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Solutions and solubility

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Solutions and solubility

  1. 1. SOLUTIONS &SOLUTIONS & SOLUBILITIESSOLUBILITIES
  2. 2. SOLUTION AND SOLUBILITIESSOLUTION AND SOLUBILITIES 22 TERMSTERMS • Solution:Solution: a homogeneous mixture containing particlesa homogeneous mixture containing particles the size of a typical ion or covalent molecule. (0.1–2.0the size of a typical ion or covalent molecule. (0.1–2.0 nm in diameter)nm in diameter) • Colloid:Colloid: a homogeneous mixture containing particlesa homogeneous mixture containing particles with diameters in the range 2–500 nmwith diameters in the range 2–500 nm • SuspensionsSuspensions are mixtures with even larger particles,are mixtures with even larger particles, but they are not considered true solutions because theybut they are not considered true solutions because they separate upon standing.separate upon standing. • Solute:Solute: the dissolved substance in a solutionthe dissolved substance in a solution • Solvent:Solvent: the major component in a solutionthe major component in a solution
  3. 3. SOLUTION AND SOLUBILITIESSOLUTION AND SOLUBILITIES 33 • A solution isA solution is saturatedsaturated when no additionalwhen no additional solute can be dissolved at a particularsolute can be dissolved at a particular temperaturetemperature • AA SupersaturatedSupersaturated solution can form whensolution can form when more than the equilibrium amount of solute ismore than the equilibrium amount of solute is dissolved at an elevated temperature, anddissolved at an elevated temperature, and then the supersaturated solution is slowlythen the supersaturated solution is slowly cooled.cooled. • AnAn UnsaturatedUnsaturated solution is formed whensolution is formed when more of the solute can dissolve in it at amore of the solute can dissolve in it at a particular temperature.particular temperature.
  4. 4. SOLUTION AND SOLUBILITIESSOLUTION AND SOLUBILITIES 44 KINDS OF SOLUTIONSKINDS OF SOLUTIONS
  5. 5. SOLUTION AND SOLUBILITIESSOLUTION AND SOLUBILITIES 55
  6. 6. SOLUTION AND SOLUBILITIESSOLUTION AND SOLUBILITIES 66 SOLUBILITYSOLUBILITY • The amount of solute per unit solventThe amount of solute per unit solvent required to form a saturated solution isrequired to form a saturated solution is called the solute'scalled the solute's Solubility.Solubility. • When two liquids are completely soluble inWhen two liquids are completely soluble in each other they are said to beeach other they are said to be MiscibleMiscible.. • Solubility is effected by Temperature. WithSolubility is effected by Temperature. With increase in temperature solubility of mostincrease in temperature solubility of most of the substances increases.of the substances increases. • Most gases become less soluble in waterMost gases become less soluble in water as the temperature increases.as the temperature increases.
  7. 7. SOLUTION AND SOLUBILITIESSOLUTION AND SOLUBILITIES 77 SOLUBILITY GRAPH OF SALTS INSOLUBILITY GRAPH OF SALTS IN WATERWATER
  8. 8. SOLUTION AND SOLUBILITIESSOLUTION AND SOLUBILITIES 88 SOLUBILITY GRAPH OF GASES INSOLUBILITY GRAPH OF GASES IN WATERWATER Pressure has little effect on the solubility of liquids and solids. The solubility of gases is strongly influenced by pressure. Gases dissolve more at high pressure.
  9. 9. SOLUTION AND SOLUBILITIESSOLUTION AND SOLUBILITIES 99 SOLUBILITY OF COMMON IONS IN WATERSOLUBILITY OF COMMON IONS IN WATER
  10. 10. SOLUTION AND SOLUBILITIESSOLUTION AND SOLUBILITIES 1010 DISSOLUTION OF SODIUM CHLORIDE INDISSOLUTION OF SODIUM CHLORIDE IN WATERWATER
  11. 11. SOLUTION AND SOLUBILITIESSOLUTION AND SOLUBILITIES 1111 • DONATED BYDONATED BY • MUHAMMAD ALIMUHAMMAD ALI • To www.worldofteaching.comTo www.worldofteaching.com

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