. More Information• Lectures, tutorials etc: – – – – – –• Encylopaedia –• TCP/IP Resources –• Understanding IP addresses –• Configuring TCP (RFC 1122) –• Assigned protocols, ports etc (RFC 1010) – & /etc/protocols 46
    47. 47. Example: 3 way handshake• atlas> telnet – atlas is a WNT PC, sunstats is a Sun Solaris 5.6 host – MSS is set in TCP option in a SYN segment, communicates the MSS the sender wants to receive – len=ip_hlen/tcp_hlen:ip_total_len – Initial Sequence Numbers are randomly selected – Telnet = port 23 – W=Receive window size advertises how much data this host will accept 47
    48. 48. Example: 3 way handshake - cont.• TCP from atlas:1174 to sunstats:23 seq=180839, A=0, W=8192, SYN [len=5/6:44, opt=020405B4 <opt=2, len=4, mss=0x5B4=1460>]• TCP from sunstats:23 to atlas:1174 seq=1383568304, A=180840, W=64240, SYN/ACK [len=5/6:44, opt=020405B4]• TCP from atlas:1174 to sunstats:23 seq =180840, A=1383568305, W=8760 [len=5/5:40, opt=nul] – Notice window size can vary from segment to segment depending on buffer space available – Notice smaller PC window advertisement – Notice ephemeral port selected by telnet client – Notice acknowledge next expected byte (=seq+1) – 0x020405B4: 02 = option type, 04=len, 0x5B4=1460 48
    49. 49. Session startSLAC>CERN: 256kbyte window,1 stream,full speed > 30msec, 13MBytes in 20s, 5.1MBytes/s Congestion window Rcvr Advertised window Segments sent Acks returned by Rcvr 49